Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Effects of Volleyball Training on Athletes' Liver Enzymes and Muscle Damage Markers

Ramazan Erdoğan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i831207

Aims: It is seen that regular exercises cause physiological changes in the organism. The effects of such a training are not known especially on liver enzymes and muscle damages. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the effects of long-term volleyball training on athletes’ indicators of liver enzymes and muscle damages.

Methodology: 20 male volunteer athletes in volleyball branch participated in the study. In the study, a 12-week training program was applied to the athletes four days a week, and one day intended for conditioning training in each week. Blood samples were received from the athletes for two times when they were resting that was before and at the end of the training. Indicators of liver enzymes and muscle damages of athletes were determined in these blood samples received. The data obtained in this study were analysed by SPSS 22 package program. Paired Samples t-test was used in the comparison of pre-post test data of the study group. Significance level was accepted to be p<0,05.

Results: After the data evaluated, it was determined that there was a statistically significant difference between the pre and post-test results of muscle damage indicators and CK (Creatine Kinase) and CK-MB (Creatine Kinase-MB) values of the athletes participating in the study (p<0,05). Considering the pre and post-test results of the athletes’ liver enzymes, a statistically significant difference was found to be at LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase), AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase), ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) and ALP (Alanine aminotransferase) levels (p<0,05) while there was no statistically significant difference at GGT (Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase) levels. 

Conclusion: As a result, regular volleyball training was determined to cause changes in the athletes’ indicators of liver enzymes and muscle damages. Considering the physiological changes caused by the training programs to be applied, it is thought that the performances of the athletes will be positively affected.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Duration of Azithromycin use for Outpatients in a Public Hospital in Alkharj

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i831208

Aim: The present study aims to explore the appropriateness of azithromycin use duration in the outpatient setting in a public hospital.

Methodology: The present study included a review of the electronic prescriptions in the outpatient setting in a public hospital in Alkharj between January 2018 till June 2018.

Results: The total number of outpatients who received was 541 patients. Most of these patients received azithromycin as a suspension (55.64%). In general, most of the patients received azithromycin for 3 days (88.17%) followed by 5 days (9.98%).

Conclusion: The study showed that azithromycin was prescribed commonly and that the duration of azithromycin treatment in the hospital was for 3 days for the majority of patients. it is important to monitor the appropriateness of prescribing azithromycin and to educate the patients about the use of their drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Madiha Rabie Mahmoud, Heba Hani Almomatin, Amani Ismail Almatar, Fatima Hussin Albladi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i831209

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in pregnant women mainly caused by Escherichia coli and should be treated correctly to prevent complications in both the mother and her child. Pregnancy is associated with physiological and functional urinary tract changes which promote ascending infections from the urethra. In this paper, we aimed to assess the prevalence of UTI in pregnant and non-pregnant women in the KSA and to measure their awareness about signs, symptoms and complications of this infection. It was conducted through a questionnaire, among pregnant and non-pregnant women online. It consists of 15 questions including socio-demographic and other questions such as time and number of infections, type of treatment, symptoms associated with the infection, weight of child during birth. Our results showed that about 46.3% of participating women had UTI, 5.6% of them were diabetic. About 66.8% of women become infected at age range from 20-39 years old. Also, 22.3% women had once UTI during pregnancy, 13.3% had twice and 21.7% had more than twice during pregnancy. The child's weight during birth from UT infected mother was low in 21.9%. Pregnant women who refuse to receive treatment will be suspected to many complications and their children. From these results we can conclude that high percentage (half of them) of participating women were infected in urinary tract and the most affected age between 20-39 years old and some of them with diabetes. So, we can recommend to introduce educational seminars to pregnant or non-pregnant women to be more awareness with UTIs, signs and symptoms and complications and how to protect themselves from infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alteration of Serum Liver Enzymes Level Caused by Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Exercise Performers

Manzoor Khan, Alamgir Khan, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt, Samiullah Khan, Ejaz Asghar, Muhammad Jamil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i831210

Background: Players regularly use cetirizine HCL for the prevention and treatment of various symptoms of allergy while playing in unfamiliar environments.   

Objective: This research study was carried out to examine the effect of cetirizine HCL on liver function (ALT, ALP and AST) among the players.

Methods: A descriptive study was carried out at Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan from January 2019 to June 2019.Twenty male subjects 10 players using cetirizine HCL (one tablet of 10mg/day) as experimental group and 10 players not using cetirizine HCL as control group was selected voluntarily as participants of the study. Five ml blood was taken from all subjects after three hours of administration of cetirizine HCL for the assessment of ALT, ALP and AST.  The results obtained through liver functions test (LFTs) were analyzed through a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, Version 24).

Results: Significant difference was found in both groups (CG and EXG) in term of ALT (P = 000, 0.05>.000). There was significant difference between in both groups (CG and EXG) in term of ALP (P = 000, 0.05>.000). A significant difference was found between in both groups (CG and EXG) in term of AST (P = .001, 0.05>.000).

Conclusion:  on the basis of finding, the researcher concluded that Cetirizine HCL (Tablet 10mg) produced a significant rise in liver enzymes and hence disturbing the normal functioning of liver.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of the Impact of Coronavirus (COVID -19) on the Therapeutic Practices of Cancer Patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Egypt

Madiha Rabie Mahmoud, Dalal Saad Hedmool Alshammari, Maryam Abdullah Alshammari, Aala Hazza Alhobera, Osama Gad Abdelaziz, Sherif Gad Abdelaziz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i831211

Cancer patients are considered one of the most vulnerable to infection with Corona virus (COVID-19), especially who are elderly, multiple comorbidities, and are often immunosuppressed by their cancer or therapy. The immune system of cancer patients is very weak compared to the healthy individuals, so, morbidity and mortality of any serious infections expected to be high among them. This research aims to study the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients practices in Saudi Arabia (KSA) and compare with the result in Egypt. It was conducted through a well-structured questionnaire, among cancer patients either online (KSA) or paper questionnaire (Egypt). The questionnaire consists of 16 questions about Scio-demographic and changes in time and method of treatment (chemotherapy and radiotherapy), postponed of surgical operations. Our results showed significant differences between KSA and Egypt hospital practices; cancer department was affected by postponed appointment (54.8% & 63.3%), diagnosis (32.7% & 60%) and treatment of cancer patients (37.1% & 63.3%) respectively. Also, postponed of chemotherapy/radiotherapy (56.8% & 73.3%), surgical operations (45% & 43.3%), an increase in the deterioration of cancer by (35.5% & 23.3%), switching from parenteral injection to oral (27.8% & 56.7%) and changing in the drug doses (19.5% & 40%) in KSA and Egypt respectively. We can conclude that management of cancer patients during COVID-19 pandemic of great importance and so, switching from parenteral to oral, prolongation of the treatment period and postponed of some surgical operations gave a good opportunity to maintain adequate care of cancer patient with minimum exposure of patients to infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Standard of Prescription of Medicines in Obstetrics and Outpatient Gynecology of a Public Hospital

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i831212

Objective: This study aimed to describe the pattern of prescription ofmedications in the department of obstetrics and gynecology in a public hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study that included data collection of outpatient electronic prescriptions at a public hospital in Alkharj. Data were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Descriptive data were represented as percentages and numbers.

Results: The total number of outpatients who received prescriptions from the obstetrics and gynecology outpatient clinic was 722. The majority were between 20 and 39 years old (76.04%). Most prescriptions were written by consultants (55.12%) followed by residents (42.38%). Most drugs were prescribed as tablets (63.43%) followed by capsules (17.17%) and ampoule/syringe (9.42%). The most prescribed medication was paracetamol (14.68%) followed by ferrous sulfate/ferrous hydroxide (13.85), amoxicilline (8.17%).

Conclusion: The pattern of prescription of medications in the department of obstetrics and gynecology, especially during pregnancy, needs to be continuously evaluated in order to promote rational prescription of medications in order to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with therapy. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals about the use of supplements and antimicrobials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cluster Identification of Diabetic Risk Factors among Saudi Population

Sirajudheen Anwar, Aali Alqarni, Ahmed Alafnan, Abdulwahab Alamri, Sowmya Mathew, Elisabetta Ricciardi, Saleh Alghamdi, Mukhtar Ansari, Abdulhakeem Alamri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i831213

Aims: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among adult population of Albaha region, Saudi Arabia and to identify the diabetic risk clusters among Saudi population using various cluster analysis techniques.

Study Design: Cross-sectional observation and Hierarchal cluster analyses.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in three different cities of the Albaha region, Saudi Arabia including Albaha, AlAqiq and Baljurashi among Saudi adults 15 years of age or above. The study was carried out from April 2019 to May 2019.

Methodology: The first part of the research was a random cross-sectional observational diabetic risk factors screening using a structured questionnaire among adult volunteers of the Albaha region. The second part constituted a multiple cluster analysis technique performed to identify the diabetic risk factors from 13 regions of Saudi Arabia, clustered into five main regions, using NCSS software.

Results: In the first part, the risk factors identified among non-diabetic participants showed a significant association with the development of diabetes mellitus, particularly physical inactivity (49.12%), hypertension (41.15%), and high body mass index (19.03%). Likewise, in 11.54% of diabetic patients, elevated body mass index (30.51%), hypertension (27.12%) and physical inactivity (55.93%), which could be associated with diabetic complications. In the second part, the three forms of cluster analyses (the agglomerate hierarchical cluster, clustered heat map and K means clustering analysis) identified physical inactivity and high body mass index as key risk factors which are connected to all other risk factors among the total of 213591 volunteers.

Conclusion: Increased prevalence of diabetes and risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom require substantial education and training programs to counsel volunteers on all aspects of self-care. Our data provides a robust evidence to establish diabetic counseling through regular diabetes awareness program that can reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Bacterial Contamination in Dental Unit Water Lines and Testing the Effectiveness of Disinfectants against these Contaminants

Sham Lal, Pardeep Kumar, . Sapna, Om Parkash, Zulfiqar Ali Malik, Ameer Ahmed Mirbahar, Khalida Unar, Waheed Ahmed Ghumro, Ayaz Ali Unar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i831214

Aim: Contaminated dental unit water lines (DUWLs) are a possible source for spreading microorganisms in dental practices. The aim of this study was to detect the bacterial contamination of dental unit water and investigate the effectiveness of the disinfectants.

Methodology: Bacterial contamination was detected by a) using bacterial culture of heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and b) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of DUWLs tube. Subsequently, dentists were suggested to treat the DUWLs with disinfectants to eradicate bacterial contaminants and its effectiveness was tested after three months.

Results: Bacterial contamination of the water samples ranged from not detected to 2.38×106 CFU/mL. Out of 34 DUWLs water samples tested, 30 (88.24%) samples exceeded the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended threshold of ≤500 CFU /mL, whereas only 4 (11.76%) samples met the standards. Contamination by total coliforms and P. aeruginosa was detected in 52.94% and 64.7% of samples respectively. SEM displayed a dense biofilm on DUWLs tubing confirming the bacterial contamination. The intervention for disinfection of DUWLs resulted more than 50% samples with acceptable bacterial count in test performed after three months.

Conclusion: The high rate of bacterial contamination of dental unit water highlights the need to disinfect and monitor the quality of DUWLs periodically.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prescribing Pattern of Medications in the Cardiology Outpatient Department of a Public Hospital

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i831215

Aim: This study aimed to describe the prescribing pattern of medications in the cardiology outpatient department of a public hospital.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study included collecting data from outpatient pharmacy prescriptions from a public hospital in Alkharj. The data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel and after that the descriptive data was represented as percentages and frequencies.

Results: The most prescribed medication was aspirin (11.6%) followed by bisoprolol (8.06), atorvastatin (7.5%) and furosemide (6.79%). Most of the prescriptions were written by residents (85.15%). Most of the medications were prescribed as tablets (88.26%) and capsules (9.05%).

Conclusion: It is important to evaluate the prescribing pattern of medications in the cardiology department to ensure that these medications are prescribed appropriately and to increase the awareness of the health-care professionals about these medications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Based Variations of Haematological Parameters of Patients with Asymptomatic Malaria in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Ayomiposi Ibironke Busari, Getrude Uzoma Obeagu, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Pat Uzo Okpala, Chikaodili Nwando Obi-Ezeani, O. M. T. B. Ochiabuto, Amaechi Chukwudi Ofodile, Vivian Chinenye Ezeoru, Linda Nnenna Ogbonna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-80
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i831216

The study was done to evaluate the variations of haematological parameters of patients with asymptomatic malaria based on gender. The study is a cross-sectional study among asymptomatic malaria patients and patients who are apparently healthy individuals. The subjects were selected using a well-structured questionnaire who were age and sex matched. This study was conducted on asymptomatic malaria patients and apparently healthy individuals in the Oda Road area of Akure, Ondo State. Two hundred (200) asymptomatic malaria patients, 100 subjects each for males and females were recruited for this study. 5ml of venous blood was collected from each participant into an EDTA bottle which was then used for the determination of full blood count and Malaria. The results showed increase in PCV (p=0.000), RBC (p=0.000), Hb (p=0.000) and no significant difference in WBC (p=0.180), LYM (p=0.841), GRAN (p=0.986), MID (p=0.395), MCV (p=0.111), MCH (p=0.191), MCHC (p=0.791), Plt (p=0.959) when compared between male and female respectively. The study showed increase in packed cell volume, haemoglobin and red blood cells of male compared to females of asymptomatic malaria patients. There were no variations in other haematological parameters studied. The changes in the red cell line may be associated to bone marrow activity difference in the patients and effects of hormonal difference on the males and females.