Open Access Short Research Article

Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Jamal Alruwaili

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 92-98
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i531184

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the connection between childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the level of Vitamin D in the blood.

Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken in 2018 on children in the age group of 4-13 years. Twenty two children diagnosed with ADHD were selected, along with a control group comprising twenty two healthy children showing no symptoms of ADHD or any other neurological disorder or liver or kidney disease or any endocrine problem. Anyone using Vitamin D supplements was excluded from the study. Venous blood samples were acquired from the subjects and serum Vitamin D level was measured.

Results: The mean average level of Vitamin D in the research subjects exhibiting ADHD (18.60±6.33 ng/ml) was found to be lower than the control group (34.34±8.19) (P-value < 0.0005).

Conclusions: This study has shed some light on the role played by Vitamin D in maintaining the antioxidant status of the brain. The study has shown that the Vitamin D is much lower in children diagnosed with ADHD. Vitamin D increases the expression of the enzyme, Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT). This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of Glutathione, which is considered an important antioxidant in the brain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Beta Thalassemia in Anemic Pregnant Women

. Khadija, Shumaila Perveen Arain, Yaser M. Alahmadi, Sultan Othman Alolayan, Arslan Ahmer, Tahseen Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i531175

Objective: To determine the frequency of beta thalassemia trait among pregnant women presenting with anemia.

Method: A cross sectional study was conducted in Gynecology & Obstetric department, district headquarters hospital Mardan from January 2019 to June 2020. This study includes all pregnant women who presented with anemia and having age 15 to 45 years. Patients with                           known hemoglobinopathies were excluded from the study. Collected data was analyzed using SPSS 20.

Results: Mean age of the patient was 27.7 years and mean hemoglobin level was 8.7g/dl. Age distributions showed mother age 15 to 25 years were 40%, 26 to 36 years were 35% and 36 to 45 years were 25%. Thalassemia trait was found in 40% anemic pregnant women. Thalassemia trait percentage was high in mother having age 15 to 25 years.

Conclusion: Beta thalassemia trait is a common cause anemia in pregnancy. All pregnant women presenting with anemia should be investigated for it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prescribing Pattern in Geriatrics with Cardio Vascular Diseases using Beers Criteria

E. Pavan Kumar, V. Sreedhar, P. Ramakrishna Reddy, L. Reddenna, M. Pramod Kumar, B. Jayanthi, N. Sirisha, K. Salma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i531176

Aim: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health problem throughout the world and a common cause of premature morbidity and mortality. CVD is a general category of diseases that affects the heart and the circulatory system. The main aim of the study is to assess the prescribing pattern in geriatrics with cardiovascular diseases using beers criteria.

Study Design: Prospective observational study.

Results and Discussion: Total 132 patients, 12 dropouts due to lack of information. Out of 120 patients 69 Patients are identified as Male Patients and 51 Patients are Female. In 120 sample size Maximum No of Cases were found with Ischemic Heart disease (30.8%) Followed by myocardial infarction (24%) coronary artery disease (20%) congestive heart failure (13.3%) Unstable Angina (11.6%). In 120 Sample Size, Male Patients are Suffering More with Complications Compared to Female Patients.

Conclusion: In this Study with Assessing the Prescribing Pattern in Geriatrics with Cardio Vascular Diseases It was found that major complications seen in Male and Female Patients are Ischemic heart Disease with Left ventricular dysfunction Myocardial Infarction, Coronary Artery Disease, Angina, Congestive Cardiac Failure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prescribing Pattern and Medication Related Problems in Hospitalized Diabetic Patients: A Hospital-Based Study

T. S. Durga Prasad, D. Ranganayakulu, N. Devanna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i531177

Aim: To assess the drug-related problems (DRPs) and World Health Organization (WHO) core prescribing indicators among hospitalized diabetic patients.

Methodology: A prospective, observational study was made among the diabetic inpatients of the General Medicine Department of a tertiary care hospital located in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India. A suitable data collection form was used to collect the data pertaining to demographics, clinical variables, DRPs, and WHO prescribing indicators. Descriptive statistics like frequency, mean, and percentage were used to represent the demographics, distribution of DRPs, and prescribing indicators in the study. Inferential statistics like Chi-square test was employed to test the significant association between the demographics and occurrence of DRPs.

Results: A total of 199 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age of the study participants was 55.8±11.3. The study shows the prevalence of DRPs in diabetic in-patients was 48.7%. The most commonly identified DRPs are drug interactions (53; 45.3%), adverse drug reactions (24; 20.5%), and untreated indication (21; 17.9%). Patient characteristics like, advanced age (≥60 years), presence of co-morbid condition, comprising more than 5 drugs in prescription, and stay in the hospital for more than four days are significantly associated with the development of DRPs. Findings of WHO indicators show the average number of drugs, percentage of drugs prescribed by the generic name, percentage of encounters with an antibiotic, injection, and from essential drug list have deviated from standards of WHO.

Conclusion: The prevalence of DRPs in diabetic in-patients was 48.7%. Drug interactions and adverse drug reactions are the most common DRPs found in our study. Developing the drug policy guidelines focused on factors associated with DRP and WHO prescribing indicators may reduce the burden of DRPs and improves patient outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Docking Evaluation of the Desert Truffles as Potent Antifungal Inhibitors

Ghassab M. Al-Mazaideh, Farhan K. Al-Swailmi, Mujeeb Ur Rehman Parrey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i531179

The research investigated the possible antifungal behavior of forty-four truffles bioactive compounds conducted to investigate the interaction modes of these inhibitors against three different types of the fungal proteins: Candida albicans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Ganoderma microsporum. The applied method in contrast to ketoconazole and griseofulvin revealed the possible anti-fungal agents ergosterol, Catechin gallate and rutin. With respect to Candida Albicans, the maximum possible binding energy was ergosterol (-11.75 Kcal/mol), followed then by catechin gallate (-11.46 Kcal/mol) then rutin (-9.90 Kcal/mol). Compared to Blastomyces, Ganoderma microsporum fungal protein with most negative binding energy among other components of the truffle is found to be of a relatively similar behavior for the same compounds. Ergosterol demonstrated the highest binding capacity for dermatitidis, while rutin scored the lowest against Ganoderma microsporum. The possible anti-fungal components of desert truffle have yet to be studied in vitro in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Characterization and In-vitro Evaluation of Favipiravir Orodispersible Films

Kalyan Chakravarthy Yamali, Madhu Gudipati, Rama Rao Nadendla

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i531180

Introduction: Orodispersible films (ODF) is a thin strip that is mostly transparent, biodegradable and it has hydrophilic polymers that disintegrate and dissolves immediately when getting in contact with saliva. Different disintegrants play a crucial role in film properties such as organoleptic properties, film thickness, and in particular disintegration time of the film. The main reason for the development of oral films is for their prominent role in increased patient compliance among pediatrics and geriatrics by disintegrating faster, releasing the drug rapidly, without the need for water, and mostly decreasing the risk of choking.

Aim: To formulate orodispersible films of favipiravir and to study the effect of different superdisintegrants on various film properties.

Methods: The method used to prepare the film is the solvent casting method. In this method, the solution is prepared using polymer, drug, and superdisintegrants. This solution is casted on a film-forming apparatus using a spreader an instrument to obtain a thin film.

Results: The prepared oral films weights ranging from 148mg to 237mg based on the superdisintegrant concentration. The pH of the prepared films didn’t vary significantly and percent moisture absorption doesn’t have significant variation. However, the texture varied from smooth to rough and transparent to translucent. Disintegration time is varying from 28 to 42 seconds. The optimum batch formulation gave 98% of drug release.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Some Biochemical Parameters of Wistar Rats Induced by Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pneumonia Patients

Felix Oghenemaro Enwa, Johnson Daniel Jemikalajah, Collins Ohwonigho Adjekuko, Clever Blessing Ogbare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i531182

The effect and extent of changes in some biochemical parameters associated with pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in serum samples of Wistar rats. 0ne thousand five serum samples were collected randomly. The serum samples were tested for sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine and chloride by colorimetric methods. The concentrations of sodium ranged from 133.6±4.615 to 143.8±6.906, potassium values ranged from 5.78±1.26 to 8.02±0.779, urea gave a range of 10.143±0.69 to 14.444±2.404, chloride values ranged from 94.8±2.683 to 104.142±8.49, while creatinine values ranged from 0.489±0.033 to 1.7±2.404.  The results indicated that Staphylococcus aureus has a significant effect on the electrolyte balance causing hyperkalemia and hyponatremia when compared to normal blood value. It had a remarkable effect on creatinine level with only slight effect on urea.  There is need to monitor the electrolyte levels in Staphylococcus aureus infection since alteration in the electrolyte levels could be harmful to health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemical Characterization of Paliperidone Palmitate and Compatibility Studies with its Pharmaceutical Excipients

Rama Rao Nadendla, Prachet Pinnamaneni, Siva Prasad Morla, Patchala Abhinandana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-91
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i531183

Aim: The main aim of the present study was to characterize and perform the compatibility studies of paliperidone with its excipients.

Study Design: Physico-chemical characterization and compatibility studies.

Place and Duration of the Study: Chalapathi Drug Testing Laboratory, Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chalapathi Nagar, Lam, Guntur-522034 between December 2020 and January 2021.

Methodology: Physico-chemical characterization and compatibility studies of paliperidone palmitate with its excipients like HPMC, lactose, magnesium stearate, talc, microcrystalline cellulose was done using the FTIR spectrophotometer, Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Differential scanning calorimeter.

Results: Interaction of the paliperidone palmitate with its excipients were studied by this technique. Paliperidone palmitate showed the transition at 117.920C with the specific heat of 101.9J/g. The IR spectrum of paliperidone palmitate and excipients mixture has shown a characteristic stronger band of the N-H at 3412.75cm-1, C-H at 2921.98 cm-1, stretching vibrations of C=O at 1737.47 cm-1, C=C at 1651.94 cm-1, N-O at 1541.16 cm-1 followed by C-F at 1160.46 cm-1. XRD showed good crystalline properties with relative crystallinity index of 60.01%. The photomicrographs obtained by SEM did not evidence any interaction between paliperidone palmitate and the excipients, providing visual support for the results.

Conclusion: There were no interactions of drug with selected excipients and found to be compatible. Therefore, it is a mandatory clause for the compound compatibility with various excipients in the formulation which affect the stability and efficacy of the formulation.

Open Access Review Article

Analysis of Renal Platinum Content as a Novel Approach to Protect against Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity: A Review

Yasmen F. Mahran, Omkulthom M. Al Kamaly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i531178

Cisplatin (cis-diamine-dichloroplatinum (II), CDDP) is a prominent member of the effective broad-spectrum antitumor drugs. However, its clinical usage is restricted due to serious side effects particularly nephrotoxicity. The vulnerability of the kidney to CDDP is almost certainly related to its primary role in the excretion of the drug as intact CDDP and its platinum containing products are excreted mainly in the urine. There is a correlation between the level of platinum in urine and nephrotoxicity because of renal uptake of the drug. Some analytical methods were applied for the determination of platinum content in biological fluids such as plasma, urine, serum, and peritoneal fluid. Studies have not documented a strong correlation between the renoprotective mechanism and the diminution of renal platinum content.

Open Access Review Article

The Most Common Causes of Transfusion-Transmitted Diseases among Blood Donors in the Middle Eastern States

Nora Yahia Hakami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i531181

The need for blood is essential, but there is no timely access to safe blood for millions of individuals who need a transfusion. Additionally, blood transfusions can also be the fastest and simplest form of checking for the existence of transfusion-transmitted diseases to the recipients. Blood safety concerns are an issue of great concern in Middle Eastern Countries in which the inaccessibility or provision of unsafe blood has an adverse effect on morbidity and mortality in the region. Additionally, many organizations and safety procedures of blood transfusion in this region need to be updated. Articles containing the key phrases Middle Eastern Countries, Blood, blood donor, blood transfusion, transfusion safety, transfusion-transmitted infections, and transfusion guidelines published from 2003 to 2020 in MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Therefore, to determine the most prevalent causes of transfusion-transmitted disease among blood donors in the Middle East countries, this literature review was intended for research.

Based on the data gathered were potentially related to HBsAg and HCV prevalence in blood donors from most of the middle eastern countries. While no positive cases of either HIV Ag-Ab or syphilis antibodies have been recorded especially among the blood donated from Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Based on recent studies findings, WHO, and the Food and Drug administration   transfusion transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to recipients did not occur via blood transfusion. So that, In Middle Eastern countries, transfusion-transmitted infection remains a formidable problem. A similarly wide constellation of economic and operational challenges in the area parallels the diverse array of pathogens; this calls for a systemic solution that, as proposed by the WHO, involves regulatory, structural, and training initiatives.