Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Elytraria acaulis Roots

Simmi Singh, Rajesh Nigam, Ambika Sharma, Ashish Kumar, Vijay Laxmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i431165

The main objectives of this study were to qualitatively evaluate the profile of phytochemical constituents of Elytraria acaulis root (EAR) extracts. The dried powder of the roots of the plant was extracted with three different solvents namely petroleum ether, methanol and water, and subjected to various phytochemical tests and UV-VIS spectrophotometry to ascertain the principal constituents contained in the extracts. The result revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides with various other phytoconstituents in different extracts of Elytraria acaulis roots (EAR). We suggest that various extracts of Elytraria acaulis roots (EAR) might have potential chemical constituents that could be used in the future for the development of novel therapeutic agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria with Anaemia and HIV Status in Women of Reproductive Age in Onitsha, Nigeria

Vivian Chinenye Ezeoru, Ifeoma Bessie Enweani, Ogochukwu Ochiabuto, Anthonia Chinwe Nwachukwu, Ugoy Sonia Ogbonna, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i431166

The major health problems affecting pregnant women in sub-Saharan African are anaemia, malaria and HIV. A case-control study aimed at determining the prevalence of malaria, anaemia and HIV status among women of reproductive age between 20-49 years attending General Hospital, Onitsha was conducted. Blood samples of three hundred and sixty-two apparently healthy gravid women attending antenatal and 181 non-gravid apparently healthy women in Onitsha were recruited using random sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Haemoglobin was estimated using automated method, Malaria, diagnosed microscopically using gold standard staining method and HIV screened using qualitative immunochromatographic method, confirmed molecularly. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Results revealed that out of the 362 pregnant test groups,125 (34.5%) had malaria parasite (mp) in their blood and were anaemic 53(37.6%)  though fewer in control groups ;23,14 (12.7%; 16.1%)  (p = 0.195; p =0.055). Out of 347 HIV sero-negative pregnant women, 110 (31.7%) tested HIV positive when confirmed by PCR molecular method while only 1(0.6%) sero-negative controls were confirmed positive with molecular method with statistical significance observed in the test and control groups (p = 0.000; p = 0.000). However, as pregnancy affects HIV serology testing, it is necessary to use molecular method to increase its sensitivity and more enlightment  programmes on the importance of balanced diet, compliance to Malaria control and routine gynecological drugs intake in pregnant women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Efficacy and Safety Profile of Lurasidone Comparing with Risperidone: Randomized, Open Label, Clinical Study

V. Sreedhar, L. Reddenna, T. Rajavardhana, J. Thippe Rudra, E. Pavan Kumar, M. Pramod Kumar, M. Kalyan Sai, T. Sivasaileela, Y. Yamini, B. Sreelekha, B. Nishkala, M. Mahesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i431167

There are diverse studies which afford evidences that risperidone is as effective as second generation antipsychotics in treating positive symptoms and more effective in treatment of negative symptoms. This study is intended to find the clinical efficacy and safety profile of lurasidone comparing with risperidone, a drug in common use nowadays. Patients aged between 18 to 60yrs, Patients with new onset of symptoms who fulfil the ICD-10 criteria for a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and Patients having a total PANSS score of ≥80 including a score ≥4 (moderate) on two or more of positive subscale at baseline. Patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia who remained drug free for at least last 6 months also included. Demographic data of the patients were collected. Baseline investigations like BP, complete blood count, lipid profile, blood sugar, renal function test and liver function test were done. Severity of schizophrenia at baseline was assessed using positive and negative symptoms scale (PANSS). Patients were randomized by using computer generated random table in 1:1 ratio as group A and group B, with 25 patients in each group. The efficacy of group A and group B was analysed by applying rating scale Positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) at the end of 4 and 6 weeks. Adverse drug reactions were recorded and monitored by interviewing with patients, by physical examination and also by necessary lab investigations at the end of 6 weeks. Patients were insisted to maintain a diary to note any new occurrence of adverse drug reactions in between the follow up period. Suspected adverse drug reactions were documented in predesigned reporting form. In PANSS positive scale both groups had significant decrease in PANSS score both at week 4 and week 6 (p<0.05). Lurasidone is as equally efficacious as risperidone in reducing PANSS score, but produces less metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects than risperidone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prescribing Trends of Medications Ophthalmological Outpatient Department in a Public Hospital in Alkharj

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i431168

Aim: The present study was undertaken to describe the prescribing pattern of medications in the ophthalmology department in a public hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: This is a cross sectional study included collecting data from outpatient pharmacy prescriptions in a public hospital in Alkharj. All of the outpatients who received prescriptions from the ophthalmology department between the beginning of July till the end of December 2018 were included in the study.

Results: During the study period, 324 patients received outpatient prescriptions that were written by ophthalmology department. Artificial tears eye drops were the most commonly prescribed drug (29.32%) followed by olopatadine (12.96%), fusidic acid (11.42%) and fluorometholone (10.19%). Most of the prescribers who wrote the prescriptions were residents (98.15%). Eye drop was the most commonly prescribed dosage form (73.77%) followed by ointment (18.21%).

Conclusion: The present study showed that the most commonly prescribed drugs in outpatient ophthalmology department were artificial tears, olopatadine, fusidic acid and fluorometholone. It is also important to increase the awareness of healthcare providers and patients about the appropriate use of these drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Anti-Bacterial and Anti-biofilm Activity of New Iminothiazolidinones

Kumaraswamy Gullapelli, Ravichander Maroju

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i431169

Aim: Iminothiazolidinones are one of the important classes of heterocyclic compounds and they occupied unique position in medicinal chemistry due to their wide range of biological and pharmaceutical properties. In view this potential activity, it has been planned to synthesize a series of New Iminothiazolidinones on benzimidazole nucleus and to study their biological activity.

Methodology: Iminothiazolidinones and 1,1 dioxide- Iminothiazolidinones were synthesized with a simple and efficient method of cyclic condensation of aryl thiourea containing benzimidazole and thiazole with chloroacetic acid .This method requires mild reaction conditions, simple procedure and gives good yield.

Results: The structures of the synthesized compounds were assessed by Infrared, NMR and Mass spectroscopic methods. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial and biofilm inhibitory activities against selected multi drug resistant bacterial strains.

Conclusion: In accordance with the results obtained, growth inhibition was found significant with compounds 5d and 5e. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE), and extended spectrum β‑lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae have shown varied susceptibility towards these compounds. The Biofilm inhibition Concentrations (BFIC) of compounds 5e and 5d are 3.22 ±0.56 and 6.58 ±1.5 µg/mL respectively were noted against MRSA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability Indicating Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Rimegepant in Bulk and Its Tablets Using Rp-HPLC

H. M. Sudheer Kumar, Kothapalli Bannoth Chandrasekhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i431170

Aim: Ramegepant is a novel molecule belongs to the class of calcitonin gene – related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, which was developed for the prevention and treatment of migraine. Ramegepant was reported to act at the CGRP receptor with good oral bioavailability. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and fast stability indicating method for the determination of Ramegepant in bulk and tablets.

Methodology: Ramegepant was eluted on a Waters C18 Column with 250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d and 5 μm Particle size with a mobile phase of Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer pH 7.0 : Methanol 30:70 v/v in isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The analyte was quantified using a 272 nm PDA detector.

Results: The chromatograms of Ramegepant obtained with this method showed a well resolved retention time at 3.29 min of its excipients and degradation products. The area of ​​the peak with respect to the concentration calibration curves, which were linear from 70 to 210 µg / ml, had a regression coefficient (r2) greater than 0.999. Accuracy and precision have been determined and perfectly matched to the ICH standards.

Conclusion: The study showed that the proposed Rp-HPLC method was simple, fast, robust and reproducible, which can be used for the evaluation of the purity and stability of the drug without interference from excipients or decomposition products of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Process Variables on Budesonide Nanoparticles Using Factorial Design

Ashwin Kuchekar, Jayesh Jathar, Ashwini Gawade, Bhanudas Kuchekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i431172

Aims: Nanoparticles are the colloidal carrier systems for delivery of poorly soluble drugs. Budesonide. (BUD) a corticosteroid practically insoluble in water is used in asthma treatment. The aim of the present research work was to develop and evaluate BUD nanoparticles.

Methodology: The prepared formulation was analyzed for % encapsulation efficiency, particle size analysis, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Poloxamer-188 was found in stabilizing BUD nanoparticles.

Results: The observed % encapsulation efficiency of the optimized batch was (82.95) %, particle size was 271.8 nm with PDI 0.456. Solvent injection method was successfully implemented to developed BUD nanoparticles poloxamer-188. Sonication time and amplitude played an important role in governing the particle size.

Conclusion: It can be inferred from the study that nanoparticles are a potential drug delivery method for poorly water-soluble drug delivery which can not only get impacted by formulation variables but also by process variables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acid Challenge on Push-Out Bond Strength of Three Different Tricalcium Silicate Cements: An In-vitro Study

Mattapudi Basavaiah Babu, T. B. V. G. Raju, N. Mahendra Varma, Gowtam Dev Dondapati, Srivalli Podili, Thangi Sowjanya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i431173

Aim: To evaluate the impact of environmental pH on intra-radicular dentin push-out bond strengths of MTA, MTA HP, and Biodentine.

Materials and Methodology: Freshly extracted human mandibular single-rooted premolars or maxillary anterior incisors that were either intact or contained only small carious lesions were selected.120 mid root dentins is horizontally divided into 1.0 mm thick slices and divided into 3 MTA, MTA HP, BIODENTINE groups. The compressive load is applied at a speed of 0.5 mm/min by exerting a downward pressure on the outer surface of MTA using a 1.00 mm diameter cylindrical stainless-steel plunger. Maximum load to MTA was reported in newtons at the time of dislodgement and converted to megapascals. The 1-way analysis of variance test was used to compare the push-out bond strength of the groups with the same storage time (4 or 34 days), followed by the pair-wise comparison of the Tukey post hoc test. The Student's t-test was used to evaluate 3-group means. At P = .005, the degree of significance was set. Thus the clinical importance of the present study states that considering several factors like microhardness, composition by products, particle sizes and the environmental pH plays a critical role in selection of root end filling material.

Results: There was significant difference between groups (P = .001) after 4 days of PBS and Acid condition, where Bio dentine had significantly the highest bond strength.

Conclusion: The strength of MTA HP, BIODENTINE, MTA materials at dentine interface increases over 30 days in the storage of PBS solution at pH 7.4, after an initial acid challenge by acetic acid of pH 5.4, which decreases initial bond strength.

Open Access Original Research Article

Obesity and Overweight in Relation to Hypertension and Associated Risk in School Children

Gorantla Naresh Babu, P. Jameela, S. Jafar Sharif, A. Ramya, K. Ziyaul Haq, Sasi Kumar, L. Reddenna, V. Sreedhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i431174

Aim: Hypertension is a major public health problem worldwide and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The main aim of this study is to assess obesity and overweight in school children and their relationship to hypertension and associated risk factors.

Study Design: Population based cross sectional study.

Results and Discussion: A total number of 712 students with age group between 7-12 years from different school were screened for their height, weight and body mass index. The present study was aimed to assess obesity and overweight in school children and their relationship to hypertension and associated risk factors.  Under weight and healthy weight children are engaged in physical activities like playing in ground and thus they are healthy where the children who found as overweight and obese were not engaged in physical activities regularly and thus this might be the reason for their overweight and obesity. At the same time the children who found as obese and overweight were said that they were having fast foods twice a day.

Conclusion: In order to get rid of these risks and their associated cardiovascular risks, their food habits must be changed and physical activities needs to be improved.

Open Access Review Article

Lite Image Analysis Module Salivary Diagnostic Tool - A Review

Jayanta Saikia, Balaji Pachipulusu, Poornima Govindaraju

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 50-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i431171

Background: Saliva is a versatile biofluid that can help in detecting any oral or systemic disease of an individual. Saliva seems to be clinically an informative biofluid for easy prognosis of a disease and clinical or laboratory diagnosis of oral as well as many systemic diseases. It has some specific soluble biological markers that can be considered as an ideal approach for early detection of diseases.

Aim: The aim of this paper was to review the recent developments of the Lite Image Analysis Module.

Conclusion: Thus, this technology primarily helps in a rapid assessment of salivary biomarker levels signifying the probable systemic and oral condition of an individual both in quantitative as well as qualitative manner. Adopting a simple and quick technique, LIAM can be used effortlessly in some rural remote areas as well where advanced high technology laboratories have not yet reached.

Clinical Significance: It is one of the recent advancements in the world of salivary diagnosis LIAM (Lite Image Analysis Module) that is a portable, light, hand-held scanning device which magnificently integrates a distinct analyte identification system that detects the type of analytes being tested and transfer the report straight to a smartphone or a Bluetooth devices.