Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Catharanthus roseus Extracted from Vinca minor in Diabetic Rats

Shimaa Mohammed Hasnin Aboelnaga

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i231142

The role of oxidative stress is known among the patients of diabetes as the level of reactive oxygen species was high among diabetic patients. This oxidative stress is generated in diabetic patients due to continuous high glucose levels that cause to decrease in the defence mechanism for antioxidant enzymes within the body. The reduction of the antioxidant defence mechanism leads towards the generation of hydroxyl radicals consequently results in lipid peroxidation. The objective of this study is to examine the efficacy of Vincamine extracts as antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant in diabetic rats. To evaluate the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Vincamine, adult BB Wistar rats, weighing 150- 170 g were obtained and divided in six groups. Blood analysis was taken measure the observed parameters. The findings showed vincamine display antioxidant, hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activity.It is concluded that vincamine hasa protective role and acts as a good antioxidant activity along with effective antidiabetic effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti- Parkinsonian Drug Estimation by RP-HPLC

Rama Rao Nadendla, Patchala Abhinandana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i231143

Aim: The main aim of the current study is to give best and simple method for the estimation of antiparkinsonian drugs named Carbidopa, levodopa and entacapone.

Study Design:  Simultaneous estimation of Carbidopa, levodopa and entacapone was performed by using Quadrapumped (SHIMADZU Prominance-i, LC-2030C) RP-HPLC equipped with PDA detector.

Place and Duration of Study: Chalapathi Drug Testing Laboratory, Chalapathi Institute Of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur-522034, Andhra Pradesh, India during the period of August 2019 to February 2020.

Methodology: The assets of the study can determined as the process of qualification and quantification was done on SHIMADZU Prominance-i, LC-2030C system equipped with Phenomenex ODS (150 x 4.6 mm, 5μm) column and mobile phase was optimized using combination of acetonitrile and 0.1% ortho phosphoric acid in the ration of 50:50 v/v at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min. The wavelength was set as 270nm at ambient temperature by injecting 20µl of solution and the run time was fixed for 5 min.

Results: Calibration plot shown best regression over the concentration range of 5-160 µg/ml of Carbidopa, Levodopa and Entacapone standard solutions. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.85 and 2.54 µg/ml for Entacapone, 0.24 and 0.71 µg/ml for Levodopa, 0.14 and 0.43 µg/ml for Carbidopa respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was determined by performing recovery studies and was found to be between 98-102%. The repeatability testing for both sample and standard solutions was found as %RSD<2.0% which is within the acceptable limits showing that the method is precise as well. The proposed method was successfully applied for the marketed formulations of Carbidopa, Levodopa and Entacapone tablets. In addition the main feature of proposed method is economic and eco-friendly with less retention time around 5.0 min.

Conclusion: Including all the optimized method parameters and statistical results given it can be concluded as a new, simple, sensitive, precise and accurate economical analytical method was developed and validated by RP-HPLC for the detection and quantification of Carbidopa, Levodopa and Entacapone which can be applied to the marketed formulation where there are no official compendial methods reported for this particular combination. The high sensitivity (LOD), mobile phase utilized and run time (=5) can be determined as an important features for this proposal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Renoprotective Effect of Formononetin against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rat Kidney

Saleem H. Aladaileh, Farhan K. Al-Swailmi, Mohammad H. Abukhalil, Mohammed H. Shalayel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i231144

Aims: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a broad-spectrum chemotherapy agent available to treat various malignancies; however, its nephrotoxicity limits its clinical use. Formononetin (FOR) is a bioactive isoflavone with encouraging biological activities. The current study explored and elucidated the possible protective/therapeutic effects of formononetin against CP-induced nephrotoxicity.

Methodology: Rats received FOR (40 mg/kg/day) for 15 days followed by a single injection of CP on day 16. CP-induced nephrotoxicity is characterized by an increase in urea and creatinine levels in serum. Kidney homogenate was used to assess MDA, NO and antioxidants.

Results: CP-administered rats showed increased renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide along with declined glutathione and antioxidant enzymes. In addition, CP increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-apoptotic proteins levels and decreased anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 levels in the kidney. FOR prevented CP-induced kidney injury, enhanced antioxidants and suppressed oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory mediators and apoptosis.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that FOR prevents CP nephrotoxicity by attenuating the oxidative damage and inflammation. Therefore, our data suggest that FOR may represent a novel protective strategy against CP-induced nephrotoxicity, which deserves pursuit in further studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Haematological Alterations in Children Infected by Plasmodium falciparum Species in Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria

Linda Nnenna Ogbonna, Silas Anayo Ufelle, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Cyril Okonkwo Ogbonna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i231145

Malaria accounts for a considerable amount of Morbidity and mortality with children bearing the greatest burden. The study aimed to investigate the haematological alterations in children infected by Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) species. A case control study with a total of ninety-five microscopically confirmed P. falciparum malaria infected children and fifty apparently healthy age and gender matched controls from Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Parklane, Wesley Specialist Hospital and Akpugo Community Health Centre, Enugu were recruited for the study. Haematologic parameters were estimated using five part differential automated analyzer (Mindray BC 5300) with ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic-acid anticoagulated blood. ­­The result of P. falciparum infected male children revealed significant decrease (p < 0.05) in haematocrit (32.76 + 4.82)%, haemoglobin  (10.34 + 1.46) g/dl, white blood cell (3.65 + 2.81)x109/L, neutrophil (20.41 + 15.16)% and platelet (228.41 + 113.51) x109/L, compared to  the controls; haematocrit (35.60 + 2.70)%, haemoglobin (11.27 + 0.90) g/dl; white blood cell (7.97 + 2.55)x109/L, neutrophil (30.33 + 8.04)% and platelet (315.45 + 53.64) x 109/L.  It also showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in monocyte (3.28 + 2.63)%, basophil (1.68 + 1.15)% compared to the controls; monocyte (1.89 + 1.10)%, basophil (0.44 + 0.46)%. The results of P. falciparum infected female children revealed significant decrease (p < 0.05) in white blood cell (4.93 + 2.95)x109/L, neutrophil (19.61 + 15.14)%, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (23.58 + 2.37)pg, mean corpuscular volume (74.67 + 8.00)fl, and platelet (257.00 + 129.55) x109/L compared to the controls; white blood cell (6.70 + 1.75) x109/L, neutrophil (26.91 + 7.97)%, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (25.12 + 1.96)pg, mean corpuscular volume (79.13 + 5.37) fl and platelet (303.13 + 54.02) x109/L, significantly increased (p < 0.05) monocyte (3.38 + 2.78)%, basophil (2.19 + 1.36)% as compared to the controls; monocyte (1.85 + 0.82)%, basophil (0.48 + 0.45)%. However, P. falciparum infected male children showed to be more anaemic compared to the infected females.  Indeed, Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in children has great impact on the haematologic parameters, thus its investigations serves as competent measures of differential diagnosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Race as Determinant of Red Blood Cell Osmotic Stress Haemolysis in South Indian and African Populations

Hassan Thabit Haji, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Othman Hakum Said, Kirtana R. Nayak, Nkem F. Obianagha, Emilio Stivens Galano

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i231146

The study was to compare the red blood cell osmotic fragility between South Indian and African ethnicities. A cross sectional study was performed in the Department of Physiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal. The study involved apparently healthy young adults between 18 to 40 years old. The whole study's total sample size was 50 healthy individuals, 25 South Indians (13 female and 12 male) and 25 Africans (13 female and 12 male).  The results showed an increase in the percentage haemolysis that was statistically significant (p=0.0001) in South Indians (32.16 ±5.048%) compared to Africans (20.01 ± 3.151%), respectively. The present study has identified and quantified race's impact as one of the determinant factors of red blood cell osmotic stress haemolysis. Therefore, we conclude that the percentage of haemolysis is higher for the South Indian population than the African population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Google APPs and CKD Prepare GFR India Google App

P. B. Shah, L. Jeyaseelan, P. Soundararajan, B. W. C. Sathiyasekaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 63-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i231148

Aim: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation is an important parameter for assessment of kidney function and management of the patient with suspected kidney function. These mobile applications hence change the way better patient care is managed. In the research project, there is an attempt to perform comparative assessment of GFR Google APPs and CKD PREPARE GFR India Google APP. 

Methods: Google app store was searched to identify all the applications which may help in estimation of GFR. All the application were compared except general medical calculators and non-English applications. All important parameters were identified with the guidance of delphi group and comparison chart was made.

Results: The search of Google play store led to 35 mobile applications related to GFR estimation. The majority of the applications were by IT company developers and  few were by associations or individuals. There are few companies who have developed multiple mobile applications with different formulas. Many of these aspects of the mobile applications which are considered had important parameters. Few of the applications have multiple page interfaces which may lead to multiple clicks before reaching to GFR estimation which may be at times may be difficult in case of large amounts of use. 

Conclusion: All the GFR estimation applications are comparable. Single user interface applications have advantages over others where all the data can be entered and results are available in a single view. The disclaimer of using calculators under medical guidance of a qualified physicians is always required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prescribing Practices of Medications in the Outpatient Dermatology Department of a Public Hospital

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i231149

Aim: This study aims to describe the prescribing pattern of medications by dermatology outpatient department in a public hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study that included collecting data from outpatient electronic prescriptions in a public hospital in Alkharj. All of the outpatients who received prescriptions written by the dermatology department between 1st of January till 30th of June 2018 were included in the study. The data were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Excel.

Results: A total of 328 patients received outpatient prescriptions written by dermatology department. Most of them were females (62.80%) and aged less than 40 years (67.38%). The most prescribed drug in the present study was Hydrocortisone (14.33%) followed by White Soft Paraffin (8.84), Fusidic acid (8.54%) and Cetirizine (8.23%). Most of the medications were prescribed as ointment (28.66%) followed by creams (28.04%).

Conclusion: Females were found to be more predominant with dermatological diseases when compared to males. The most commonly prescribed drugs were hydrocortisone, white soft paraffin, fusidic acid and cetirizine. It is important to evaluate prescribing pattern of the drugs periodically to improve the quality of prescriptions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Novel Fermented Almond Milk Tea and It’s Evaluation as Antidiabetic Drink

Deepak Kannan, Akash Kumaran, Sanjay Venkatesan, Prabhu Sukumaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i231150

Background: It is well known that almond and tea is best known to prevent Diabetes mellitus due to its abundant source of polyphenols. Also, probiotics also have been used in the treatment of Diabetes. This study is focused on the combined effect of all these three ingredients through the process of fermentation.

Objective: The aim of this present study is to develop, analyse sensory parameters in human volunteers for optimisation and evaluate the antidiabetic efficiency of Fermented Almond milk tea (FAMT) both in vitro and in vivo analysis.

Study Design: Development of FAMTàOptimisation of FAMT based on sensory analysis from 25 human participantsà In vitro antidiabetic analysis of FAMT extract à Animal studies.

Place and Duration: The research work was conducted during November, 2019 to March, 2020 at the Department of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Post Bag No.1, Pennalur, Sriperumbudur Tk, Kancheepuram Dt, TN-602117, India.

Materials and Methods: FAMT was prepared by optimisation of different formulation based on sensory analysis recorded from 25 healthy human volunteers. The FAMT extract was prepared and was used for the in vitro analysis and phytochemical screening. The animal study was performed with 30 Albino Wistar rats which were divided into 5 groups under preventive regimen. Group I was healthy normoglycemic control group. Group II served as positive control. Group III received metformin (350 mg/kg bw, p.o) for 28 days. Group IV received 5% Fermented almond milk for 28 days. Group V received 5% FAMT for 28thday. All groups except Group I received single dose of STZ (50 mg/kg bw, i.p) on the 29th day for the induction of Diabetes mellitus. After 7 days from induction, animals were anaesthetized and blood was drawn for the evaluation of plasma glucose and serum TG, cholesterol & insulin.  

Results: It was observed that FAMT (8:2) was favoured by the participants more than other formulations. FAMT was found to contain Saponins, flavonoids and phenol. The total poly phenol of FAMT (373 ± 3.0 μg/ml) was high than Fermented almond milk (232.5 ± 2.50 μg/ml). The DPPH scavenging, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting percentage of FAMT (59 ± 4%,52 ± 3%, 50 ± 4% respectively) was high when compared to fermented almond milk (32 ± 2%,34 ± 2% and 45 ± 2% respectively). From animal studies it was significantly observed that plasma glucose (P<0.0001) was reduced, serum insulin (P<0.001) was increased, serum TG (P<0.0.001) and cholesterol (P<0.01) were reduced when compared to Positive control Group- II.

Conclusion: Thus, FAMT was proved to act as a prophylactic anti-diabetic drink and was more potent than normal fermented almond milk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions towards Online Learning

Nehad J. Ahmed, Faisal Z. Alkhawaja, Abdulrahman S. Alrawili, Wael Alonazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i231151

Aim: This study aimed to describe the perceptions of pharmacy students towards online learning in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: This study included an online survey that was self-administered to be filled by pharmacy students. Results were downloaded and stored in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and the results were analyzed descriptively and represented by numbers and percentages.

Results: Most of the students said that they prefer viewing lectures by traditional in-class learning (66%). Only 40% said that they would be able to keep pace with the course by viewing lectures weekly for fully online courses that include lectures available only on blackboard. Additionally, 50% of the students prefer to attend pharmacy curriculum courses by both traditional delivered lecture style and blended online learning.

Conclusion: Pharmacy students showed some interest in online learning methods within the pharmacy curriculum but the majority of them preferred traditional dedicated-instructor delivered lecture style. It is important to use both the traditional learning with online learning during the Covid-19 outbreak.

Open Access Review Article

Using 3D Printing for Pre-planning of Orthopedic Surgeries, a Review

Hamidreza Mosleh, Shahab Aldin Nazeri, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Fatemeh Moradi, Hoda Mosleh, Ronak Shabani, Mohammadreza Miniator Sajjadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-62
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i231147

Background: Recent developments in 3D printing have gave orthopedic surgeons among a novel technology that has the ability to revolutionize preoperative planning. The appearance of 3D printing technology (3DPT) enables the digital preoperative plan & simulation to move from the virtual phase to the reality phase. Numerous fields of medicine are lately benefiting from the operate of 3D printing, including the arising part of 3D printing in orthopedic surgery.

Methods: We searched on PubMed and Google Scholar databases in January 2020 to find papers and studies about using 3D printing in orthopedy for aim of preplanning. The key words for search were (“3D printing” OR “3D-printed Model” OR “three-dimensional Printer”) AND (“Orthopedy” OR “Orthopedics” OR “Orthopedics”) AND (“Surgery” OR “Operation”) AND (“Pre-planning” OR “Plan”) AND (“Fracture” OR “Trauma”) that we used compound. We exclude the papers which their titles or abstracts were not relevant. At last, we select the most related papers to use in this article.

Results: The search on PubMed found 80 Papers and on Google Scholar found 104 papers. After excluding similar and unrelated papers, 44 papers were selected for this review article.

Conclusion: Almost all studies have shown us that using a 3D model can have a very positive effect on the surgical process and its outcomes, as well as patient and surgeon satisfaction. Therefore, we anticipate that this technology will be used in many orthopedic surgeries in the near future.