Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Activities of Artemissia absinthium and Butea monosperma Plant Extracts

Fatima Waheed, Shaista Yaqoob, Qurban Ali, Arif Malik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4831119

With the developing time, there is a tremendous need to deliver highly potential antimicrobial drugs and treatment from different herbaceous plants because plants are now days commonly used to provide resistance against disease-causing pathogens. This study has been done by using agar well diffusion method. The bacterial along with fungal strains were collected and were cultured on agar plates. Afterwards, these plates were put in incubate for 24 hours at 370C temperature. Within this duration, the zones were developing all around the plates, wherever plant extracts were poured. The activities of microorganisms were measured by using inhibition diameter zones. The inhibition zones were shown clearly on petri plates. Antimicrobial activities of plant extracts of Artemissia absinthium and Butea monosperma tested against bacterial and fungal strains viz. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli as well as fungal strains were also used viz. Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Fingerprinting Analysis of Piper betle L. Leaves

Ramdas N. Kale, Ravindra Y. Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4831120

Introduction: Many modern medicines used today based on plants and plant products. Piper betle is generally known as the betle vine, it is an important medicinal and recreational plant. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) is an advanced powerful analytical method with more separation power, high performance and superior reproducibility than classic thin layer chromatography (TLC). A chromatographic fingerprint of a plant extract is a chromatographic pattern of some common chemical constituents of pharmacologically active and/or chemical characteristics. Chromatographic fingerprints are useful in authentication and identification of plant.

Objectives:  Objectives of present research was to establish HPTLC fingerprinting of methanolic extract of Piper betle L. leaves.

Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves was prepared using soxhlet apparatus. HPTLC studies were performed using a CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with automatic TLC sampler-4 (ATS 4), TLC scanner 4, and vision CATS 3.0 software.

Results: The study revealed the presence of alkaloids with Rf value 0.65, flavonoids with Rf values 0.19, 0.29, 0.72, 0.95., and phenolic compound with Rf value 0.7.

Conclusion: The HPTLC fingerprinting profile developed for the methanolic extract of Piper betle L. leaves will help in proper identification of the plant.Piper betle

Open Access Original Research Article

VLVS: A Knime Based Virtual Library Generation and Screening Workflow

Ismail Hakki Akgün

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4831121

Objective: Tocreate an easy-to-use structure-based screening workflow using KNIME and open source software to prepare and screen virtual libraries in order to discover novel bioactive or drug molecules.

Materials and Methods: In the preparation of the workflow we mentioned in the article KNIME version 4, AutoDock Vina, Pymol were used. KNIME plugins used in this study are RDKit KNIME Integration, ChemAxon/Infocom Marvin Extensions Feature, KNIME Python Integration, Lhasa Metabolism Feature, KNIME Ploty and KNIME JavaScript View. We have used Python3 and libraries in the python scripts through Anaconda installation.

Results: A workflow that can work with a single click after making required adjustments which uses docking as structure-based screening method was created and tested.

Conclusion: With the workflow we have created, it will be possible for researchers especially those who are working in the field of computer-aided drug design/development to create personalized molecule libraries, perform virtual screening, reporting the results in a short time with the least effort.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacy, Medicine and Nursing Students’ Perceptions about Learning Pharmacology

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdulrahman S. Alrawili, Faisal Z. Alkhawaja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4831122

Aim: This study aims to evaluate health students' perceptions toward pharmacology.

Methodology: This study included a self-administered questionnaire that inquired concerning their perceptions about learning pharmacology. The survey was translated to Arabic language and after that it was validated and converted to online Google Form and then the link was sent to the students.

Results: Most of the students was less than 22 years old (67.90%) in addition to that most of them were females (81.48%). About 38.27% of the respondents were pharmacy students. More than 90% of the respondents said that pharmacology is an interesting subject in the university courses. Most of the students agreed that there should be more emphasis on studying case studies not only theoretical teaching (88.89%).

Conclusion: The study found that the perceptions of students regarding pharmacology were positive. It is important to add a practical training for pharmacology in the hospital not only teaching it theoretically. Moreover, it is important to integrate pharmacology horizontally with other related course such as pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Natural Product and Natural Product like Molecules against SARS–CoV–2 Main Protease Using Molecular Modeling Methods

Ismail Hakki Akgün

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4831123

Objective: To determine possible MPro enzyme inhibitors by using structure-based virtual screening methods, in the ZINC Biogenic Data Set containing natural products and natural product-like molecules.

Materials and Methods: QVina, an AutoDockVina derivative, was used in virtual screening operations, GROMACS in molecular dynamics studies and SwissAdme server in ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion) calculations. KNIME (Konstanz Information Miner) and ChemAxon software were used for filtering data and creating three-dimensional structures of the molecules.

Results: Seven out of totally screened 51535 natural products or natural products like molecules were identified as possible candidate to be used as SARS–CoV–2 Main Protease (MPro) enzyme inhibitors based on the results obtained from structure based virtual screening and ADME models.

Conclusion: Among the seven potent molecules, two of them (ZINC000604382012 and ZINC000514288074) were selected as candidate molecules for further studies according to the results obtained from g_mmpbsa simulations and synthetic accessibility models. In addition, a workflow has been established to identify novel or potent Mpro enzyme inhibitors.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Social Media on Pharmacy Students’ Academic Performances

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdulrahman S. Alrawili, Faisal Z. Alkhawaja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4831124

Background: The use of social media by students helps to have access to basic information as quick as possible but numerous universities and schools around the world restrict the access to social networks within its buildings to help students to concentrate on their studies.

Aim: The aim of this article is to assess the impact of social media on academic performance of pharmacy students.

Methodology: The present study includes gathering data from students through a survey research design to determine the effect of social media usage on their academic performance. The survey was adapted from a previous study and after that it is converted to online Google Form.

Results: Most of the participants in the present study said that their academic achievement is excellent (41.67%) or very good (41.67%). The majority of the students agree that the use of social media is useful in educational institutions, social media can be used to arrange group discussions with the experts and that it can be used to fix an appointment with other subject experts. The majority of the students also agree that they can receive announcements from lecturers and faculty using social media.

Conclusion: The majority of the students feel that social media affect their academic performance positively and about half of them feel that social media affect their performance negatively. It is important to increase their awareness about the importance of regulating social media usage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human Papilloma Virus Types 16/18 Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer: An Evidence for Vaccination in Bihar, India

Rahul Kumar, Vinita Trivedi, Richa Chauhan, Akhtar Parwez, Biplab Pal, Krishna Murti, V. Ravichandiran, Mohammad Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4831125

There is high incidence of cervical cancer in Bihar, India. Vaccination for cervical cancer in developed countries has played a crucial role in limiting the incidence rate of cervical cancer worldwide. In consideration of debate on clinical efficacy of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine in India, study on the prevalence of high risk HPV 16/18 strains in different regions of the nation becomes very crucial. Few individual states have started vaccination but centralised vaccination program does not exist due to lack of sufficient genotypic study of Human Papilloma Virus in different parts of India. Bihar is the third most populous state of India and HPV 16/18 distribution has not been reported yet. The nationwide data of HPV 16/18will help to develop a unified centralised vaccination program. We carried out a distribution study of high risk HPV type 16 and 18 in cervical cancer patients attending a tertiary care hospital of Bihar, India.HPV 16/18 types were analysed in cervical cancer tissues (n = 96) of patients attending the regional cancer hospital of Bihar. Tissue samples were analysed for HPV 16 and HPV 18 using a Real Time PCR technique. The results suggest very high prevalence of HPV 16/18. HPV was identified in all the samples (96/96). About, 74 (77.08%) samples presented with HPV 16 whereas, 16 (16.67%) of the samples presented with HPV 18. 6 Co-infection was presented in 6 (6.25%) of the samples of cervical cancer tissues. HPV 16/18 prevalence is more in the women aged between 41 to 61 years.We report 100% prevalence of HPV16/18 in the cervical cancer tissue samples. A way to minimise this gynaecological concern would be to introduce prophylactic vaccines and early screening in the state of Bihar. The data generated would be crucial in drafting for community screening of HPV. We strongly emphasize the prophylactic HPV Vaccination against HPV 16 to control the alarming rate of cervical cancer in one of the most populous state of India, Bihar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trends in Beta-Blocker Prescribing in a Public Hospital in Al Saih

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4831126

Aim: This study aimed to describe the trends in beta-blocker prescribing in the outpatient setting of a public hospital in Al Saih.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study that includes patient electronic records revision of outpatients Between 1st July and 31th December 2018.

Results: The most commonly prescribed beta-blocker was bisoprolol (79.10%) followed by metoprolol (7.34%) More than half of the patients were less than 60 years old (52.54%). About 55.93% of the patients receiving beta-blockers were male. About 39.55% of the prescribed drugs were prescribed by cardiology department (39.55%) followed by internal medicine department (36.72%).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that beta-blockers were prescribed commonly. More studies are needed to find the prescribing patterns of beta-blockers for treating different indications and to prepare stratified guidelines to treat cardiovascular patients based on their characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Metabolic Syndrome, Uric Acid and Leisure Time Physical Activity between Former Athletes and Non-Athlees

Zayed M. Altowerqi, Zainal Abidin Bin Zainuddin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4831128

This study aims to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), overweight and obesity, uric acid (UA), and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among former athletes and non-athletes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Moreover, to determine the effects of previous high intensity training on MS risk factors, overweight and obesity, and UA. Seventy-five (75) former athletes and twenty-six (26) non-athletes, aged between 26 and 60 years old, participated in this study. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), and blood samples were collected by the researcher. LTPA was reported by participants. The study results showed that 38.61% of former athletes have MS and 17.82% of non-athletes have MS. The study also showed that 31.68% of former athletes were overweight and 26.73% were obese. However, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among non-athletes was 9.90%. 23.76% of former athletes had high level of UA, whereas 14.85% of non-athletes had high level of UA. According to the study findings 28% former athletes participated in high physical activity (PA), 38.67% in moderate PA, and 33.33% in low PA, while 19.23% of non-athletes participated in high PA, 38.46% in moderate PA, and 42.31% in low PA. Former athletes had lower mean of body mass index, WC, fasting blood glucose (FBG), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and UA than non-athletes. In addition, higher mean of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL).  However, former athletes had higher mean of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and triglycerides (TG) than non-athletes.

Open Access Review Article

Pathophysiological Cascade of Events Leading to Epilepsy: Role of Inflammation

Hadeel Zakaria Alsaegh, Hala Salah Abd El-Kawy Eweis, Fatemah Omar Kamel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4831127

Epileptogenesis is an alteration modification of the typical brain structure, yielding a brain drained by recurring seizures. Such a process is usually precipitated by neurodegeneration, disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), the amygdala, the glutamatergic system, oxidative stress, and epigenetic modification deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Since there is no efficient method yet, to modify or control this disorder's pathway due to its unclear pathology, novel therapeutic approaches are needed. The risk to develop epilepsy, aggravate the frequency of seizures have been strongly linked to peripheral inflammatory disorders in humans as well as animal studies, with the latter demonstrating a specific association between peripheral inflammatory bowel disorders and peripheral injection of the Toll‐like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the increased seizer's frequency and their induced injuries. Understanding the exact function and role of the chemical mediators and receptors involved in the neuroinflammatory reaction could help elucidate their contribution to the pathogenesis of epilepsy.

These inflammatory markers include interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which are expressed in activated microglia and astrocytes; they trigger the complement system, nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), chemokines, and acute-phase proteins. The neural tissues and the endothelial layer of the BBB neurons are involved in these inflammatory reactions. The high-mobility-group Box 1 (HMGB1) fast release from microglia, neurons, and astrocytes after exposure to pro-convulsant insult and Toll-like receptor activation (TLR) signaling in astrocytes and neurons has been proven to be significantly involved in triggering brain inflammation and reducing the seizure threshold. The current review aims to determine the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on the epilepsy foci rather than treating the symptoms. Such understanding could be the basis of developing a new treatment that could be effective for cases refractory to the current treatment.