Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness and Practice of Infection Control Protocol Amid Covid-19 Pandemic in Private Dental Clinics in Saudi Arabia

Suhael Ahmed, Khaled Saad Hamad Alotaibi, Fatima Abdullah Binyahya, Ibrahim Abduljalil Albaijan, Nasser Ahmed Alfaleh, Saleem Issam Albaradie, Mohammed Fahd Almotawa, Nidal Tareef Alshakaki, Nada Ameen Softah, Nafeesa Tabassum, Fajr Alafaliq, Rana Saad Alasmari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4231048

Aim: The purpose of our research was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding infection control practice against coronavirus infection in various dental clinics in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: A descriptive survey was conducted amongst 200 dentists. The study was conceptualised in riyadh elm university, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and inlcuded dentists from various dental clinics across kingdom of saudi arabia in the month of november,2020.  A questionnaire consisting of 12 questions was distributed, based upon knowledge of COVID-19, transmission as well as prevention strategies that can be implemented in dental clinics for stopping the chain of outbreak of this pandemic. The data was analyzed with the help of descriptive statistics using SPSS 25 software.

Results: 71% of study participants felt the need for using N-95 masks routinely during patient treatment. An astounding number of participants (92%), believed that there have been significant changes in infection control after COVID-19 pandemic. 65% of participants believed that High volume evacuators (HVE) suction devices, as well as High efficiency articulate air (HEPA) filters, need to be used to control aerosol spread so as to prevent COVID-19 infection.

Conclusion: Dentists in Saudi Arabia showed satisfactory knowledge and positive attitude towards COVID-19. Improving dentists’ level of knowledge could be achieved through increasing their accessibility to materials provided by dental health care authorities, which specifies the best and safest approaches for dealing with patients during and after the outbreak.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Secondary Metabolites (Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity) of Amlok (Diospyros lotus L) Fruit Extracts of Jammu Region

Anjum Ayoub, Jagmohan Singh, Fozia Hameed, Muntazir Mushtaq

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4231049

Amlok (Diospyros lotus L.) fruit is growing in the hilly areas of jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir India. It is locally known as amlok. This fruit has black color and small in size and astringent taste. Analysis of the fruit was done quantitatively and qualitatively for various secondary metabolites such as total phenols, quercitin, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins with the help of various standard methods. It was analyzed that the fruit contains the abundant amount of the tannins as compared to the rest of the metabolites. The antibacterial activity of the fruit extract shows it has great potential to provide defense against wide spectrum infections because of many pathogenic organisms. This fruit can provide defense against many diseases and carcinogenic infections because it contains the higher amount of the antioxidants as reveled with the help of the antioxidant power assay viz, DPPH Scavenging activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychological State and Low Immunity during Corona Season in KSA

Manal abdulaziz Murad, Hoda Jehad Abousada, R. N. Nouran Mohammed Harazi, Ruqeeya Ali Alshaikhnasser, Hussain Hassan Alghorrab, Nashwa Nasser Alsaeedi, Adnan Abdullatif Muarrif, Kamal Bakheet Alsaedi, Reem Muhammadishag Kamal, Hakeema Abdulrazaq Alfaraj, Matooq Hasan Noah, Amani Ahmad AlMojeb, Ibrahim Zaher A Gadibalban, Rawan Awad Alsubhi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4231050

Background: In March 2020, WHO declared COVID-19 as pandemic with very high incidence of case-fatality, after that COVID-19 Pandemic was found in China, Europe and USA where these regions were the most affected areas. The new virus attack patients with low-immunity than healthier population causing many psychological conditions. In this study, we aimed to assess prevalence of patient have low immunity symptoms, determine general psychological state in corona season, and demographic factors affecting both variable.

Methodology: This is an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in kingdom of Saudi Arabia (General population) from 19/7/2020 till 25/10/2020. The study depended on online self-report questionnaire which assessing demographic factors including age and nationality besides disease-related information.

Results: We had received 228 responses to our questionnaire where three quarter of them were female (75.9%). 21.1% of the participants were between 19-25 years old while 19.7% were between 36-40 while most of the sample had bachelor (73.7%). It was found that the most common symptoms were having trouble sleeping, low energy, felling tired, having to change the diet and having asthma where 8.8% had at least one symptom, 8.3% had two symptoms and 14.2% had 3 or more symptoms. Considering psychological status, we had found that the most common symptoms reported by participants were concerning about future, the always need for naps and caffeine, afraid of getting sick, afraid of worsen health, and extreme mood change. It was found that gender had a significant effect on developing both low immunity and poor psychological status (P=0.029, 0.02) where female seems to have more low immunity and poorer psychological status than male. Age is another significant factor in determining low immunity and poor psychological status (P=0.026, 0.001) where younger participants reported more symptoms of low immunity and poor psychological than older participants where the most affected age interval was 19-25 years old.

Conclusion: we had found high prevalence of low immune status and poor psychological status which were more associated with females and younger populations. Moreover, there is a significant correlation between poor psychological status and low immune status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Self-medication Practice along with Prescribed Medicines among the Local Population of Karachi, Pakistan

Tahseen Ahmed, Altaf Ali Mangi, Waqar Ahmed, Jabbar Abbas, Bilawal Shaikh, Maryam Qazi, Rao Irfan, Arslan Ahmer, Shaib Muhammad, Syed Shafqat Ali Shah Rizvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4231051

The main theme of the study was to evaluate the usage of medicine other than their use. This is actually a problem, which was observed worldwide. It is direct associated with the patients that were using medicine to cure themselves from minor ailment without discussing with any health care professional as selection of proper medicine for any disease is the prime responsibility of health care providers. The significance of the research was to evaluate the self-medication pattern over the prescribed medicines among the local population of Karachi. So the descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted for the period of six months and participants were guided for the completion of questionnaire. Specified sample technique was used for the proper selection of participants. The average age of participants was 38.5±11.8 with minimum age of 16 and 53 was the maximum age of participant of the study. The frequent habit was taking medicines was observed mostly with age group of 24 to 36 years and mostly arts related person and businessman were taking self medication without knowing any accurate knowledge of medicines. From the prescribed medicines Steroids, antibiotics and Cetrizine were very common taken by the participants. Females participants were taking more medicines for minor ailments as compare to males. Education level and marital status were most common factors that prejudiced the risk factors awareness along with self medication among the participants. Frequency of self-medication with or without prescription was very common among the females than males. Females were using oral corticosteroids and cyprohepadine without any therapeutic need. Professional life along with marital status was considered as main pillar for the attentiveness of significant side effects associated with mal practice of taking medicine without any medical advice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence, Pattern and Monitoring of Adverse Drug Reaction in Tertiary Care Psychiatry Setting- A Hospital Based Study in South Kerala

Dhanya Dharman, S. Parimala Krishnan, K. G Ravikumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4231052

Pharmacovigilance programs usually aim to gather information on the effect of prescribed drugs in the real world rather than in groups of short-lived and carefully selected clinical trial populations. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) associated with psychiatric medications may vary among different populations. As compared with other fields, in Kerala the research related to ADRs and Prescription patterns in psychiatry is scarce. A hospital based cross sectional observational study was undertaken in the Mental Health Centre, Trivandrum.  All psychiatric drugs were closely monitor for adverse drug reaction irrespective of their psychiatric diagnosis. CDSCO Suspected adverse drug reaction reporting form was  used for the documentation of adverse drug reaction and the causality assessment was  done with naranjo scale .The severity of ADR was assessed using Hartwing scale and Preventability assessment using Modified schumock. In this study it was found the highest incident of ADR was reported with risperidone (24%) followed by valproate (20.1%), clozapine (17%) etc. The patient in psychiatry cant identify the adverse effect due to the cognitive impairment. So special attention is necessary for psychiatric patient to find out the incidence of adverse drug reaction and provide the proper management to them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Anemic Conditions during Pregnancy: A Study of Sukkur City, Sindh, Pakistan

Maryam Qazi, Abdullah Dayo, Muhammad Ali Ghoto, Mudassar Iqbal Arain, Bilawal Shaikh, Abdul Aziz Shaikh, Muhammad Umair Farooqui, Waqar Ahmed, Faraz Qurban Rajper, Rashid Ali Arbani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4231053

Background: Anemia is pathological disorder caused by mal nutrition and it is very common among feminine gender during gestational period.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women, and identify the risk factors and symptoms of anemia in pregnancy.

Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for 12 months from June 2018 to June 2019 at Sukkur Blood and Drugs donating Society Hospital in Sukkur Sindh. A total of 300 pregnant women with anemic condition were selected by purposive sampling method. Structured questionnaire was designed in order to collect nominal and ordinal information after getting consent from included patients. The collected information was interpreted by using statistical software SPSS version 24.00

Results: The result revealed that 82.3% of the women were diagnosed as anemic, categorized as mild, moderate and severe. Anemic condition was common among pregnant women with ages 26-35 years, 63.9%. Women with primary or secondary education were more prone to anemia. The pregnant women belongs to rural areas were more forwarded to anemia, 86.6%. The numbers of patients were seen more in second and thirds trimester of gestation while rate of anemia in primary gravida was 75.0% that increased to 81.8% in multigravida, and further increased to 91.5% in grand multiparity.

Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia was high in rural area of Sindh. Haemoglobin concentration was very much low in most of the pregnant female. The major cause of anemia in pregnant women was mal nutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multidrug Resistant Bacterial Profile and Patterns for Pus Isolates and Recurrent Wound Infections in Nongovernmental Hospitals of Jordan

Hashem A. Abu-Harirah, Kawther Amawi, Ammar S. Ali Deeb, Haytham M. Daradka, Nawal Fares, Anwar D. Maraqa, Audai Jamal Al Qudah, Emad Daabes

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-62
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4231054

Background: Many types of infection can cause pus Infections involving the bacteria; E.coli, so the assessment of multidrug Bacterial profile and patterns is needed to understand the source and management of these injuries.

Purpose: To determine infections and patterns toward antibiotics of pus isolates and recurrent wound infections in nongovernmental hospitals of Jordan

Methods: During period eleven months, 607 Patients were involved, out of which 128 patients had pus samples and/or recurrent wound infections. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. P value was set at <0.05.

Results: One hundred twenty eight (21.1%) out of 607 patients were identified to had pus isolates and/or wound recurrent infections 86(87%) out of 128 patients had infections with known pathogenic microbes. Microbiological culture pattern was total of 19 different pathogenic microorganisms were isolated from the participants, with mixed gram-positive and gram-negative species; percentage of 37% gram-positive aerobic bacteria and 63% gram-negative aerobic bacteria.

Conclusion: The global burden from multidrug resistant bacteria highly impacted in wound and pus-causing infections, either in hospital acquired infections or community acquired infections. The main causative agents of recurrent wound infection were Staph. aureus MRSA, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp (MDR). Gram-negative bacteria caused the most of infections by more than 67% comparing with gram-positive bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vitamin D Deficiency among Women Having Gestational Diabetes

Fehmida Parveen Memon, Ifat Baloch, Afra Rehman, Rasheeda Hingoro

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 63-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4231055

Objective: To determine the vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women presented at tertiary care Hospital with gestational diabetes.

Methodology: This case control study has been conducted at gynecology department of Liaquat University of Medical and health Sciences, during one year from 2018 to 2019. Women having diagnosed as gestational diabetes, age more than 18 years and equal quantity of non-diabetic pregnant women were included in the study. A 5ml blood sample was taken from each patient and sent to the Hospital diagnostic laboratory to assess the vitamin D level. All the data was collected via self-made proforma. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.

Results: Total 80 women with gestational diabetes and of non-gestational diabetes were studied. Mean age of the women was 34.23±12.3 years and mean gestational age was 29.34±5.7 weeks. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly high in women having gestational diabetes (P=0.0001). There was no difference in vitamin D deficiency according to occupation, residence, SES, booking status and parity.

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was significantly high in women having gestational diabetes as compared to normal women. By early assessment of vitamin D deficiency and its management can be reduce the risk of gestational diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Low Fat Diet, Almonds, Green Coffee and Mackerel Fish on Obese Rats

Shimaa M. H. Aboelnaga, Fahmida Khatoon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-89
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4231058

The present work was conducted to study the effect of low fat diet (LFD), almonds, green coffee, mackerel fish and the combination of all of them on loss of weight, lipid profile, serum glucose, leptin hormone, liver enzymes and kidney functions of obese rats.

Methods: In this research, researcher used normal male albino rats (n=42). This group of rats was divided into two major groups. The first group (n=6 rats) fed on standard diet and was considered as a group of negative control. The second group (n= 36 rat) fed high fat diet for six weeks on to induce of obesity. Rats in the second group were randomly assigned to six equal subgroups: Subgroup (1) fed on HFD (consist of 20% fat) and used as (control positive) 1; Subgroups (2) fed on LFD containing only (10% fat) and used as (control positive) 2. Subgroup The third sub-group feeds on low fat diet LFD containing (almonds, which provided the diet with 5% oil hydrogenated oils 4% and soy oil 1%). Subgroup (4) fed on LFD and treated each rat daily in this group with 3 ml green coffee. Subgroup (5) fed on LFD containing (mackerel fish, which provided the diet with 5% fat, hydrogenated oils 4% and soy oil 1%). Subgroup (6) fed on LFD containing (almonds which provided the diet with 5% oil and mackerel fish which provided the diet with 5% oil) and treated each rat daily in this group with 3 ml green coffee The obtained data were tested with one-way ANOVA (mean ± standard deviation and one-way ANOVA test) using SAS package and compared with each other using the LSD (least significant differences at P< 0.05.  

Results: Body weight gain % of rats increased significantly by feeding on a high-fat diet, also, serum "glucose, leptin hormone, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein cholesterol except HDL-c, kidney functions, liver increased in rats fed on HFD, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased, in comparison with the group of negative control group fed on basal diet.

Conclusion: Treatment of obese rats with LFDs, LFDs containing almond, LFDs containing green coffee, LFDs containing mackerel fish, and obese rats treated with all these improved all parameters.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of COVID-19 on Cardiovascular Patients and Review of Current COVID-19 Treatment Strategies

Dalal A. Alfawaz, Mohammed Alfawaz, Ali M. Almutawa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4231056

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has severely affected global health and caused a significant health burden worldwide, particularly in patients with cardiovascular insult. Worldwide, the COVID-19 confirmed cases number reached 81,658,440 cases with 1,802,206 deaths stated to the world health organization by January 1, 2021. Many risk factors, such as the elderly, diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular illness, like coronary disease, cardiomyopathy, and hypertension; put people at high vulnerability with COVID-19 infection. Many cardiovascular insults directly occur because of COVID-19 infection as myocarditis, pericarditis, heart failure, myocardial infarction, thromboembolic events, or arrhythmias. This review aims to shed light on different management modalities for COVID-19 and discuss the impact of COVID-19 on underlying cardiovascular comorbidities.  Our hope lies in the COVID-19 vaccine as the best promising plan against the pandemic with the antiviral medications. Till the availability of antiviral agents and effective vaccines, repurposing drugs therapy would continue to be the mainstream. Cardiovascular diseases may be caused by or precedent conditions in COVID-19 patients. The physicians and the medical staff should be up-to-date regarding probable complications with COVID-19.