Open Access Original Research Article

Cyclodextrin Modified Block Polymer for Oral Chemotherapy

. Pankaj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3831009

Cationic polymers have received much attention for their potential use as nonviral gene delivery agents. Under certain conditions, these polymers self-assemble with poly(nucleic acids) via electrostatic interactions and condense them into submicron size particles that can be endocytosed by cells. Many drugs are commercially available for cancer treatment but most of them lacks in terms of poor solubility thereby resulting in inappropriate treatment. This research was planned and tested to ensure the preservation of product safety in our body for enhancing bioactivity of hybrid cyclodextrine nano-capsules, wherein cyclodextrin molecules are modified with Poly(e-Caprolactone)-Poly(Ethylene Glycol) (PCL-PEG), wherein nanocapsules were prepared from cyclodextrin and further were coated with PCL-PEG for enhancing cellular uptake and interacting with biological films in order to provide drug delivery of anti-cancer agent i.e. camptothecin. The nanocapsules were then further subjected to characterization studies which comprises zeta potential, drug release profiles, in-vitro toxicity and transfection effectiveness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Safety and Awareness of Healthcare Workers During the COVID-19 Outbreak; A Cross-Sectional Study

Shaib Muhammad, Yasmeen Qureshi, Rafia Tabassum, Muhammad Saleh Khaskheli, Narendar Kumar, Jabbar Abbas, Geeta Kumari, Razia Sultana, Arslan Ahmer, Jameela Jamali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3831010

Objective: COVID-19 has affected millions of people throughout the world and due to the high rate of its spread, it is very vital to protect the people who are at the frontlines of COVID-19 positive cases. In this study, we have analyzed the level of awareness among the Healthcare Workers (HCWs) and level of preparedness by the Healthcare Authorities (HCA) for the safety of HCWs.

Study Design: Cross-sectional prospective study.

Subjects and Methods: Study was conducted online, for 3 months, from July to September 2020, at various Health Care Facilities (HCF) of Sindh, Pakistan. The survey instrument was circulated among the HCWs and a total of 419 filled forms were received and analyzed using SPSS 24.

Results: Out of 419 participants, 54.4% were male and 45.6% female. Half of the respondents were doctors (50.1%) with majority having 1-5 years (61.6%) of experience. It was found that the major sources of information of HCWs about COVID-19 was social media (80.4%) and only 18.6% of HCWs had trainings to deal with pandemics. HCA couldn’t manage to maintain adequate supply of personal protective equipment (PPE) as goggle/eye shields were available only to 20.5% HCWs, shoe covers to 24.3%, N95 masks to 28.5%.

Conclusion: We identified serious concern in the source of information but despite that the knowledge and awareness level was quite acceptable among our study respondents. However, greater efforts to be taken for training campaigns for HCWs as well as supply of PPE.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antioxidant Potential of Lutein, a Retinol Equivalent Carotenoid in Medicinal Landrace of Rice ‘Kavuni’

Suvarna Rani Chimmili, C. R. Ananda Kumar, G. Subashini, M. Raveendran, S. Robin, G. Padmavathi, J. Aravind Kumar, B. Jyothi, B. Divya, K. Sruthi, L. V. Subba Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3831011

Background: Indigenous traditional coloured rices are rich in dietary fibre, resistant starch, minerals, bioactive compounds and antioxidants like anthocyanins, luteins and phenols. Kavuni is one such brownish black medical landrace of rice considered as nutrition supplement since 400BC as it cures gastritis, peptic ulcer and also enhances blood circulation and known for its anti diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. Lutein is the only dietary oxycarotenoid found in both the macula and lens of the human eye, and acts as blocker of blue light damage, quench reactive oxygen species, prevent age related macular degeneration, cataracts, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer.

Aim: The objective of the present investigation was to characterize the lutein content and antioxidant potential of Kavuni and released mega varieties of rice (ASD 16, Swarna Sub1) and its derivatives obtained from crosses ASD 16 and Kavuni; Swarna Sub1 and Kavuni.

Methodology & Results: It was found that lutein (quantified by HPLC) was much higher in Kavuni (225 µg/100 g) compared with white rice varieties (ASD 16-15 µg/100g and Swarna Sub1-21 µg/100 g) and the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging ability (for quantification of antioxidant potential) were in the order (Kavuni >>ASD16, Swarna Sub1. Pigmented grain genotypes having higher lutein content had higher percentage of free radical scavenging activity of DPPH and lower IC50 values compared to non pigmented genotypes.

Conclusion: It is conceivable that the medicinal landraces of rice could be exploited as one of the potential sources for plant - based pharmaceutical products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development, Feasibility Assessment and in-vitro Evaluation of Diclofenac Potassium Multilayered Tablets

Jabbar Abbas, Muhammad Yousuf, Sadaf Hayat Laghari, Fahad Jibran Siyal, Shaib Muhammad, Yasmeen Qureshi, Jameela Jamali, Naseem Hyder Rajput, Zuheeb Ahmed, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3831012

Introduction: Diclofenac potassium has widely been utilized as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. To achieve rapid onset of action with prolonged therapeutic action is an immense need of time. In present project a study was conducted on preparation with physicochemical determination of diclofenac potassium tablets, this unique tablet have duel characteristics like rapid onset of action due to orodispersible coat and extended release of API due to sustained release core.

Methodology: As diclofenac potassium is not sensitive to water so wet granulation method was efficiently employed to prepare the granules of sustained release core, while direct compression was done to prepare orodispersible outer coat layer in order to give rapid release.

Results and Discussion: In evaluations granules characteristics and tablet properties were studied.  Result of both pre compression and post compression studies were coming in pharmacopeia acceptable ranges. The orodispersible layer disintegrated with in 18sec, which  gives sufficient amount of API as loading dose, in order to maintain the plasma drug concentration in therapeutic range the core will release drug in sustained manner within 10 hours in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) fluid (pH 6.8). The results of kinetic models were complying with Higuchi model.

Conclusion: In present work, a rapid release outer dispersible layer of drug was constructed on a sustained release core. Results of study gives expected outcomes to maintained initial concentration of drug which persist for long time. The combination of sodium starch glycolate, dry starch, and cross povidone exhibited promising super disintegrant efficiency while Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose K15 showed excellent sustained release properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Outpatient Prescribing Pattern of Aluminum - Magnesium Hydroxide Antacid

Nehad J. Ahmed, Menshawy A. Menshawy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 60-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3831014

Objective: The present study aims to explore the prescribing trends of aluminum hydroxide - magnesium hydroxide in the outpatient setting.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in a public hospital in Al Saih. Prescription data was collected retrospectively from electronic patients records in the outpatient section of the hospital.

Results: A total of 146 outpatients received aluminum hydroxide - magnesium hydroxide antacid between 1st of July till the end of December 2018. Most of the patients were female (61.64%). Out of the 146 prescriptions, 145 were written by residents (99.32%) and only 1 prescription was written by a specialist (0.68%). Most of the prescriptions were written by emergency department (91.79%).

Conclusion: The use of aluminum hydroxide - magnesium hydroxide was uncommon but it should be prescribed carefully and a continuous assessment of its prescribing is required to prevent its adverse events and drug interactions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Metformin and Diabetes Prevention in Patients with Prediabetes: Results from Isfahan Diabetes Prevention Study (IDPS)

Parisa Khodabandeh Shahraki, Awat Feizi, Ashraf Aminorroaya, Mahboubeh Farmani, Massoud Amini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 65-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3831013

Aim: Although, the effectiveness of metformin in diabetes treatment is well established, its preventive effect in the development of diabetes is still unclear in real world. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of metformin therapy as a single preventive agent in patients with prediabetes in a cohort study (IDPS).

Study Design: In this prospective observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Methodology: We included 410 patients with prediabetes (168 metformin user, 242 non-users), who participated in IDPS. To determine the association between metformin use and incidence of type 2 diabetes, Cox proportional hazard method, Kaplan-Meier and log Rank test were used.

Results: In fully adjusted model for all confounders, significant hazard ratio (HR) for staying prediabetes rather than returning to normal was detected in male group of metformin non-user (HR: 2·41 [95% CI 1.01-5.79]; P<0·05) and those metformin non-user who had both Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IFG & IGT) (HR: 2.13 [95% CI 1.05-4.34]; P=0·04).  There was no significant difference in terms of developing diabetes risk between metformin users and non-users.

Conclusion: This study evidenced that males and patients with IFG & IGT who had not used metformin are at higher risk to staying prediabetes than returning to normal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Significance of Pharmacist’s Role in Keeping the People Healthy in Pandemic Situations

Suruchi Singh, Satish Kumar Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3831015

As the lockdown situation progressed in COVID-19 pandemic, national pharmacy role players became major front line workers for maintaining accessibility of health care utilities. Pharmacists have been handling in-house deliveries of essentials, reducing burden on health care, along with attending patients with other ailments. Since pharmacists are representatives directly associated with public health concerns, there is need for disseminating awareness in pharmacists to maintain the health conditions of the people living in the pandemic situation. Pharmacy Colleges and representatives of public health interests were subjected to systematic literature review regarding publicly reported pharmacist positions. It is concluded that respondents having much experience are intended to perceive a pharmacist's position as being essential to health care providers relative to the individuals who have less experience. The findings of this research can be beneficial for educating pharmacists in order to achieve the goal of keeping the people healthy in the pandemic situations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Nypa Fruticans (Nipa) Palm Starch and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnONps) in Textile: Solving the Scarcity Using Local Resources

Karina Milagros R. Cui- Lim, Flyndon Mark S. Dagalea, Nelia M. Adora, Cherry I. Ultra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-89
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3831016

Nanotechnology is an emerging interdisciplinary technology that has been booming in many areas during the recent decade. The application of nanoscale materials and structures, usually ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm), is an emerging area of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this work, Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles were prepared by wet chemical method using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors and Nypa fruticans (Nipa) starch as stabilizing agent. The antimicrobial property was found effective against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. It has a clear zone of inhibition against S. aureus and   E. coli.  The scanning electron micrograph exhibited that after several washings the cloth facemask coated with nipa starch and zinc oxide still adheres to the cloth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Consequences of Population Morbidity

Artem Viktorovich Petrov, Mariia Vital’evna Panova, Vladislav Rimovich Varshavskij, Inessa Makedonovna Kalyakina, Arni Irawaty Djais, Elena Ivanovna Zatsarinnaya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 90-99
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3831017

In the modern world, the morbidity of the population plays an important role in the dynamics of economic processes. On the one hand, significant government expenditures on providing the necessary medical care and medicines to citizens directly or indirectly affect the dynamics of budget expenditures. On the other hand, state guarantees for financial support of citizens during their disability are also a costly budget item. Finally, global disasters such as pandemics certainly damage the economies of entire states in particular and the world as a whole. The purpose of the work is to consider the features of the economic consequences of population morbidity. According to the results of the study, it should be concluded that the morbidity of citizens of any country is always the reason for the state's expenses for their treatment and rehabilitation. At the same time, it is quite profitable for the state that citizens again acquire the necessary working capacity, since this directly affects the amount of taxes received by the state Treasury. At the same time, favorable working conditions significantly reduce the morbidity of the population and the occurrence of disability, which also, while reducing the cost of treatment and restoring the health of citizens, contributes to maintaining an appropriate level of taxation.

However, the morbidity of the population – the main productive force of any country-can be associated with the development of various kinds of epidemics and pandemics, when the spread of infection partially paralyzes the economy.

Outbreaks of infectious diseases can easily cross borders and threaten economic stability. The current outbreak of human coronavirus (COVID-19) is a reminder of this threat. The constant adaptation of microbes, as well as their ability to develop and become resistant to antibacterial and antiviral agents, ensures that infectious diseases will continue to be a constant and ever-changing economic threat. Consequently, the assessment of these threats is important to inform households, governments and businesses about potential economic shocks as a result of outbreaks of infectious diseases.

The purpose of the study is to determine the degree of economic consequences of population morbidity in the modern world.

The objectives of the study should include:

- identification of the impact of population morbidity on the economy of a country;

- analysis of the scale of economic consequences for countries as a result of the spread of infectious diseases;

- assessment of the possibility of reducing the negative impact of population morbidity on the economy of countries.

Open Access Review Article

Topical Corticosteroids in Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview of Their Current Status

Kusha Sharma, Abhay Tharmatt, Shivali Salooria, Rashi Sharma, Neena Bedi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3831008

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease characterized by epidermal changes with immune regulatory abnormalities. The pathogenesis of AD involves skin barrier defects, genetic factors and immune deregulation. The AD therapy includes skin hydration, anti-inflammatory agents, antibacterial medications and treatment of pruritus. Currently, topical corticosteroids (TCs) are the most frequently used drugs for the treatment of AD due to their potent immunosuppressive action. However, TCs are associated with several local and systemic side effects. The topical steroid addiction and phobia are among the major challenges with TC therapy. Over the years, efforts are being made to reduce side effects which involve adjustment of dosing, minimizing use in vulnerable areas, avoiding prolonged drug usage and application of novel drug delivery systems. The present review provides an overview of the current and upcoming delivery systems of TCs along with novel approaches being employed to improve the drug delivery in the treatment of AD.