Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Antibiotic Doped Carbon Nanoparticles Extracted from Kitchen Soot against Pathogenic Gram-negative Bacteria

. Habiba, Israf Ud Din, S. Tasleem, Muhammad Mubashir, M. Afroz Bakht

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8,
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430958

In this study carbon nanoparticles were extracted from kitchen soot and characterized by using UV/Visible spectroscopy.  Amoxicyline and vibramycin were doped on the carbon nanoparticles by mixing the solutions of the aforementioned antibiotics and carbon nanoparticles and then evaporated to dryness at 50°C. The antibacterial potential of carbon nanoparticle, antibiotics and carbon nanoparticles doped antibiotics were evaluated using Agar tub dilution method against two bacterial strain i.e. P. Aerogunis and Salmonella entrica. The result indicated that the carbon nanoparticle doped antibiotics showed marked increase in the antibacterial potential with inhibition zone of 16.2 mm against P. aerogunisa and 12.5 mm against Salmonela entrica for Vibramycin Doped CNPs. The inhibition zone of Amoxicyline doped carbon nanoparticle is 25.0 mm against P. aerogunisa and 30.0 mm against Salmonela entrica.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparision of Postoperative Complications Associated with Closed Lateral Sphincterotomy and Fissurectomy with Dorsal Sphincterotomy in Chronic Anal Fissure

Zulfiqar Bhatti, Khush Muhammad Sohu, Zahoor Hussain Bhellar, Ali Gohar Bozdar, Syed Sohail Abbas Naqvi, Zulfqar Ali Shar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430959

Background: Chronic anal fissure is clinical entity associated with significant pain and discomfort with bleeding. Different surgical options are being used nowadays to treat the ailment. Closed lateral sphincterotomy is being considered as gold standard treatment however, dorsal sphincterotomy with removal of chronic fissure is also used as treatment.

Objectives: To compare effectiveness and patient satisfactions after both surgical procedures. To identify the common complications associated both surgical procedures.

Methodology: The cross sectional conducted at Ghulam Muhammad Maher Medical College Sukkur from January 2016 to December 2019. Total 300 male patients with history of Chronic Anal Fissure for more than 6 months were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups Group-A (150 patients) underwent lateral sphinterotomy whereas in Group-B (150 Patients) dorsal sphincterotomy with fissurectomy was performed. Randomization for grouping was performed by single blind sealed envelope technique. Patients with additional anorectal disease, haemorrhoids, HIV, HBV, HCV, and female patients were excluded from study. After performing surgery in both the groups follow-up was performed for 2 years and data was analyzed.

Results: Mean age was 30.5 4±12.3 years, most common site of fissure among our study population was 6 O’ Clock (p-value=0.003), pain was seemed to be significant post-operative completion in both the groups however, both the treatment strategies appeared to be equally effective though patients in group B were more satisfied than group A.  

Conclusion: Both methods of surgeries seemed to be equally effective in treating the ailment. Recurrence after both surgeries was uncommon though pain was common postoperative complication.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Gram-negative Uropathogens Isolated in Public Hospital Establishment «Saad Guermech Saoudi Amar Hmaida» Skikda-Algeria

Mohamed Sabri Khelfaoui, Rayane Zeroug, Maroua Yousfi, Bouchra Satha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430960

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a serious world-wide health problem whose treatment becomes highly difficult due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.

Aims: Herein, a retrospective study was conducted with the aim to determine the prevalence, the identification of the bacteria responsible of UTIs, and the antimicrobial resistance profile.

Study Design: All Patient samples, including either external samples or samples taken from patients admitted to Public Hospital Establishment “Saad Guermech Saoudi Amar Hmaida” in Skikda-Algeria were used in this study for a period extending from January 2018 – March 2020.

Methodology: The identification of bacterial strains and the antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out using Analytical Profile index galleries (API) system and disk diffusion method.

Results: Among the 1203 samples, 206 (17.12%) were positive, and 997 (82.88%) were negative for bacterial growth. Regarding the pathogenic strains, 26 (12.62%), and 180 (87.38%) were found respectively, Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Among the 180 Gram negative strains, 104 (57.83%) were reported in female patients, 68 (37.72%) were in male patients, and 8 (4.45%) whose gender was not mentioned. The most representative Gram-negative strains are Escherichia coli (E. coli) (43.33%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (13.33%), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) (7.77%), Enterobacter sp (E. sp) (6.66%), since the other strains were less frequent. Moreover, 6 bacterial strains belonging to 3 genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter) were ESBLs producers with an overall prevalence of 3.33% of pathogenic strains isolated from urine. ESBLs were produced in 4.00%, 5.88%, and 6.25% of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae strains respectively.

Conclusion: E. coli was found to be the most predominant strain, while most of the Gram- negative strains were highly resistant to Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, Ampicillin, penicillin and tobramycin.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anticancer and Antimicrobial Proprieties of Carica papaya against Biochemically Characterized Clinical and Standard Microbes

Nureen Zahra, Farheen Ansari, Sumaira Shaheen, Gulshan Parveen, Rabia Rasool, Modasrah Mazhar, Qaiser Akram, Muhammad Sajid Rasheed, Qurban Ali, Arif Mailk

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430961

The bacterial pathogens have established various defense system against antimicrobial agents. The main mechanism of action of antibiotic resistance is obtained by pathogenic microorganisms, which directly involved in the diagnosis of various therapeutic plants with their significant antimicrobial properties. The current study investigated the antimicrobial and anticancer properties of Carica papaya. Fresh sample of C. papaya was collected in the native area of Punjab and selected isolate were tested against the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol, methanol extracts of C. papaya and anti-microbial activity by disc diffusion method. Anticancer activity was carried out in the HeLa cell line in above mention fractions of the extract at different concentration. The present study concluded, the extracts of the specific plants, particularly the ethanol and methanol extracts established the potential role against bacterial strain and HeLa cell line. It has also been concluded that these extracts might be implicated as natural products and serve to mediate as novel pharmaceuticals and therapeutic drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-Fabrication of ZnO-CuO Nanoporous Composite and Its Application as Nanolarvicidal Agent for Malaria Vectors

Zaccheus Shehu, Ezra Abba, Danbature Wilson Lamayi, Kennedy Poloma Yoriyo, Zainab Adamu Abubakar, Zungi Namau Kenneth, Zirmba Usiju, Amina Abubakar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430962

Bio-fabrication of ZnO-CuO nanoporous composite was successfully synthesized using Gum Arabic. The morphology, elemental composition, surface plasmon resonance and functional groups bonds of the ZnO-CuO nanoporous composite were confirmed by SEM, EDX, UV-Visible and FTIR techniques respectively. Nanolarvicidal activity of ZnO-CuO nanoporous composite was tested against 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of malaria vectors for 24 hours using different concentrations. The lethal concentrations (LC50) of ZnO-CuO nanoporous composite against 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars were found to be 8.841, 8.734, 8.963 and 10.557 mg/L respectively. Whereas, the LC90 of ZnO-CuO nanoporous composite against 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars were found to be 19.062, 28.063, 40.888 and 79.567 mg/L respectively. For all instars, the correlation coefficients were found in the range of 0.945 to 0.999 and it indicates concentration dependent larvicidal activity. It was observed that the lower the instar, the higher the larvicidal activity and conversely. Therefore,  ZnO-CuO nanoporous composite could be used as nanolarvicidal agent especially for malaria vectors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Severe Acute Malnutrition and Associated Mortality Rate in Infants in Tertiary Care Hospital of Hyderabad

Asif Nadeem Jamali, Habibullah Siyal, Zamir Ahmed Qambrani, Naseer Ahmed Memon, Salman Baig, Shahid Bilal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430963

Aims: In developing countries malnutrition is characterized as one of the major risk factors for death in children, due to improper management of cases, lack of resources and escaping the guidelines provided by WHO. However, it is also highlighted that prompt treatment and proper management can reduce the mortality rate and improve the quality of life in children. Current study is designed to investigate the frequency of SAM and its outcomes at time of discharge in tertiary care hospital of Hyderabad.

Study Design: A cross sectional study was performed.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was performed at nutritional stabilization center of pediatric department of tertiary care hospital Hyderabad from July 2019 to Jan 2020.

Methodology: Preformed proforma was designed to record the data of participants that included demographic and primary outcome variable. Hospital protocols using WHO guidelines i.e. 10 steps for in-patient care of severe malnutrition were started & followed with feeding F-75 & F-100. Data was analyzed on SPSS-19, p-value <0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: Mean age of the study participant was 13 ± 6.3 months while majority of them were male (72%). About 70% participants were below normal as per weight to height ratio. Out of recruited participants (N=273) admitted in nutritional center prevalence of severe acute malnutrition was found to be 32.6%. After admission and management protocols 91.6% recovered however, mortality was observed in 8.9% participants.

Conclusion: We conclude that effective and prompt treatment measures and appropriate management of affected patients according provided guidelines shown decrease in mortality and increased the survival rate in admitted children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Early Post-transplant Renal Functions Predict Incidence of Acute Rejection in Kidney Transplantation

Khulud Alhelal, Wejdan Almutairi, Yousef Al-Rajhi, Rakan Khalid Alfouzan, Senthilvel Vasudevan, Mahmoud Mansour

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430964

Objectives: After renal transplantation, a remarkable improvement of impaired patient’s kidney function is often observed. Preserving improved kidney function ensures long-term renal allograft survival. However, there are different risk factors; the acute rejection is the major risk factor. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine renal function within the first six months as independent variables in predicting long-term survival and incidence of acute rejection.

Methods: Fifty-three patients who underwent kidney transplantation in 2016 and 2017 in King Abdulaziz Medical City- National Guard were evaluated consecutively1 and 2-month pre-transplant up to six months’ post-transplant. Time course of changes in kidney functions; measurements of serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen(BUN), albumin, calcium, sodium and potassium were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and anion gap (AGAP) were also reported. In addition, age, anthropometric factors and causes of ESRD were analyzed.

Results: Lower level of calcium was observed in 40% of patient’s two-month pre-transplantation and 69% of patients one month before. Normalization of calcium was achieved in all patients starting from second month post-transplantation. All patients presented elevated serum potassium level in pre-transplant months, however, renal transplant normalize potassium level starting from first month. A remarkable higher level of serum BUN was observed in all pre-transplant patients followed by dramatically decreased after renal transplant for first four months and remain in normal level starting from month 5. Likewise, serum creatinine was highly elevated in all pre-transplant patients. A profound reduction in serum creatinine started from month 1 post-transplant and normalizes at month 4. Moreover, both eGFR and AGAP were kept in normal level immediately after renal transplantation. All patients with early acute rejection during mean follow-up period have a remarkable elevated level of serum creatinine and profound decrease in eGFR starting from first month. While a significant higher level of serum BUN observed in fifth month only and serum albumin in third month.

Conclusion: Significant elevation of serum creatinine and reduction in eGFR starting from first month were associated with post-transplanted patients with early acute rejection. The clinical use of eGFR and serum creatinine may aid in predicting incidence of early acute rejection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Human Health and Indoor Air Pollution in Saudi Arabia: Indoor Environmental Quality Survey

Mohd Saleem, Mohd Adnan Kausar, Fahmida Khatoon, Sadaf Anwar, Syed Monowar Alam Shahid, Tariq Ginawi, Ashfaque Hossain, Abdullah Aziz Saleh Alhammad Al Anizy, Mohammed Aiydh A. Alswaidan, Abdulrahman Saleh Aseeri, Mahammad Hamed Bin Saloom Alturjmi, Dkhel F. Abdulkarim, Mohammed Kuddus

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430965

In many aspects of life quality, bio-contaminants and indoor air quality have had catastrophic consequences, including a negative impact on human health with an increased prevalence of allergic respiratory reactions, asthma, and infectious diseases. We aimed to evaluate the quality of indoor air environment and find out the association between human health and indoor air pollution and also to assess the physical health status of a group of Saudi and non-Saudi populations during this pandemic. Also, we aimed to assess the most common health condition or symptoms associated with ventilation. A questionnaire was distributed online to test indoor air quality, ventilation status, common signs and symptoms of any allergy or mental status and their relationship to certain variables. A total of 362 respondents were included. Before living in the current home, flu or Influenza and chapped lips were more prevalent than allergies and chapped lips signs while living in the current home. (12.2% , 10.8% vs. 18.5% , 13.55% before and after respectively) Multiple colds were the second most common symptom (10.2%). Hoarse voice and headaches were the least common symptoms experienced; each constituted 4.4%. During the COVID-19 Pandemic, most respondents wore a facemask, approximately 76.5%; and almost one-third of respondents had bright natural light inside the current home (43.1%). The presence of natural light within the current home was significantly associated with symptoms experienced during living in the current house (p<0.05). Natural sunlight exposure could decrease allergic symptoms and minor health problems associated with poor ventilation and air quality indoors. In current living homes, the majority of respondents never used air purifiers (72.9 percent). In order to get attention from people to enhance the quality and ventilation mechanism of indoor air, special care and awareness of the effects of the use of air purifiers on human health is needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Modeling of Some Benzodiazole Derivatives with EGFR Protein 1M17

A. S. Sony, Xavier Suresh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430967

Aims: To study the anticancer potential of benzodiazole derivatives using molecular modeling studies.

Study Design: Molecular Dynamics simulation study.

Place and Duration of Study: Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology (SIST), Chennai, between June 2020 and August 2020.

Methodology: We studied the anticancer potential of benzodiazole derivatives using molecular modeling. Docking studies of the ligands with EGFR protein 1M17 was carried out using AutoDock.Molecular Dynamics simulation study was carried out using Playmolecule was used to verify the stability of the protein-ligand complex.

Results: Molecular docking studies showed a good binding affinity of the ligands with the protein 1m17. Benzodiazole derivative 4,6-dichloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-1,3-benzodiazole exhibited the lowest binding energy of (-6.42 kcal/mol) at the active site of EGFR (PDB code:1M17) consistent with its least inhibition coefficient (Ki =32.54 uM). Molecular dynamics simulation showed better stability of the ligand and protein complex.

Conclusion: Molecular modeling study of selected benzodiazole derivatives showed a very good binding affinity to EGFR protein 1m17. MD simulation of the best-docked ligand showed that the complex was stable. Our study demonstrated that benzodiazole derivatives can be potential anticancer drug candidates

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of HPTLC Method for Studying Stress Degradation of Aspirin in Fulvic Acid Inclusion Complex

Md. Khalid Anwer, Mohammed Muqtader Ahmed, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Mohammed F. Aldawsari, Mohd. Aamir Mirza

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 96-102
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430968

A new, precise high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the analysis aspirin (ASP) in inclusion complexes with HPβCD and fulvic acid (FA) was developed and validated as per ICH guidelines. A precoated silica gel aluminium plate 60F-254 and a mixture of solvents, toluene: ethylacetate: formic acid (5:4:1 v/v) were used as stationary and mobile phase, respectively. This developed method was found to give an excellent defined sharp peak at a retention factor (RF) value of 0.52 ± 0.001. The LOQ and LOD values were found 35.29 and 123.54 ng / spot, respectively. The spray dried inclusion complexes of ASP/HPβCD and ASP/FA in the molar ratio 1:1, were subjected for forced degradation under stress conditions, and a significant reduction of ASP degradation were noted in complexed ASP as compared to ASP alone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Evaluation of Vitamin - D Supplementation on Memory and Learning Using Different Animal Models in Albino Rat

Namrata Rajendra Pawar, Yogita Surendra Karandikar, Uma Anand Bhosale, Prachi Doiphode

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 103-110
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430969

Aim: We conducted this study with the aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D3 on spatial learning and memory in healthy young albino rat.

Study Design: Experimental evaluation.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College and General Hospital (SKNMCGH), Pune, between October 2019 to February 2020.

Methodology: All the pharmacological experiments were conducted using Wistar albino rats (n=6), weighing between 100 g – 150 g. Total 18 animals (9 male and 9 female) were screened and marked into 3 different groups (6 in each group) Control (Normal saline 10 ml/kg), Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol 1000 IU/kg) and standard (Piracetam 200 mg/kg). Drugs were administered per os for 21 days. Elevated Plus Maze (Transfer Latency), Open Field Test (Rearing, Locomotion), Radial Arm Maze (Working and Reference memory) were used as amnesic models and their parameters for evaluation of this study.

Results: After 21 days of treatment among all the three groups, Transfer Latency (p=9.55) in elevated plus maze, Working memory (p=0.454) and Reference memory (p=0.929) observed in radial 8 arm maze were non significant. In open field apparatus pellets count was significant (0.010), rest all parameters were non significant.

Conclusion: The result of study suggests that no significant beneficial effect of Vitamin D was seen on various learning models as assessed by Elevated Plus Maze, Radial Arm Maze, Open Field Test.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving the Recombinant Protein Expression of Human Galectin-3 in BL21 Bacterial Host System

Praveen Kumar Vemuri, Nikhil Reddy Varakala, Divyanshu Dhakate, Tripura Ravavarapu, Faina Philberta Dumpala, Susmita Sri Muddana, Haritha Bommepalli, Spurthi Modiboyana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 111-115
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430970

Background: Regardless of the broad explore in the territory of glycobiology concerning structure and capacity of glycans, lectins and glycosylation forms, numerous viewpoints are still left unexplored.

Aim: In this study, we analyzed the effect of shuttle vector on the secretion of human galectin recombinant protein.

Methods: The galectin was expressed in E. coli BL21 by growing the bacterial culture in SOC medium and purified by nickel-based affinity chromatography due to its His-tag.

Results: After cell lysis the protein was identified as a single 29 KDa band by 12% SDS-PAGE. Conclusion: Characterization studies clearly revealed that the purified protein was indeed galectin 3.

Open Access Original Research Article

University Students’ Perception of Ebola Virus Disease

Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Salah-Ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 132-140
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430989

Objective: The present study was conducted to appraise future healthcare providers' perceptions in medical, dental, and pharmacy students on Ebola virus disease (EVD) in university in Malaysia.

Methodology: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between healthcare students from the medical pharmacy and dental faculties using a self-developed and pre-validated research tool. A stratified convenient sampling technique was used to calculate the sample size. SPSS version 24 was used for data analysis.

Results: A total of 273 future healthcare providers from the medical pharmacy and dental faculty participated in the current study.  The medical and pharmacy student shows move appropriate perception as compared to the dental students. Gender does not have any significant impact on future health care providers on Ebola virus disease.

Conclusion: The present study concluded varied reactions from the future health care providers regarding the perception of EVD in a university in Malaysia.

Open Access Review Article

A Current Review on Analytical Tools for Determination of New Oral Antidiabetic Drugs, Empagliflozin, Linagliptin and Biguanides in Bulk Materials, Pharmaceuticals & Biological Samples

S. Baokar, K. Mane, A. Bhujbal, S. Pharande, G. Patil, R. Patil, P. Jain, A. Pandey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430966

Worldwide the R & D divisions of Pharma industry are actively involved in the development of new therapeutic agents. These agents may be either new entities or partial structural modification of the existing one. The recent FDA statistics represent that the average number of drug filings are increasing every year in the thrust areas like anti-cancer agents, anti-diabetic, antibiotics, cardio-vascular drugs, respiratory drugs etc. Sodium glucose co-transporter-2(SGLT-2) inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and biguanides are effective oral anti-diabetic agents used in treatment of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Therefore, the necessity to explore and compare the existing analytical and bioanalytical assays used for determination of such drugs either single or in combination is crucial. Many methods were reported in the literature for the bio-analysis and analysis of four novel gliptins combinations, empagliflozin-linagliptin, empagliflozin-metformin HCl, linagliptin-metformin HCl, empagliflozin-linagliptin-metformin HCl combination with application on Glyxambi®, Synjardy®, Jentadueto®, Trijardy® XR tablets respectively. Furthermore, this review offered an overview of different methods used for determination of every drug alone as empagliflozin from SGLT-2 inhibitors, linagliptin from DPP-4 inhibitors and metformin from biguanides in a tabulated comparative way. Moreover, the current review emphasizes the most common stability indicating assays to be of interest to the analysts in the area of drug control. This review helps in understanding the further need for the development of analytical methods for the estimation of such drugs.

Open Access Review Article

Prospective Aspects of Regeneration in Orthopaedics: A Review

Amit Lakhani, Ena Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 116-125
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430971

Musculoskeletal diseases affect millions of people worldwide and are one of the leading causes of long-term pain and physical disability. Traditional treatment methods for promoting healing and repair has always been consider gold standard, But the emergence of new therapeutic approaches aims to regenerate or repair musculoskeletal tissue. The recognition of a regenerative therapy in orthopaedics requires the demonstration of new Bone, Cartilage, ligament, tendons, healing of soft tissues injuries and Overuse conditions like plantar fasciitis or tennis elbow . Regenerative therapy boosts the body’s ability to use its repair systems to heal diseased or damaged cells after a severe injury, or other degenerative condition. A diversity of regenerative strategies have been evaluated, including distraction osteogenesis, bone grafts and bone substitute materials, bone matrix proteins, growth/differentiation factors, combined therapies and, more recently, tissue‐engineering approaches. This review aims to evaluate the current status of the therapies available and to discuss the challenges that must be faced in order to achieve predictable orthopaedic  regeneration in clinical practice.

Open Access Review Article

Vasodilators, Enhancers of Prevention through Exercise of COVID-19?

Bogdan- Alexandru Hagiu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 126-131
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3430972

The role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in SARS-CoV-2 virus infection and disease progression is complex, and the interaction with exercise is being investigated. However, the virus binds to ACE2. The paper hypothesizes that exceeding the lactic threshold during exercise would cause, through hypoxia, over expression of ACE2. Vasodilators would prevent hypoxia and implicitly this fact. To the complexity of the phenomenon is added the possibility of preventing severe forms of COVID-19 through mitochondrial biogenesis induced by exercise. As a result, the paper examines the ability of antihypertensives used in combination with exercise to treat cardiovascular disease to prevent ACE2 over expression and to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Future research is needed, but it is worth mentioning that some such hypertensives have been proposed for the treatment of COVID-19.