Open Access Original Research Article

Advanced Platelet- Rich Fibrin (A-PRF): A Gender Based Study on Cell Population

Harini Kumaran, Radhika Arjunkumar, R. Abilasha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830864

Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) is a natural fibrin-based biomaterial prepared from an anticoagulant-free blood harvest without any artificial biochemical modification that allows obtaining fibrin membranes enriched with platelets and growth factors. PRF is superior to other platelet concentrates like Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) due to its ease and inexpensive method of preparation and also it does not need any addition of exogenous compounds like bovine thrombin and calcium chloride. A blood sample of 10 individuals with healthy periodontium and no systemic diseases was collected and centrifuged to get platelet rich fibrin. Platelet rich fibrin is studied histologically to compare the ability of tissue regeneration and wound healing capacity between males and females. Neutrophils and lymphocytes are increased in A-PRF compared to S-PRF. Neutrophils and lymphocytes are proportionately more in males than females in both A-PRF and S-PRF. Monocytes are similar in A-PRF & S-PRF. Cells are more concentrated in S-PRF. Cells are more widely distributed in A-PRF. Fibrin is more dense in A-PRF compared to S-PRF. Hence A-PRF especially in males could have a greater potential of tissue regeneration and wound healing capacity. Although it is not conclusive due to limited sample size, further increase in sample size can throw more light on the clinical implications. The difference in regenerative potential of platelet concentrates can pave the way for specialised and focussed treatment strategies resulting in more favourable patient outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Candidiasis Infection & Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern at Tertiary Care Hospital, Jaipur

Falguni Sharma, Ved Prakash Mamoria, Ekadashi Rajni Sabharwal, Richa Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830865

Background: Candida species are among the most common fungal pathogens. They are ubiquitous yeasts found on plants and form the microbiota of the alimentary tract of mammals and the mucocutaneous membranes in humans.

Methods: A total of 90 clinical samples were collected from Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur over a period of one year. Primary identification is done by the direct smear examination by Gram’s staining and KOH mount and then further sub-cultured on SDA media. 

Results: Out of 90 clinical specimens collected, most common form of Candidiasis seen was Candiduria type followed by blood cultures, swab, Endotracheal tube, sputum and Bronchialveolar lavage. The maximum number of patients were found in the age group of 21-30 years, followed by 51-60 years. Out of 90 patients, 48 (53.3%) were males and 42 (46.6%) were females. C. tropicalis (44.4%) was the predominant species followed by C. albicans and other species of Candida. Among 90 samples, 32% were Candida albicans and remaining 68% were Non albicans Candida species.

Conclusion: The study found that C. tropicalis was sensitive against Micafungin & Caspofungin, showing a 100% sensitivity. Candida albicans showed 100% sensitivity against Flucytosine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Dried Ginger Mediated Iron Nanoparticles

Sai Sree Lasya Ganta, M. Jeevitha, S. Preetha, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830866

Nanotechnology is a branch of science and technology relating to the matter on the atomic and molecular scale in the size range between 1-100 nm. Iron nanoparticles have diverse diagnostic and potential therapeutic applications with unique magnetic and catalytic properties and potent biological activities. The present study aimed to analyse the anti-inflammatory activity of iron nanoparticles synthesized from dried ginger. The synthesized iron nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of albumin denaturation assay. The nanoparticles showed maximum absorbance at 360 nm and revealed potent anti-inflammatory effect with maximum of 83.5% inhibition at lowest concentration of 50 µl and thus can be used as an anti-inflammatory agent in various inflammatory diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude of Future Health Care Providers Regarding Treatment and Management of Mental Health Disorders

Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Salah-Ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830867

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the attitude of future health care providers regarding the treatment and management of mental health disorders (MHDs).

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenience sampling method. A self-developed and pre-validated tool was used to collect data from students studying in three health care faculties of a university in Malaysia. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 24.0 was used to analyze the data.

Results: Out of the total study participants, males were 104 (36.6%) and females were 180 (63.4%) in the study. For the race variable the Malays students were 7 (2.5%), Chinese students 212 (74.6%), Indians students 60 (21.2%), and others 5 (1.7%).

Conclusion: Overall positive attitude was observed among the studied cohort of future health care providers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Two Irrigation Solutions in the Surgical Removal of the Mandibular Third Molars- A Randomized Trial

P. Aditya Reddy, P. U. Abdul Wahab, V. Jagadish, P. Senthil Murugan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830868

Aim: To evaluate the effect of postoperative irrigation with chlorhexidine saline irrigation and metronidazole saline irrigation on non-inflammatory complications after the extraction of lower third molar under local anesthesia.

Materials and Methods:  In this study a total of 120 patients with age range 18-80 years who had impacted tooth which required surgical removal were included. The patients were separated into two groups using Block Randomization to avoid sampling bias. Group A and Group B had 60 patients each. Group A patients were irrigated with 1% Chlorhexidine Saline and Group B patients were irrigated with 1% Metronidazole Saline during the surgical removal of their mandibular third molars. The patients were measured for the pain, swelling and checked for dry socket after 7 days of procedure.

Results: The mean age of the patient was 28.08 + SEM years. Out of three parameters (Pain, Swelling, Dry Socket) assessed, only alveolar osteitis showed a statistical significant difference between 1% Metronidazole and 1% Chlorhexidine with p value 0.041(>0.05). Trismus and pain did not differ significantly (p>0.05) in the two groups with p-values of 0.431 for trismus and 0.750 for pain.

Conclusion: Metronidazole had better efficacy in alveolar osteitis, while in the other parameters viz, pain and mouth opening there was no difference in the two treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness on Fumigation of Operation Theaters among Dental Undergraduates

M. Pooja Umaiyal, Dhanraj Ganapathy, Ashok Velayudhan, Kirankumar Pandurangan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830869

Disinfectants play a vital role in global infection control as a crucial weapon against the transmission of nosocomial pathogens/infections combating global disease outbreak. Because of the multifactor causation of infections the environment of operation theatre plays a great role in the onset and spread of infections. As in this advancing medical era, the microbial contamination of the hospital environment, especially the operating theatre, intensive care units had continued an increased prevalence of nosocomial infection. The people who are at risk do not only involve the patients but the health professions including the nurses as well. The aim of this study was to provide and assess knowledge on fumigation of operation theatres among the dental undergraduates. A cross-sectional study was conducted online with a pre-structured questionnaire containing 10 questions among the 100 undergraduates. Persistent data were extracted and analyzed using SPSS software by IBM. A total of 100 undergraduates attended the online survey among which 78.8% were interns followed by 12.12% and 9.1% of third years and final year dental undergraduates respectively. The most commonly used fumigants opted by the participants were predominantly of formaldehyde with 89% followed by phosphine 9%. Regarding the methods of fumigation, awareness on the electric boiler fumigation method and potassium permanganate method was predominantly high among the interns with 58.9% and 84.62% respectively. Within the limits of this study, formaldehyde was the predominantly opted type of fumigant. The potassium permanganate method of fumigation was predominantly known among the participants when compared to the electric boiler fumigation method. However, the majority of participants were unaware of the emerging compounds named Virkon and Bacillocid Rasant. These were assessed along with other factors like awareness of ammonia neutralization and also the risk involved in the fumigation process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antifungal and Antioxidant Effects of Qutran (Wood Tar) from Olea europaea Subsp. Cuspidate

Nehad M. Gumgumjee

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830870

Qutran oil (Olea europaea) extracted as medicinal plants extracted has a great activity against four fungistrains. Aspergillus (flavus, fumigatus, niger) and Candida albicans throughout using agar well diffusion in our investgation. Results showed that, tar oilhas antifungal effects against studied strains. Inhibition growth rate was from 16.33 to 46.00 mm. and also has positive activities against investagated organisms more than traditional antibiotics either amphoteracin B or Nystatin. A. fumigatus was mainly susceptible fungi followed by A. niger while A.  flavus has the  most resistant fungi with inhibition zone (16.33 mm). Wood tar oil, Olea europaea, given a high DPPH radical scavenging activity 79.10% compared to ascorbic acid.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Local Ice Packs with Local Anaesthetics for Decreasing the Pain of Injection during a Dental Procedure

Nauma Hafeez, Dinesh Prabu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830871

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of different possible and non-pharmacological techniques in eliminating the discomfort of local anaesthesia injection during dental procedures.

Introduction: Dental anxiety and fear of needles are one of the most common problems seen by dental practitioners; several methods are currently used to lower the discomfort of local anaesthesia injection during dental procedures. The desensitization of injection sites is one of the recommended strategies. Among chemical anaesthetic topical agents that are effective but might have allergic side effects, using some non-pharmacological and safe techniques might be useful.

Materials and Methods: Randomly chosen patients receiving LA underwent pre-injection intervention that included heat, cold and pressure. This was compared with a control of no pre-injection intervention. Pain score in ice and LA spray pre-injection intervention. It clearly shows that the pain levels in the LA spray technique are higher than those in the Ice technique.

Results: Comparing the pain score of ice as a pre-injection intervention between males and females it was found that males have lower pain scores than females.

Conclusion: This study shows a significant advantage of the non-pharmacological method over the pharmacological method. Hence further research could help standardize ice application pre-injection for a more nontoxic and natural method of reducing pain during an LA injection. It can also prove beneficial when LA does not work due to an acidic environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Traits and Protective Impact of Vorinostat against Cisplatin Induced Hepatoxicity in Rats

Hala Salah Abdel Kawy Eweis, Omnyah Mohammad Omar Bashraf, Ahmed Shaker Ali, Soad Shaker Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830872

Background and Aim: Cisplatin "cis diamminedichloroplatinum [II] (CDDP) is the most widely used drug in cancer chemotherapy and hepatotoxicity is one of its major side effects. Vorinostat (VST) has been recognized to have an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect in low doses. The present study aimed to explore the potential protective effects of low dose VST against CDDP induced-liver toxicity in male Wistar rats.

Methods: The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (10 rats each); I-control group, II-CDDP group (7.5 mg/kg I.P. single dose 5 days before the end of the experiment) III-, VST group (15 mg/kg/day by gastric gavage for 28 days) and IV-CDDP + VST group (as in group II & III). Blood and livers samples were collected at the day 28th for biochemical and histopathological examinations.

Results: Administration of CDDP significantly decrease hepatic GSH levels and increase serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and hepatic MDA, p53, TNF-α, and NF-κB levels compared to control. Pretreatment with VST significantly attenuated all unfavorable changes in these parameters. Histopathological analysis showed that VST significantly decreased liver inflammatory and degenerative changes induced by CDDP. VST also significantly increased Bcl-2 and decreased Caspas-3 immunoexpression in hepatic tissues.

Conclusion: VST alleviates CDDP induced hepatic toxicity in rats by modulating MDA, p53, TNF-α, and NF-κB. It also significantly increased Bcl-2 and decreased Caspase-3.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Submucosal Injection of Dexamethasone and Triamcinolone Acetonide for Control of Postoperative Pain after Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Surgery- A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Yandeti Srinivasulu, Abdul Wahab, P. Senthil Murugan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830873

The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of submucosal injection of dexamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide on postoperative pain, swelling, occurring after impacted mandibular third molar surgery. A total of 150 patients with asymptomatic, unilateral, impacted mandibular third molar, and without any systemic disease were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups randomly, one group dexamethasone, and the second group triamcinolone acetonide third group placebo. Dexamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide were injected into submucosa at about 0.5 cm to 1 cm above the surgical area submucosally. Pain evaluation was performed by visual analog scale (VAS).There were statistically significant differences between the three groups on the different days of the postoperative period. The effect of triamcinolone acetonide works postoperatively and the effect of triamcinolone acetonide on trismus and pain was better than other groups. There was no significant difference between the effects of dexamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide regarding postoperative complications. The submucosal injection of dexamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide might be an effective treatment following impacted mandibular third molar surgery, and triamcinolone acetonide could be applied as an alternative to dexamethasone for reducing pain post operatively for impacted mandibular third molar surgery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Levosalbutamol/Ipratropium Combination in Early Bronchodilator Reversibility

Ozgun Iyigun, Tugce Uzar, Irem Karaman, Adem Dirican, Sevket Ozkaya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 87-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830874

Objective: The bronchodilator test is a useful method for measuring the changes in lung capacity with spirometry after inhaling a short-acting bronchodilator drug to diagnose patients with obstructive lung disease. Although its liquid form was available, the inhaler form of levosalbutamol is a relatively new short-acting bronchodilator. To measure the efficacy of levosalbutamol in acute bronchodilator reversibility, in this study, we aimed to compare the effects of salbutamol and new levosalbutamol/ipratropium combination on early reversibility and FEV1 changes observed in bronchodilator tests.

Methods: Bronchodilator test results of forty-two patients who were selected according to the inclusion criteria were retrospectively analyzed. The results of spirometry analysis were evaluated for twenty-four patients who received salbutamol (Group I) and eighteen patients who received levosalbutamol/ipratropium combination (Group II). Reversibility levels were evaluated as the absolute and percentage changes in FEV1.

Results: The changes of absolute and percentage values of mean FEV1 were 159±118 mL, 12.2%±11.4% in salbutamol (Group I) group and 233±191mL, 18.8%±15.6% in levosalbutamol / ipratropium (Group II) combination (p=0.025 and 0.048, respectively). Although no significant difference was observed in the reversibility results, Group II showed significantly improved FEV1 values compared to Group I.

Conclusion: To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that the combination of inhalation therapy with levosalbutamol and ipratropium bromide is more beneficial than salbutamol alone in terms of FEV1 improvement in bronchodilator test. We suggest that this combination can be a good candidate for utilization in diagnostic bronchodilator tests since it proved a specific higher improvement in FEV1 values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Future Healthcare Providers’ Knowledge about Ebola Virus Disease: A Private University Students’ Perspective

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Salah-Ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 93-101
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830875

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the knowledge of future healthcare providers regarding the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in a private university.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenience sampling method. A self-developed and pre-validated tool was used to collect data from students studying in three health care faculties of a university in Malaysia. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 24.0 was used to analyze the data.

Results: More female students 170 (62.3%) participated in the present study than the male students 103 (37.7%), out of a total of 273 studied students. The majority of the final year students had an adequate knowledge towards EVD than the pre-final year students.

Conclusion: Overall appropriate and good knowledge was observed among the studied future healthcare providers. The present study concluded that pharmacy students had better knowledge regarding EVD than the rest of the studied students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Physiological Effects and Plasmid Stability of JM109 Host System

Praveen Kumar Vemuri, Shaik Mohammad Anjum, Lakshmi Saranya Medida, P. V. Hemanth Sai, Mahathi Gummavajjala, Braja Kishori Panigrahi, Swati Dash, Swati Senapati

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 102-108
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830876

Objective: The purpose of the study delineates the growth and plasmid stability of E. coli JM109 host system.

Methods: Different concentrations of drugs, chemicals and various frequency of radiations were subjected to the host system to verify the colony forming units along with plasmid concentration and stability.

Results: Among chemicals, acridine orange showed highest effect on growth of DH5a, while among the drugs, dantron showed maximum effect on the growth of the organism. Radio frequency of 2GHz and low intensity microwave radiation were recorded as highest inhibitory effects. However, there is no significant effect in growth was observed in exposure to UV rays. Conclusion: The present work discussed that, the effect of drugs, chemicals, radio frequency and microwave radiation have a huge effect not only on growth of organism but also concentration and stability of plasmid.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception among Future Healthcare Providers about Treatment and Management of ALS

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Salah-Ud-Din Khan, Eldowaik Mohamed Salah Saad, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 109-116
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830877

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the perception of future healthcare providers regarding Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in a private medical university.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenience sampling method. A self-developed and pre-validated tool was used to collect data from students studying in three health care faculties of a university in Malaysia. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 24.0 was used to analyze the data.

Results: A total of 268 healthcare students from three faculties (medical, pharmacy and dental) participated in the current study More female students 183 (68.3%) participated than the male students 85 (31.7%) in current study.

Conclusion: Overall appropriate perception was observed among the studied future healthcare providers. The present study concluded that pharmacy students had more positive perception regarding ALS than the rest of the participants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Urinary Tract Infection among Diabetic Patients in Abakaliki Metropolis

Stella Chinenye Kama, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, M. N. Alo, Kingsley Chinedum Ochei, Uchenna Modestus Ezugwu, Michael Odo, Mabel Ikpeme, Chukwulete Okafor Ukeekwe, Augustine Amaeze Amaeze

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 117-121
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2830878

The investigation of urinary tract infection (UTI) among diabetic patients 15-51 years and above was assessed using 100 mid-stream urine specimen with the objective of isolating and identifying different types of bacteria and their respective frequencies among diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic at Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. A urine culture was performed combined with a full report of urine to establish the diagnosis. The result showed that the majority of bacteria in urinary tract infections were in 27-32 years of age group (71.4%) and lowest in 15-20 years age group (0%). The predominant bacteria isolates and their percentage occurrences include; Escherichia coli (39.13%), Klebsiella pneumonia (21.74%), Proteus (8.69%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.69%), Streptococcus (8.69%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.52%), Enterococcus faecalis (4.25%). There was a high prevalence of the isolated organisms in female (47.7%) compared to males (36%). It follows that most predominant agent of UTI in diabetic patients in Abakaliki Metropolis is Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumonia.