Open Access Case Study

A Case Report of COVID-19 in Yemen: Detailed Clinical Observations

Khaled M. Alakhali, Sultan M. Alshahrani, Yaser Mohammed Al- Worafi, Lyna Irawati

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630832

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. We reported a 59-year-old Yemeni physician who was treated at home with complaints of COVID-19 symptoms. After receiving the treatment according to the COVID-19 guidelines established in Yemen, the patient made a slow recovery from 8 May 2020 to 28 May 2020. In conclusion, COVID-19 has a complicated clinical course and poor prognosis. Nevertheless, early aggressive treatment with an appropriate protocol could improve patient outcomes. However, in COVID-19, the thyroid gland plays a role in the immune system and medical professionals should consider assessing the thyroid gland in COVID-19 cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Emergency Drugs and Their Usage among Dental Professionals

Ramvihari Thota, Senthilnathan Periasamy, N. Mahathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630833

Effective management of an emergency in the dental office is ultimately the dentist’s responsibility. The lack of training and inability to cope with medical emergencies can lead to tragic consequences and sometimes legal action. Around 126 responses were collected from different dental professionals including graduates and clinicians through questionnaire surveys regarding emergency medications and their usage. The extent of treatment by the dentist requires preparation, prevention, and then management, as necessary. Prevention is accomplished by conducting a thorough medical history with appropriate alterations to dental treatment as required. The most important aspect of nearly all medical emergencies in the dental office is to prevent, or correct, insufficient oxygenation of the brain and heart. For which the dental professionals should be with a thorough understanding of the medical emergencies. Life-threatening emergencies can occur anytime, anywhere, and to anyone. Such situations are somewhat more likely to occur within the confines of the dental office due to the increased level of stress which is so often present. Awareness of emergency drug use among dental professionals needs to be improved and updated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti Psychotic Evaluation and GC-MS Analysis of Cassia occidentalis Leaves

D. Suchitra, D. Kilimozhi, B. A. Vishwanath, Venkatesan Natarajan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630834

Aim: To evaluate the effect of an active fraction from Cassia occidentalis leaves on Wistar rats against psychosis were investigated.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Aditya Bangalore Institute of Pharmacy Education and Research, Bangalore, India between June -2019 to July – 2020.

Methods: For the assessment of neuroleptic activity of the Cassia occidentalis leaves with different antipsychotic animal models, Chloroform and ethanol extract (200 were used for the study with different animal models. The extract showing higher anti psychotic activity was subjected to column chromatography and led to the isolation of an active fraction and examined in GC-MS analysis.

Results: A significant decrease of amphetamine-caused stereotype and conditioned avoidance reaction turned into found with extract treated animals as in comparison to control. Phencyclidine induced weird sample of locomotor activity and social withdrawal test in test extracts does no longer proven any significant activity as in comparison to control. Minor symptoms of catalepsy have been seen extract-treated group and decreased dopamine level in the frontal cortex and corpus striatum in comparison to the control group. GC-MS evaluation was identified two active principles present in the eluted fraction.

Conclusion: The study revealed that the ethanol extract of Cassia occidentalis may possess the property to alleviate the positive symptoms of psychosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Ameliorative Effects of Spirulina in Propylthiouracil Induced Hyperlipidaemia, Liver and Kidney Toxicity in Rats

Eman M. Ragheb, Buthaina M. Aljehany

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630836

Background: Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a drug widely used in the management of hyperthyroidism. The drug was observed to cause hepatitis and fulminant liver failure.Spirulinais documented to exhibit several therapeutic effectsincluding hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and antioxidant activities.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the nutritional value of Spirulina,and to examine its  ameliorative effects against PTU-induced hypothyroidism associated with hyperlipidemia, liver, and kidney toxicity in rats.

Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out on 50 rats (5 groups, n = 10). Hypothyroidism was induced in 40 ratsvia injecting 10 mg/kg/day PTUfor 6 weeks.

Results: The results of this study showed that Spirulina contains 57.30 % of its dry weight proteins while it contains only 8.2% of its dry weight fats. It contains several minerals and vitamins (E and β-carotene).Spirulina increases the final body weight, food intake, and body weight gain % values compared to PTU rats. The Alga increased FT3 and FT4 levels, while decrease TSH level compared to PTU rats. Spirulina significantly decreased serum liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) and serum kidney function markers (creatinine and urea) compared to PTU rats. Besides, it reduced serum lipid profile markers (TC, TG, and LDL-C) and increased HDL-C. The Alga reduced the lipid peroxidation product and increased glutathione peroxidase concentrations.

Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the protective role of Spirulina versus PTU associated hypothyroidism, hyperlipidemia, hepatic, and nephrotoxicity. The antioxidant impact of Spirulina may elucidate its defensive effect against various PTU toxicities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Anti Microbial Activity of Dose Dependent Silver Nanoparticle Preparation, Iodophor and Chlorhexidine against Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Strains

Rajasri Pradeep, N. P. Muralidharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630837

Iodophor, chlorhexidine and silver nanoparticle preparation were tested against Extended spectrum beta lactamase strains (ESBL strains) in this study. This was done in order to compare the antibacterial activities of 5% iodophor, 4% chlorhexidine and silver nanoparticle preparation. A major problem for chemotherapy of bacterial agents in today’s world is the development of multi drug resistance. ESBL is one of the most common problematic multidrug resistant pathogens. Beta lactamase are enzymes which are produced by certain kinds of bacteria. They have the ability to breakdown the active ingredient in certain common antibiotics and thus making them ineffective. Iodophor and chlorhexidine are chemical disinfectants which show antimicrobial activity.  Iodine is said to be one of the most lethal agents that enters the cell and inhibits synthesis of proteins. Iodophors are less toxic and they do not irritate the skin when used for disinfection. Chlorhexidine is also a commonly used antiseptic and they are very commonly used as a disinfectant before surgical procedures and for sterilisation procedures. Silver nanoparticle, another component tested against ESBL strain in this study is a biological preparation. Many studies have described the antimicrobial properties of silver and it is proven to be a powerful bactericidal agent as it can effectively cross biological membranes. Although considered to be toxic at high concentrations in human beings, less than 1% concentration of silver nanoparticle preparation is used for controlling bacteria in dental therapies, wounds, burns and catheters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Awareness about Anticancer Antibiotics among Dental Students

Kalaivani Natarajan, Dhanraj Ganapathy, R. Subhashree

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 60-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630839

Cancer is considered to be one of the major threats throughout the world. Treatment for cancer involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgeries. Different groups of drugs are used for chemotherapy. Anticancer antibiotics are such groups that act against tumor cells that are in a phase of continuous division and do not harm the cells in the resting phase. This study was a question-based survey. A questionnaire about anticancer antibiotics, its types, it's uses, and the clinical scenario was administered to a group of dentists. The questionnaire had a set of questions and corresponding options, the participants had to choose one among the options. The questions were simple and easy. The results obtained were collected and tabulated. The participants were of equal ratio with 50 male and 50 female participants.  About 57.1% of the participants were not aware about anticancer antibiotics. As dentists, it is important to know how to diagnose oral cancer, and the treatment options available for those patients. In this study, we could see that the participants’ knowledge about anticancer antibiotics was less than adequate. Proper training and conferences should be conducted to improve their knowledge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness and Attitudes Regarding Breast Self-Examination and Breast Cancer among Females in Alkharj

Saad M. Alshahrani, Alanoud Almutiran, Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630840

Aim: A large proportion of females diagnosed with progressed phases of the disease, which can be related to knowledge deficiency about screening importance. This study aimed to assess the awareness and attitudes about breast self-examination and breast cancer among females in Alkharj.

Methodology: This study was conducted using a self-administered survey that was adapted from previous studies conducted in Northeast Nigeria and Jordan. The data were collected using excel software and the descriptive data were represented as frequencies and percentages. Using Raosoft sample size calculator, the recommended sample size was 200.

Results: The majority of the respondents were in the age level between 20-39 (71.75%). Approximately 89% of the respondents said that they are aware of breast cancer but social media is the main source of their information (76.82%). About 54% of the females who filled the survey said that they heard about breast self-examination but without practicing it.

Conclusion: Females in Alkharj had good knowledge about BSE and breast cancer but social media is the main source of their information. Moreover, a significant percentage of females don’t practice BSE.

Open Access Original Research Article

KAP Survey on Endodontic Irrigants and Its Deleterious Effects

R. Preety, S. Delphine Priscilla Antony

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 78-89
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630841

The aim is to assess how aware the dental students are about endodontic irrigants and the deleterious effect. Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation protocol is very important as it determines the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Cytotoxicity of root canal irrigants is essential due to their close contact with host tissues. The study aimed to assess how aware the dental students are about the deleterious effects of endodontic irrigants. A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental students in January 2020. The survey was made on the app survey planet and a questionnaire was administered to 100 dental students about their awareness of cytotoxicity of irrigants in endodontics. The data was collected and put into bar charts in SPSS version 20 by IBM for statistical results. It is observed 38% were interns, 33% were final years and 29% were third years. 90% were aware of what irrigants are, 86% were aware of the types of irrigants, 76% were aware of the cytotoxicity of irrigants, 49% used sodium hypochlorite, 21% used chlorhexidine, 10% used MTAD, 8% used citric acid and 12% have used all of the above. 65% are aware of the duration of irrigants in canals. 59% think irrigants can be used in a previously treated tooth, 20% disagree and 21% are not sure. A p-value of 0.000 was obtained which is statistically significant as p<0.05. In vitro cytotoxicity tests are usually carried out for new materials before applying them clinically. These irrigating solutions should be used at lower concentrations to enhance cell viability and protect the tissues from toxicity damage, irrespective of their increased efficacy at higher concentrations. Through this study, it was evident that students are not fully aware of the deleterious effects of endodontic irrigants though they are used daily. The awareness of the concentration and type of irrigant to be used should be more emphasized during theory classes so that the same can be followed during clinical procedures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Selective Brands of Diclofenac Potassium Tablets Available in Pakistan

Jabbar Abbas, Arslan Ahmer, Muhammad Yousuf, Shaib Muhammad, Durr-e-Shahwar Malik, Sadaf Hayat Laghari, Fahad Jibran Siyal, Yasmeen Qureshi, Hetesh Kumar, Naveed Hussain, Naseem Hyder

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 90-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630842

The purpose of present effort was to conduct physiochemical evaluation of miscellaneous commercially available diclofenac potassium 75 mg tablets in the local market of Sindh, Pakistan. Further comparison was made among their different parameters. In study seven brands tagged as RB1 to RB7 were evaluated for diameter, thickness, disintegration time, and assay content and dissolution profile. Obtained results of all brands conformed to the official standard specification for disintegration test, Assay Content. The attained release rate profile during dissolution study revealed that all brands achieved more than 80% in sixty minutes. The spectrophotometric analysis for assay content of all brands was within 90%-110% which in good agreement with specified in the Unites States Pharmacopoeia. In the current study all the assessed products could be regarded as being chemically similar, while no product is found as a false product, these all brands can be used alternatively. The used spectrophotometric evaluation is very simple, reasonable, and easy to adopt for analysis and could be used in routine analysis of diclofenac potassium tablets, particularly in the unavailability of advanced equipment’s just like HPLC, LCMS & GC etc. which is not easily available and accusable in many institutions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Peppermint Oil among Sleep Apnea Individuals

C. Jayadharani, R. Gayatri Devi, A. Jothi Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-101
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630843

Sleep disturbance or disruption is common among patients within the age limit 25-45. They often feel tired during the day time. During wakefulness which also causes sleep problems. Sleep disturbance associated with the sense of well-being, health, emotion regulation, and productivity, memory and cognitive functions. The main aim of this study is to prove the impact of peppermint oil on sleep apnea. The sample size of this study was 25 individuals and they were selected randomly. The peppermint oil is taken in a few amounts and massaged in the forehead while before sleeping. They were instructed to apply 2-3drops of oil on their forehead or spray on the pillow before going to bed. This has to be followed for 30 days. The sleeping hours and sleeping disturbances were recorded before and after using oil inhalation. Before the use of peppermint oil the sleeping hours was an average of 6.4±0.82 and after the use of peppermint oil the sleeping hours increased to an average of 7.1±1.03. Before the use of peppermint oil Sleep disturbances were of average 3.3±1.02 and after the use of peppermint oil the sleeping disturbances have been decreased to an average of 2.1±0.92. Data was collected and analysed using statistics. Peppermint oil has an effect on sleep apnea and it helps to overcome. From this study, it can be seen that a positive perception has been obtained towards the population.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Azithromycin Prescribed Interactions’ at the Outpatient Setting

Nehad J. Ahmed, Altaf Ali Mangi, Menshawy A. Menshawy, Ziyad S. Almalki, Mohammed A. Alhajri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 102-107
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630844

Aims: The present study was designed to identify and assess the severity of azithromycin interactions with other drugs in the outpatient setting in Alkharj.

Methodology: A retrospective analysis was performed of azithromycin prescriptions in the outpatient setting in a public hospital in Alkharj in order to determine the incidence of interactions between azithromycin and other medications.

Results: There were 182 prescriptions included in the study. There was a major interaction in only 1 prescription (0.55%) and moderate interactions in 15.30% of the prescriptions. So the percentage of overall interactions was about 20.88%. The most common drug interactions in the present study were between azithromycin and salbutamol.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the interactions between azithromycin with other medications were common, but these interactions could lead to irregular heart rhythm and lead to muscle pain and weakness. Adoption of international standard and locally conformable guidelines of antibiotic use can help in avoiding such problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biosynthesis of Hydroxy Citric Acid Mediated Zinc Nanoparticles and Its Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity

S. Barani Shankar, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 108-112
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630845

Aim: To evaluate biosynthesis of hydroxy citric acid mediated zinc nanoparticle and its antioxidant and cytotoxic activity

Introduction: Hydroxy citric acid is a chemical that is found in fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia, Garcinia indica, and Garcinia atroviridis. Hydroxy citric acid is used to improve exercise performance and weight loss. Hydroxy citric acid can cause nausea, digestive tract discomfort, and headache when used short-term. Long-term safety is unknown.Zinc oxide nanoparticles are nanoparticles of zinc oxide that have diameters less than 100 nanometers. Zinc nanoparticles have a large surface area relative to their size and high catalytic activity. The exact physical and chemical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles depend on the different ways they are synthesized. zinc oxide nanoparticles have also been shown to exhibit strong protein adsorption properties, which can be used to modulate cytotoxicity, metabolism or other cellular responses.

Materials and Methods: Evaluation of anti-oxidant was done by DPPH activity and evaluation of cytotoxic activity was done by brine shrimp lethality assay. Colour changes was noted in evaluation of cytotoxic activity

Results: The antioxidant activity was exhibited well at higher doses when compared to standard, but there was only 40% of cytotoxicity achieved which indicates its potential.Cytotoxic activity reveals that the drug showed a very good result at a concentration of  25 ul it showed a 40% of lethality thereby showing  that Hydroxycitric acid medicated zinc oxide nanoparticles shows a potent activity when compared to that with the standard.

Conclusion: The study concludes that hydroxy citric acid shows good antioxidant and cytotoxic activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Trace Elements Levels in Atrial Fibrillation Patients and Healthy Group

Zahra Bazargani, Manzar Banoo Shojaeifard, Gholam Abbas Valizadeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 113-119
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630846

Background: The aim of this study is to measure the concentration of Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu)  and selenium (Se) in the blood serum of Atrial Fibrillation (AF) patients as compared to healthy subjects in both genders.

Methods: This study, conducted on patients with AF (n = 50) and controls (n = 24) were evaluated by available method. Blood samples were taken from the patients and analysis of trace elements was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses were done using IBM-SPSS 22.0.

Results: Zn and Se concentrations were evaluated in AF patients and healthy group. Zn and Se concentration in AF patients is much lower than in healthy group (p<0.008, p<0.000). AF patients showed a significantly higher Cu concentration than the healthy group (p<0.000). The data of the present study revealed that the concentrations of all trace elements had a significant difference in the serum of AF patients with respect to the healthy group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: We found that concentrations of Zn & Se levels were significantly decrease in the in the serum samples of AF patients compared with the controls group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness on the Use of Intravenous Sedation for Periodontal Surgeries - A Questionnaire Based Study

Prabhav Kumar Iyer, Murugan Thamaraiselvan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 120-129
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630847

Conscious sedation is a valuable approach to address anxious patients and treat them with the utmost comfort level. Thus the knowledge regarding the practice of conscious sedation among dental practitioners seems to be the need of the hour with increasing patient demands. This study aims to assess the knowledge, awareness and practice of conscious sedation for periodontal surgeries among dental practitioners. This questionnaire based study was conducted in the form of an online survey. A structured questionnaire with 20 questions in the area of its indications and contraindications, various drugs used in conscious sedation and the side effects of these drugs were included. The results showed that only 51% of the participants chose to use conscious sedation when dealing with anxious patients. Also 58.9% of the study population considered conscious sedation as an option when the patient is extremely uncooperative due to anxiety and for patients who have a lesser threshold of pain. 64.4% are aware that conscious sedation brings a partial loss of consciousness with response to verbal and physical stimulus. Within the limits of the study it can be concluded that there is a moderate level of awareness regarding practice of conscious sedation among the dental practitioner. Practitioners in urban and suburban areas who have recently graduated seem to have a better awareness and interest in practice of conscious sedation than others.

Open Access Review Article

An Immunological Outlook on SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and Its Current Clinical Status

Jyoti Prakash Sahoo, Upasana Mohapatra, Sushree Suparna Mahapatra, Koustava Kumar Panda, Pushpalatha Ganesh, Ambika Prasad Mishra, Kailash Chandra Samal, Suraj Kumar Behera

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2630838

The SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated in China in 2019 and rapidly spread across the globe for which the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. This viral disease is extremely contagious and infectious in nature and the general symptoms include fever, cough and pneumonia followed by a loss of taste, diarrhoea, shortness of breath, acute respiratory distress syndrome and even death. The disease has caused unprecedented risk against the global fitness scenario and therefore have altered the socio-economic-political structure of society. There has been no reported cases of any immunity against the virus, however immune-compromised people are extremely vulnerable to this disease.  The diagnosis of the disease is usually done by quantitative Real-time PCR but other methods of detection like serological testing is gaining prominence these days.  Approaches are directed towards the development of vaccine candidates and a search is on towards the discovery of potential drugs. Needless to say, the genome architecture of the virus and the viral proteins mounting an immune response play a key role in the development of effective therapeutic strategies. The review article presents an overview of the science behind the pandemic along with the structural chemistry of the pathogen, the prognosis and the vaccine candidates in different stages of development. The review would be beneficial to the scientific fraternity and the common men at large in understanding the central role of the immune system towards the development of successful clinical strategies for diagnosis and therapy to avoid the future encounters by the virus.