Open Access Short Research Article

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Chromium Picolinate Mediated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle

C. M. Aathira, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 118-121
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930717

Aim: To study the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of chromium Picolinate mediated Zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Introduction: Chromium is required by the body in a noticeable amount, even though it’s mechanism and required dietary allowance is not known clearly. It is found in supplements. It is expected to enhance insulin production and weight loss. Zinc oxide also has its own beneficial role in various biomedical applications. In the present study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the chromium picolinate mediated Zinc oxide nanoparticle is evaluated. Nanoparticles are of great interest nowadays in research and study. The outcomes of using metal nanoparticles were fascinating as color pigments in luster and glass technology.

Materials and Methods: DPPH assay for antioxidant activity and Protein denaturation assay was performed for anti-inflammatory activity.

Results and Discussion: Chromium Picolinate mediated Zinc oxide nanoparticles showed good anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity at higher concentration against standard.

Open Access Short Communication

Knowledge, Awareness and Practice towards New Generation Cephalosporin among Dental Students

K. Ahmed Hilal Sheriff, Dhanraj Ganapathy, R. Subashree

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930706

Dentists all over the world prescribe antibiotics therapeutically and prophylactically to manage oral and dental infections more commonly orofacial infections. The prescribing of antibiotics by dental practitioners has become an important aspect of dental practice as most human orofacial infections originate from odontogenic infections. The cephalosporins are a large family of broad-spectrum β-lactam antimicrobial drugs. Cephalosporins are now used as first-line agents in the treatment of many infections, including pneumonia, meningitis, and gonorrhea. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge awareness and Practice towards New Generation Cephalosporin among          dental students. A questionnaire consisting of 10 questions were prepared and distributed to 100 dental students, the questionnaire was prepared online and the link was distributed to the             dental students. The results were tabulated and statistical analysis was done using SPSS  software. From this survey, it is seen that most of the students were not well aware of the new generation cephalosporins.  63% of the dental students were aware that cephalosporins are broad-spectrum antibiotics. 74% of the students were aware of cephalosporin drugs, 88% of the respondents do not use cephalosporins in their practice, among the entire population only 32% were aware regarding the new generation cephalosporin and only 33% of the students were aware regarding its action against MRSA. 17% of the dental students were aware that 5 generations of cephalosporins are available Most of the dental students who attempted this questionnaire did not have complete knowledge regarding the new generations of cephalosporins rather they were aware of the 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins. Furthermore, knowledge regarding the pharmacological aspects of new generation cephalosporins is necessary so that they can apply it to their practice. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Copper Nanoparticles Synthesized from Dried Ginger

R. Shruthi Devi, M. Jeevitha, S. Preetha, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930703

Nano science is considered to be an important area in research in which developing nontoxic, reliable and ecofriendly synthesis of nanoparticles by the green approach has a vital part. Nanoparticles that contain antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are considered to be a new trend for developing therapeutic agents that help in killing drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms. The present study is focused on discovering the antioxidant properties of copper nanoparticles synthesized from dried ginger. Dried ginger is a traditional medicine used widely and has shown to possess good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The phytochemical compounds of dried ginger can act as a reducing agent to synthesize copper nanoparticles. Copper nanoparticles were preferred for this study as it has unique physical and chemical properties. There are various methods used to synthesize nanoparticles and here in this study we have used the green synthesis method for synthesizing the copper nanoparticles. The copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and its antioxidant property was evaluated by DPPH assay.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Incidence of Presence of Bacteria in Sutures of Maxillofacial Trauma Patients

Yandeti Srinivasulu, Abdul Wahab, P. Senthil Murugan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930704

Background: Sutures under selective host or environmental factors can potentiate postoperative surgical site infection. The present study characterized microbial recovery and biofilm formation from explanted absorbable and non-absorbable sutures from infected and non-infected sites of maxillofacial trauma patients.

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of microbiology of explanted suture segments from infected and non-infected maxillofacial trauma patients.

Methods and Materials: Non absorbable and absorbable suture segments were collected at Randomly from 80 patients with two groups one group with infected sutures second group with non-infected sutures. Explanted sutures were recovered from maxillofacial trauma surgeries. Suture segments were obtained upon patient return to the clinic after seven days for review. All suture segments were collected aseptically. Designation of non-infected versus infected was determined by clinical presentation and criteria defined by the National Healthcare Safety Network of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. All the suture specimens were sent to University Microbiology department for bacterial culture and the results were studied.

Results: A significant difference in mean microbial recovery between non infected and infected sutures were noted. Age distribution showed, males 86.25% and females 13.75% [Fig. 1]. Fig. 5 shows the Association of infected and non-infected suture groups with presence or absence of bacteria infected suture shows presence bacteria 13.75%, and non-infected suture showed presence of bacteria 6.25%, absence of bacteria 80.0%. Table 1- Presence or absence of infection cross tabulation showed, presence of  bacteria in infected suture 11, presence of bacteria in non-infected suture 5 and absence of bacteria 64.

Conclusion: Within the limitation of study, we found that bacterial presence on the suture has a statistically significant role in causing postoperative infection. Any suture may be considered as a port of entry for infection, which in turn may compromise healing of the surgical wound. It is advised to minimize the duration of the presence of sutures, and their removal should be carried out as early as possible, according to the specific healing conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness of Monosodium Glutamate (Ajinomoto Salt) among Students

S. Sivaharini, Dhanraj Ganapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930705

The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of monosodium glutamate(MSG) (Ajinomoto salt) among dental students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 dental undergraduate students in Chennai. A pre-structured questionnaire was used for the survey. The responses were obtained and the data were extracted and analyzed statistically for understanding about MSG among students as well as their attitudes toward MSG. 56% of participants were               aware and 25% were not and the remaining 19% of participants were heard somewhat.                          We concluded that the level of awareness about the health hazards caused by the                consumption of products containing Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) as a food additive was not adequate. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Dental Amalgam Restoration among Dental Students

Kalaivani Natarajan, Manish Ranjan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930707

Amalgam has been used in Dentistry for about 150 to 200 years and is still under use due to its low cost, ease of application, strength and durability. It is an alloy of mercury, is an excellent and versatile restorative material. The development of various tooth coloured cements and resins serves as an alternative and have reduced the use of amalgam. Yet, amalgam stands as one of the excellent restorative materials. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, awareness and practice of dental amalgam among dental students in a private dental school. Study was conducted as a cross sectional questionnaire based study among the dental students. The study was conducted as an online survey as it is timesaving and a majority of the population can be covered. There were one hundred participants involved in this online survey from second year, third years, final years and internship. The questionnaire consisting of ten questions were posted for an online survey using google forms. The validity of the questionnaire was cross verified by experts. The data were extracted and tabulated in MS Excel sheets with respect to each question and their response. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software v20. Chi square test was done to assess the association between the variables. The descriptive data obtained were plotted in bar graphs. It was evident that interns had adequate knowledge about amalgam restorations than other participants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oncogenes and their Role in Oral Oncogenesis - A Survey

P. Kalyani, Dhanraj Ganapathy, Revathi Duraiswamy, M. P. Santhosh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930708

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma [OSCC] is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity. The etiological agents for OSCC are tobacco, betel quid, smoking, and alcohol. Oral cancer also has a genetic basis that is mediated by oncogenes. 

Aim: The aim of the survey was to evaluate the knowledge about the role of oncogenes in oral oncogenesis among undergraduate dental students. 

Materials and Methods: The study was a questionnaire-based survey and the respondents were to fourth year or interns of an undergraduate dental school. The sample size of the study was 100 and simple random sampling was used for choosing the sample population. The collected data was validated, tabulated, and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows, version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), and results were obtained.

Results and Conclusion: 25% of the respondents were fourth-year students and 75% were interns. About 98% of respondents were aware of the genetic basis of oral cancer. However, their knowledge about the role of oncogenes in oral cancer was very limited. A statistically significant association [P<0.05] was seen between the year of study and knowledge about oncogenes. Hence, measures have to be taken to impart knowledge about oncogenes for better diagnosis and targeted therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effect of Selenium Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Capparis decidua

P. S. Thana Lakshme, Preetha S, M. Jeevitha, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 60-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930709

Background: Among the nanoparticles, selenium nanoparticles (SeNP) are one of the most extensively studied as Selenium has zero oxidation state, non toxic and biologically inert material. This is the reason why Selenium is considered as a major nanoparticulate. In this study SeNPs were extracted from the fruit of Capparis decidua which is a xerophytic small herb.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the cytotoxic effect and antioxidant capacity of selenium nanoparticles.

Materials and Methods: In this study SeNPs were extracted from the fruit of Capparis decidua which is a xerophytic small herb. The cytotoxic effect of SeNPs was evaluated using Brine Shrimp assay and the antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH assay considering ascorbic acid as the standard.

Results: From the study of this assay the shrimps introduced  into the well were almost alive in different concentrations and this indicates that there is no cytotoxicity in selenium nanoparticles. The percentage inhibition of Selenium nanoparticles in 10 µl was 15.4 0.1, 20 µl was 38.36 0.15, 30 µl was 45.3 0.1, 40 µl was 59.6 0.15 and 50 µl was 65.6  0.1. It can be inferred that percentage inhibition increases with increase in concentration but it was less when compared to the percentage inhibition of the standard.

Conclusion: The selenium nanoparticles extracted from Capparis decidua do not have any cytotoxic effect on shrimps. The SeNPs possessed significant antioxidant activity in increasing concentrations compared to the standard used. Thus SeNPs are biologically useful and can be used as eco-friendly, cost effective and efficient biomedical agents and therapeutics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Iodophor and Chlorhexidine in Surgical Preparation of Skin

T. Jeyashree, N. P. Muralidharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930710

An effective pre surgical Preparation is important step in preventing surgical wound contamination and post operative infection. Preparing a 100% sterile surgical environment is one of the biggest challenges of surgery. Since skin is the most common source of pathogen they make the skin preparation at the time of procedure critical. The most common skin preparation agents are iodophors and chlorhexidine. The aqueous based iodophors are, such as povidone iodine is one of the few products that can be safely used on mucous membrane. Iodophor and chlorhexidine are quick sustained and durable with broader spectrum anti microbial activity. These agents are ideal for longer open surgeries. There is a need for comparison of antimicrobial activity of iodophor and chlorhexidine. In surgical preparation of the skin. In this study we used iodophor and chlorhexidine to check their anti microbial activity in surgical preparation of skin. A square of area 10 sq cm was drawn on the surface of the skin on arm and divided into upper half and lower half.2 sterilised cotton swabs were taken and they were moistened with saline water. First swab was taken before applying the disinfectant and the second swab was taken 2 mins after applying the disinfectant. Both swabs were spread in the TSA agar. Total bacterial count was counted in the before and after swab. Iodine was used as disinfectant in 5 people and chlorhexidine was used as disinfectant in 5 people. Iodophor had a better activity against the micro organisms than that of the chlorhexidine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Oxygen Releasing Oral Gel Compared to Chlorhexidine Gel in the Treatment of Periodontitis

R. Niveda, Gurumoorthy Kaarthikeyan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930711

The aim of the current study is to compare the effect of oxygen releasing oral gel and chlorhexidine gel in the treatment of periodontitis and the objective was to assess and compare the changes in clinical parameters such as Probing pocket depth, Bleeding on probing, Clinical attachment levels between oxygen releasing oral gel and chlorhexidine gel.

The current pilot study which compares oxygen releasing gel with chlorhexidine gel is a randomised split mouth clinical trial .All the patients included in the study were patients with moderate to severe periodontitis with no systemic diseases, not under any medication non smoking healthy patients. All the patients received supra and sub gingival scaling, pockets on molars with deeper probing depth on either maxillary or mandibular arch and the medication to be received by the patient were allotted randomly. Randomisation was performed using lot method.Oxygen releasing (Blue M gel) and chlorhexidine gel (Hexigel) was applied at the chosen site, patient was recalled for re application and was reassessed  for clinical parameters Paired t test was done to compare the mean difference in probing depth in Blue M gel group and Hexigel group.

The mean probing depth at the day of drug delivery was for Blue M gel group was 7.2 mm SD+/-0.42 mm and the mean probing depth six week after drug delivery was 4.7 SD+/- 0.57 mm with a significant p value of 0.42. The mean probing depth at the day of drug delivery was for Hexigel gel group was 7.0 mm SD+/-0.57 mm and the mean probing depth six week after drug delivery was 5.7 SD+/- 0.64 mm.

Within the limitations of the study from the results it is seen that there is a significant difference in reduction in probing pocket depth. The mean difference between the  probing depth reduction in group A (Blue M ) from baseline to 6 week was 2.3 and The mean difference probing depth reduction in group B  (Hexigel ) from baseline to 6 week was 1.5. Group A showed better potential in probing depth reduction. It emphasises the fact that thorough sub gingival scaling and root planing along with adjuvant topical oxygen therapy aid in reducing the periodontal pockets further research has to be done to assess the effect of oxygen delivering agents in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Bacterial Micro Colonies Present in Tissue Samples Obtained Using Ozonated Water as an Irrigating Agent from Patients with Periodontitis

Niveda Rajeshwaran, Sankari Malaippan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 90-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930713

Periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory diseases that are constantly associated with microorganism, conventionally scaling and root planing followed by flap surgical procedure is done to treat chronic periodontitis condition, irrigating agents are used during both sub gingival scaling and root planing procedure and in flap surgical procedure. Saline and distilled water are the commonly used irrigants and they non specifically reduce the bacterial count, Ozonised water is also used as an irrigating agent. Though it’s effect on plaque is known to be effective its effect on tissues is still questionable. The study is conducted to assess the number bacterial micro colonies formed in gingival tissues after irrigating with ozonated water and comparing it with distilled water and saline water which are the commonly used irrigating agents.

The aim of the study is to assess the bacterial micro colonies formed in gingival tissues after irrigating with ozonated water and comparing it with distilled water and saline water which are the commonly used irrigating agents.

A randomized, split mouth study was performed. A total of 10 patients suffering from chronic generalised periodontitis were recruited into the study; 20 gingival tissue samples were obtained from the patients at the time of surgery. Both the patient and the clinician were blinded regarding the type of the irrigating agent used. The plaque samples were transferred into carrier medium and were cultured for 24 hours; 24 h after culture, the samples were collected and total colony forming units were calculated. On  counting  the number of  colony forming  units formed, it  was  found   that  the  amount  of colonies formed  from the samples treated with  ozone  showed mixed results, wherein it showed both increase and decrease in colony counts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intracanal Analgesic Solutions to Control Interappointment Pain during Root Canal Treatment in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis - A Pilot Study

Sneha Pai, M. S. Nivedhitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-105
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930714

Mefenamic acid is a Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drug belonging to anthranilic acid group while Aceclofenac is an acetic acid derivative. Aceclofenac is a non selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor while Mefenamic acid is a potent cyclooxygenase inhibitor with both central and peripheral actions.  The use of Mefenamic acid and Aceclofenac has reduced due to their side effect of gastrointestinal irritation. The idea of this study is to use Mefenamic acid and Aceclofenac as intracanal agents to achieve localized action without having systemic side effects.

Patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis with symptomatic apical periodontitis were identified and divided into three groups of 10 each. After cleaning and shaping of the root canals, 0.1ml of the analgesic solution was injected within the root canals. The pain was evaluated at the end of 6 hours. There was significant reduction in pain in patients who received intracanal Mefenamic acid followed by the group that received Aceclofenac.

This proves that intracanal administration of analgesics controls inter appointment pain during endodontic treatment and also prevents systemic side effects that are likely to occur due to oral  use of the drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Free Radical Scavenging and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Chlorogenic Acid Mediated Silver Nanoparticle

Anu Iswarya Jaisankar, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 106-112
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930715

Introduction: Nanotechnology is a field of research and innovation concerned with building 'things' - generally, materials and devices on the scale of atoms and molecules. It is a booming field of this 21st century. The role of nano technology is becoming very crucial in nearly every aspect of life ranging from cosmetics to advanced bio technological approaches. In recent years, silver nanoparticles have gained considerable attention in the field of medicine. The green synthesis of nanoparticles eliminates the generation and use of hazardous substances and thus sustains non toxicity. Chlorogenic acids are phenolic compounds formed by the esterification of cinnamic acids. They exhibit various pharmacological Properties. Our study deals with the green synthesis of Chlorogenic acid mediated silver nanoparticles and assessment of their anti inflammatory and antioxidant properties.


Aim: The present study aims at assessing the antioxidant and anti inflammatory property of chlorogenic acid mediated silver nanoparticle and investigating the efficacy of Chlorogenic acid mediated Silver nanoparticle.

Materials and Methods: The methodology includes Green synthesis of Chlorogenic acid mediated Silver nano particle synthesis followed by tests for Anti inflammation and Anti oxidation.

Results: Both the Anti inflammatory and Anti oxidation activity of the chlorogenic acid mediated silver nanoparticle had shown a proportionate increase in activity with increasing concentration of the compound.

Conclusion: Chlorogenic acid mediated silver nanoparticles have shown significant anti inflammatory and anti oxidation activity and they are considered as potent anti inflammatory and antioxidant agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hyaluronic Acid Mediated Zinc Nanoparticles against Oral Pathogens and Its Cytotoxic Potential

V. Karthik, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 113-117
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930716

Aim: To determine the Hyaluronic acid mediated zinc nanoparticles against oral pathogens and cytotoxic potential.

Introduction: Hyaluronic acid is a non sulfated glycosaminoglycan. Bacterial invasion can also be repressed by an inhibitor Interfering with receptor interaction for bacterial invasion, Hyaluronic acid is an example of inhibitor.Nanoparticles is considered as one of the most promising studies in science and technology study  and  Maintaining the shape, size and distribution of nanoparticles helps in its function and interaction with other molecules.

Materials and Methods: 0.1 g of Hyaluronic acid was added to a flask containing 100 ml of distilled water and heated for an hour. After observing the solubility, 0.574 g of Zn was added to the mixture and then kept on a magnetic stirrer for 1 hour at 100 degree Celsius.

Anti microbial activity: Agar well diffusion and Disc diffusion method is used. Then incubated for 37 degree Celsius for 48 hour. The zone of inhibition is recorded.

Cytotoxic potential: Different concentrations of Hyaluronic acid mediated zinc nanoparticles are incorporated to the wells. After 24 hrs the results were analysed.

Results and Discussion: Hyaluronic mediated zinc nanoparticles is proved to be effective against a wide range of foodborne and clinically relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using several assays such as disk diffusion, agar or broth dilution.Hyaluronic acid mediated Zinc nanoparticles has high potent cytotoxic potential it had been proved with the help of brine shrimps.

Conclusion: From the observed results, it has been concluded that Hyaluronic acid has a lot of medicinal values and it has antimicrobial activity and it has good cytotoxic potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic Effect and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Hafnium Metal Based Composite: Two Sides of the Same Coin- An In vitro Study

Vaishnavi Rajaraman, S. Rajeshkumar, Deepak Nallaswamy, Dhanraj Ganapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 122-131
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930718

Chitosan (CTS) is a biocompatible polymer that has been widely researched for tissue engineering purposes. It has demonstrated a significant role in bone tissue engineering in the last two decades. Being a natural polymer obtained from chitin, a major component of crustacean exoskeleton, it has varied uses. Lately, attention has been given to chitosan composite materials due to its minimal foreign body reactions, antibacterial nature, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and the ability to be molded into various shapes and forms. It can be used as porous structures, suitable for cell ingrowth and osteoconduction. The aim of this research was to assess the biocompatibility of a chitosan nanoparticle and hafnium metal-based composite and project its use for bone tissue engineering. In the present study, we have prepared chitosan nanoparticles and their based hafnium composite and it was analyzed for its cytotoxic effect using brine shrimp lethality assay and antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion method. There was a significant difference between the concentrations used (p<0.01), when One way ANOVA statistical analysis was performed. The current study substantiates the antimicrobial activity and highlights the possible cytotoxicity of the CTS and hafnium composite.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Risk of Wearing Short Sleeves in Dental Clinics

P. E. Jai Rexlin, N. P. Muralidharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 132-137
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930719

In the dental clinic, Bio-aerosols are an important consideration for infection control and occupational health. Dental clinicians are exposed to aerosols and splatters which contain infective agents such as bacteria, virus and fungal organisms. Hence, there is a definite risk of infection with transmittable agents as the position is very close from the patient’s mouth. Main entry points of infection for a dentist include abrasions on the skin. This surveillance study was conducted to evaluate the risk of wearing short sleeves in dental clinics. Sterilisedaluminium foil of dimension 21x28 cm was wrapped on the forearm of the 20 operating dentists and left for 30 minutes. Then it was removed, and with the help of a moistened swab the aerosol sediment from a fixed area is taken and plated on Brain Heart Infusion(BHI) agar plates. The plates were incubated and were checked for the bacterial colonies and enumerated. It was observed that, out of 20 samples collected, It was observed that, out of 20 samples collected, Streptococcus sp. were invariably seen. Coagulase negative Staphylococci were predominantly seen in 10 samples, and in the remaining 10 samples Lactobacillus sp. were predominantly seen. In some of the samples bacterial load was very high. It is the indication of the risk that the short sleeve has in dental practice. Here the demonstration of aerosol is identified by the deposition of bacterial species on the skin, and we should in mind that the aerosol may carry infectious virus also.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing the Efficacy of Triclosan Coated Sutures versus Chlorhexidine Coated Sutures in Preventing Surgical Site Infection after Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molar

Sneha Krishnan, Senthilnathan Periasamy, Arun Murugaiyan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 138-148
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930720

The aim of this present clinical trial study is evaluate the efficacy of triclosan coated sutures versus chlorhexidine coated sutures in preventing surgical site infection after removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. This prospective, single blind study included 30 patients divided into two groups with 15 patients each who had been referred to the Oral Surgery Clinic at Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai for surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar under local anaesthesia. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 were treated with (3-0) antimicrobial triclosan impregnated polyglactin sutures for closure and in group 2 with (3–0) antimicrobial chlorhexidine diacetate-impregnated polyglactin sutures. Evaluation in regard to infection rate, abnormal erythema, pain and trismus between two groups was done on the 7th day postoperatively. In this study we observed that no significant difference in rates of infection between the groups. Abnormal erythema and trismus showed better results in group 2(chlorhexidine group) on 7th day postoperatively whereas incidence of pain was higher in patients treated with chlorhexidine coated sutures on the 7th day postoperatively as compared to patients treated with triclosan coated sutures. However, P value was >0.05 which was considered statistically insignificant. Within the limitations of the present study, chlorhexidine diacetate-impregnated polyglactin sutures showed reduced infection rates,erythema and trismus  as compared to triclosan impregnated polyglactin sutures in healthy patients undergoing surgical removal of third molar under local anesthesia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Inherent Antimicrobial Properties and Bacterial Surface Adherence between Copper and Stainless Steel Suction Tube

Gaurav N. Ketkar, Sankari Malaiappan, Muralidharan N.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 149-156
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930721

Aim of the present study is comparative evaluation of the inherent antimicrobial properties of the copper and stainless steel suction tube also evaluate bacterial adherence and reduction with time within the suction tube. Present study was performed in an in vitro setting in Saveetha dental college and hospital. Both the metals suction tubes were cut into equal lengths of 2.3 inches and dipped in a sterile container for 5 minutes which had bacterial suspension of Streptococcus Mutans. Each group included three samples of copper and stainless steel suction tubes. Control group was taken out at 0 mins post initial dipping period de-coated in a sterile container and immediately cultured on Brain heart infusion agar, followed by group 1 at 15 minutes group 2 at 60 minutes and group 3 at 180 minutes respectively. Bacterial colonies were counted after overnight incubation. Copper suction tubes demonstrated less initial adhesion of bacterial colonies than that of stainless steel suction tubes. Percentage reduction in bacterial colonies was observed more in stainless steel suction tubes with respect to time. Spite of high initial adhesion stainless steel suction tube demonstrated higher degree of percentage reduction in bacterial colonies with time hence proven better for antimicrobial properties than copper suction tube.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Calcium and Alkaline Phosphatase in the Salivary Samples of Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

Keerthana Baskar, Sreedevi Dharman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 157-163
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930722

The quality of life for women after menopause is one of the key health issues today. Rapid bone loss occurs in post-menopausal women due to hormonal factors that lead to an increased risk of fractures. The aim of the study is to evaluate the calcium and Alkaline phosphate levels (ALP) in the salivary samples of premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The study was conducted with a sample size of 30, with 15 samples from premenopausal women belonging to the age group of 40-46 years and 15 samples from postmenopausal women aged more than 50 years. Calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated using the commercial kits available which were Spinreact and Accucare alkaline phosphatase respectively. The statistical analysis was done using independent t-test. Saliva was stimulated and biochemical analysis of these salivary samples was done to evaluate the calcium and alkaline phosphatase. Mean salivary calcium in premenopausal women was found to be 7.37±1.141 mg/dl and in postmenopausal women it was found to be  5.19±1.141mg/dl,P=0.000(p<0.05). Mean salivary ALP levels in premenopausal women was found to be 10.81±3.295 mg/dl and in postmenopausal women was found to be 33.58±3.295 mg/dl, P=0.001(p <0.05), hence statistically significant. Within the limitations of the study, it was found that  calcium were found to be significantly more in premenopausal women when compared to postmenopausal women, while alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in postmenopausal women when compared to premenopausal women. Hence, salivary calcium and ALP levels can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis of bone diseases as it is a non-invasive technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Laparoscopic Treatment of Hydatid Cyst of Liver: Outcome at Tertiary Care Hospital

Shahida Khatoon, Altaf Talpur, Aijaz Ahmed Shaikh, Mujeeb-ur- Rehman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 164-168
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930748

Objective: To determine the outcome of laparoscopic treatment of hydatid cyst of liver at tertiary care Hospital.

Methodology: This cross sectional, study was conducted at public and private sector Hospitals of Jamshoro/Hyderabad from June 2017 to Sept 2019. It includes all diagnosed patients of Hydatid cyst of liver with either of gender and age range from 15 to 65 years who were operated laparoscopically. Patient’s demographic information, postoperative complications, operative time and hospital stay were recorded via self-made proforma and data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.

Results: Total 29 patients were admitted with hydatid disease of liver and out of them 21 patients underwent laparoscopic treatment during study period; their mean age was 46.7±13 years. Males were commonest 71.42% and 28.57% were female. Mean operative time was 98.3±18 minutes. According to postoperative pain, the average of visual analog score was 07.85±1.38 at 24 hours and 3.42±1.50 at 72 hours. VAS mean was 07.8 and 3.4 respectively. Cavity related infection was noticed in 3 cases; port site infection in two cases, bile leak in two and residual cyst was also found in two patients. Mean postoperative Hospital stay was 6.6 days.

Conclusion: Laparoscopic surgery for hepatic hydatid disease can be conducted safely as it provides advantages of minimal invasive surgery. Careful selection of the patient is utmost important to achieve good results especially in initial phases.

Open Access Review Article

Self Assembling Peptide P11-4 for Enamel Remineralization: A Biomimetic Approach

Rukhsaar Akbar Gulzar, P. Ajitha, Haripriya Subbaiyan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 83-89
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1930712

Treatment of caries through conventional modalities involves an invasive approach of excavation of the carious lesion followed by a restoration. This compromises on the strength and integrity of the tooth structure. Minimal invasive dentistry aims at early detection of the carious lesion and their remineralization. Self assembling peptides find its application in the medical field due to its ability to form a scaffold through a process of hierarchical organization into nano structures. Self-assembling peptide P11-4 is a novel technology for enamel remineralization through a biomimetic approach. The technology simulates normal enamel histogenesis. It induces de novo precipitation of hydroxyapatite crystals by forming a three dimensional scaffold matrix. The formation of the scaffold involves the conversion of the peptide from a low viscosity fluid to a nematic gel under low pH conditions. This scaffold matrix further attracts calcium ions and leads to formation of hydroxyapatite crystals. Being minimally invasive, it helps in preserving the strength and integrity of the tooth structure. The aim of the article is to review the technology of self assembling peptides for enamel regeneration and its potential as a material for successful treatment of early carious lesions through a minimally invasive approach.