Open Access Short Research Article

Anti-hyperglycemic Effects of Diacerein in Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Wistar Albino Rats

Arsalan Uqaili, Samia Siddiqui, Roomi Aijaz, Yar Muhammad Nizammani, Navaid Kazi, Ghulam Shah Nizammani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 107-113
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530633

Objective: To determine the anti-hyperglycemic effects of interleukin-1 inhibitor (diacerein) in alloxan induced diabetic albino wistar rats.

This experimental study was performed at the Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam within 6 months from April 2016 to September 2016. Total of 160 adult Albino Wistar Rats having an average of 200 to 300 grams body weights were selected. Animals were categorized into 4 groups as;

  • Group A (n=15): Control rats – receive 0.9% normal saline as placebo

Experimental Groups

  • Group B (n=15): Experimental Control (Diabetic rats) - Alloxan50 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal.
  • Group C (n=15): Diabetic rats + Diacerein (30 mg/kg/day) orally daily.
  • Group D (n=15): Diabetic rats + Diacerein (50 mg/kg/day) orally daily.

Animals were kept and treated as per the NIH Guideline for Use and Care of Laboratory Animals.

Diabetes mellitus was induced via a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 milligram/kg alloxan monohydrated dissolved in aseptic 0.9% saline. After 72 hours, blood specimens were taken from the caudal vein of the rats and glucose level>200 mg/dL was taken as diabetes. Experimental rats were given diacerein approximately 30 and 50 mg orally for 6 weeks. At the completion of experiment the body weight was measured of each animal by electronic measuring balance and blood sample was taken from each animal of all groups to assess the blood glucose level and HbA1c level. Data were recorded via self-made proforma and analysis was done by using SPSS version 20.

Results: Average body weight of Diabetic control (Group B) was 193.33±22.50 grams, which was lower in contrast to Diacerein treated group C 202.47±25.70 grams and significantly lower as compared to Diacerein treated group D as  212.6±23.43 grams. A significant increase in blood glucose levels 182.07±10.63 mg/dl was noted in the Diabetic control (Group B) compared to Diacerein treated group C (110.13± 8.54 mg/dl) and group D (85.87±8.41 mg/dl) (P=0.001). HbA1c was markedly raised in the Group B- diabetic controls, while diacerein treated diabetic rats (groups C and D) showed a significant decrease in HbA1c (P=0.001).

Conclusion: It was concluded that Diacerein achieves the Euglycemic state by reducing the levels of blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Alloxan-Induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar Albino Rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Residue Analysis of Oxytetracycline in Milk Sample by Two Different Chromatographic Methods and Determination of Ionization Constant Values

Seyfi Sardoğan, Senem Şanlı, Barış Sardoğan, Barış Atalay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530618

In the present study, two analytical methods for the residue analysis of oxytetracycline in milk sample have been generated. In HPLC method, the analysis was performed on an X Terra RP-18 column at 25 °C with the mobile phase as methanol: water (20 : 80 )(v/v) modified to pH 5. For the second method capillary electrophoresis system was used. The analysis of oxytetracycline in milk sample could be achieved without using organic modifier in a 58 cm length capillary at a working voltage of 12 kV with 20 mM NaH2PO4-H3PO4 (pH 7) by capillary electrophoresis. Tetracycline was used as internal standard in both methods. The results calculated from both methods were compared to each other. The calculated data for drugs was checked with the data predicted by the SPARC on-line pKa estimator.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Anti-proliferative Effect and Preliminary Analysis of Cell Cycle Arrest and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile on Colorectal Cancer Cells HCT-116 and HT-29

Wamtinga Richard Sawadogo, Yun Luo, Bethany Elkington, Tong-Chuan He, Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530620

Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile (Zygophyllaceae), is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of intestinal worms, wounds, and inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study is to assess the anti-proliferative effect and to analyse the pro-apoptotic and cell cycle arrest activities of                     B. aegyptiaca root bark extract and fractions against colorectal cancer cells HCT-116 and HT-29. The cytotoxicity of the crude extract and fractions were evaluated by MTS assay. The most active fractionwas subjected to crystal violet assay, Hoechst staining, cell cycle arrest, and annexin V/PI assays on cancer cells to highlight its mechanisms of action. The ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated the most cytotoxic effect on HCT-116 and HT-29 with IC50 values ranging between 3 and 4 µg/mL. At 10 µg/mL in the cell cycle arrest assay, the fraction increased G1 phase by 3.83% on HCT-116 and by 8.6% on HT-29 whilst G2/M phase was decreased by 5.63% on HCT-116 and by 6.62% on HT-29. Moreover, apoptotic cells were increased by 11.4% on HCT-116. The results suggest a potential source of anticancer molecules against colorectal cancer for isolation from the ethyl acetate fraction.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Awareness of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics Prescription among Dental Students

Nor Syakirah Binti Shahroom, Dhanraj Ganapathy, Revathi Duraisamy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530621

Beta-lactam antibiotic is the most common antibiotic prescribed by dental students. However, the actual knowledge on beta lactam is important as antimicrobial resistance is currently an alarming and growing phenomenon and in turn becoming a public health challenge. A survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and awareness of beta-lactam antibiotics prescriptions among dental students in their third years, final years and interns. A total of 145 responses were obtained and the results were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. Based on their knowledge on beta-lactam antibiotics, 59.3% of the participants knew exactly the mechanisms of action of beta-lactam antibiotic which was by interfering with the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. In the case of penicillin allergy, 40% of the participants chose erythromycin as the alternative for penicillin allergy. 84% of the participants were aware that the combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid may increase its effectiveness. Meanwhile, 98% of the participants were aware that amoxicillin is the drug of choice for bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis. 72% of the participants were aware that most beta-lactam antibiotics are considered safe for pregnant and lactating women which was statistically significant (p<0.05). In conclusion, the students had quite a good knowledge and awareness regarding the prescription of beta-lactam antibiotics since they have been practicing under guidance from the practitioner in the college.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Botox Injections in Facial Aesthetics among Dental Students

Nurul Afiqah Amani Binti Zaaba, Dhanraj Ganapathy, Revathi Duraisamy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530623

The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness and knowledge on the use of Botox injections in facial aesthetics among undergraduate dental students. Botulinum toxin is considered as a quick and effective non-surgical solution for enhancing physical appearance. Botox is considered as the best choice, as it is affordable and less radical than surgery. It is derived from gram-positive spore forming, clostridium botulinum. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the awareness of dentists towards using botulinum toxins in facial aesthetics. The survey was conducted online via survey planet. There were about 103 study population, participated in this study. Data is collected using an online survey planet link and statistically analysed.  95.1% of participants reported that they have general knowledge on the Botox (95.1%). 66 % of  respondents agreed  that clostridium botulinum bacterium is the source of Botox. 24.51% of respondents stated that Botox was commonly used for wrinkle reduction and 96.1% were aware of the toxicity effect of Botox when it is administered in a high dosage. Association between response of the participants and knowledge on Botox was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). According to our study, the majority of students showed an acceptable level of knowledge and awareness on Botox and its use in facial aesthetics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge about Teratogenic Drugs among Dentists - A Cross-Sectional Survey

B. Reshmi, Dhanraj Ganapathy, Ashok Velayudhan, Kirankumar Pandurangan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530624

Teratogen is any agent that might interfere with the proper growth and development of the embryo or foetus. Teratogens usually involve radiation, cancer, chemicals, and drugs. Comprehension of teratogenic drugs is of great value to dental practitioners because they handle a wide range of drugs that cause teratogenicity in the care of patients with dental problems during pregnancy. The aim of this survey is to assess the awareness among dentists of teratogenic drugs.  The study was conducted among 100 final year dental students and interns in Chennai City. 10 questions eliciting information on the knowledge and understanding of teratogenic drugs were framed and distributed. The responses obtained from the participants were compiled, processed further, and analyzed. 83%  of the participants were aware of teratogenic drugs. This study concluded that knowledge about teratogenic drugs is adequate among dental students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Radiation Protection among Dental Students

P. Kuzhalvaimozhi, Jayanth Kumar Vadivel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-62
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530625

Radiology is one the key cornerstone of investigation in Dentistry. The application of radiology in Dental practice has grown by leaps and bounds in the years gone by. Along with this there is an increase in the number of radiation hazards.  The effect of  radiation  on  human  beings  is  very  negative. This survey was conducted with the intent of studying the awareness and knowledge of radiation protection in practice. The survey consisted of 10 closed ended questions which were circulated among 100 interns of a dental college. The data collected was entered into microsoft excel and the data was analysed for an association between the gender and the responses using Chi-square analysis. The majority of the participants were females and they believed that radiation causes harm to humans and surprisingly they had also believed that ionised radiation remains suspended in the air after making a radiographic exposure where there was no statistically significant difference between the genders(p>0.05). The questions also assessed whether a clinical examination is advised before a radiographic examination and the majority were of the view it is necessary which was statistically significant(p<0.05). From this study we could infer that students are well aware of the adverse effects of radiation but in terms of safety practices being followed in Dental clinics, there are some pitfalls noticeable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Detection and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Postoperative Infections

Ritya Mary Jibu, R. V. Geetha, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 63-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530626

Post operative infections that occur after surgical procedures can cause a lot of complications like sepsis, organ failure or even death. These are the third most commonly reported healthcare associated infection. The most common cause of wound infection regardless of procedure performed remains gram-positive cocci which comprise more than 50% of all infections. Specifically, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most frequent organisms isolated from a wound infection. There has been an increasing incidence of MRSA strains reported in hospitals across the globe. The main aim of our study is isolation, detection and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from postoperative infections.  Samples were collected from post operative patients with infected wounds. The area around the wound was cleaned. Exudates were collected from the wound with a sterile swab stick. The samples were inoculated on different solid culture mediums and the plates were incubated in the presence of oxygen at 37°C overnight. There were many standard procedures done in which tube coagulase was taken as the main criteria. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer method following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines using commercially available cefoxitin (30 μg) disc (HiMedia) and the results were compared with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and MRSA ATCC 43300 control strains. The MRSA strains were identified and detection of Mec A gene that codes for methicillin resistance is done using PCR technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Efficacy of Nanoparticle-Incorporated Root Canal Sealer against Common Endodontic Pathogens - An in vitro Study

Srujana Hemmanur, Iffat Nasim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530627

Infection caused by microorganisms play a crucial role in the induction of inflammation of pulpal as well as the periapical tissues. Factors like improper disinfection or obturation of the root canal space contributes to the failure of the root canal treatment. The aim of the study was to modify the contents of MTA-based sealer with nanoparticles and check for its antibacterial efficacy against E. faecalis. Silver nanoparticles (10 nm) were incorporated in MTA based sealer at various concentrations to form the test product. The antibacterial efficacy of the modified sealer was tested by well diffusion test on E. faecalis. The zone of inhibition (mm) was checked for each test product. Analysis of the results showed significant diameters of zones of inhibition (mm) as compared to sealer without nanoparticles. The zone of inhibition increased with the increase in the concentration of silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle incorporated sealer can be used in the clinical setup to prevent reinfection of the root canal system and ensure the success of the root canal treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cassia oleoresin Mediated Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles and Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay

G. Anjana, Anitha Roy, S. Rajeshkumar, D. Ezhilarasan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530628

Cassia oleoresin is an extract isolated from dried barks of Cinnamomum cassia Blume (family Lauracea). The plant has been reported to have anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-hypertriglyceridemic effect, mainly due to its phytochemical constituents such as phenolic and volatile compounds. Cinnamon also helps in arthritis, fibromyalgia and psoriasis. The aim of this study was to prepare  magnesium oxide nanoparticles using Cassia oleoresin and to evaluate the cytotoxic effect on Brine shrimp. The magnesium oxide nanoparticle was prepared from magnesium chloride and Cassia oleoresin and was confirmed by UV- Visible Spectroscopy and morphology was confirmed by TEM. Brine shrimps lethality bioassay was carried out to investigate the cytotoxicity of Cassia oleoresin mediated magnesium oxide nanoparticles. Ten brine shrimp nauplii were placed in each well of the Eliza plate and filled with 5 µL ,10 µL ,15 µL ,20 µL ,25 µL of Cassia oleoresin mediated magnesium oxide nanoparticles After 24 hours of incubation, the wells were observed and the number of surviving brine shrimp nauplii were counted to assess the cytotoxicity. The UV -Visible spectroscopy showed a peak at 400 peak and TEM analysis showed a particle size of 70 nm. After 24 hours incubation of the brine shrimps in the nanoparticle solution, all 10 brine shrimps survived in 5µL and 10 µL concentrations. 3 brine shrimps nauplii survived in 15µL conc. 1 brine shrimp nauplii survived in 20µL and 25µL concentrations each. Within the limits of this study it can be concluded that at low concentrations the prepared nanoparticle was safe and may be used for biomedical application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Aberrations in Caspase Family of Genes and Their Possible Association with HNSCC

K. Nirubama, A. S. Smiline Girija, A. Paramasivam, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 83-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530629

The cell suicide pathway of apoptosis is a necessary event in the life of multicellular organisms. It is involved in many biological processes ranging from development to the immune response. Over expression of interleukin-1β-converting enzyme (later renamed caspase-1) was shown to be sufficient to induce apoptosis in mammalian cells. The present study aims to assess the gene alterations in the Caspase family of cytochromes so as to derive an association with HNSCC. Earlier eleven genes were found in the human genome to encode 11 human caspases, caspase-1 to caspase-10 and caspase-14, which is now populated to 13, whereas 10 genes were found in the mouse genome to encode 10 murine caspases including caspase-1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12 and 14. Caspases share a number of features distinguishable from other proteases. The analysis follows an observational study design, employing several computational tools to identify and predict the possible outcomes of gene alterations identified in HNSCC patients. cBioportal server was used to identify the gene alterations which was further analyzed using tools such as PROVEAN, I-Mutant and gnomAD. Several reported polymorphic variants were also identified. The pathogenicity and protein stability of gene alterations documented in the present study were identified at standard biological conditions. Further experimental studies would provide concrete evidence on the association of the observed genetic abnormalities with HNSCC especially in individuals exposed to habitual carcinogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on Blood Sugar Levels - A Survey

B. Sachin Aditya, Jothi Priya, R. Gayatri Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 96-106
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530632

Introduction: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a spice utilized in Ayurveda, the conventional medication of India. Its root has a horsey smell (in Sanskrit, ashva signifies "horse" and gandha signifies "smell") and is said to present the quality and virility of a pony. Different pieces of the   plant are utilized, yet the most well-known in supplements is a concentrate of its underlying foundations.

Aim: aim of this study is to compare and assess the awareness among people on the effects of ashwagandha on blood sugar levels.

Materials and Methods: A well structured questionnaire containing 10 questions was circulated among Indian population. The questionnaire has covered basic demographic data such as age, gender, weight, blood pressure and about the awareness of effects of ashwagandha on blood sugar levels.

Conclusion: From the above outcomes, it might be presumed that the Withania somnifera root extract can reduce blood sugar levels. It's mindfulness among individuals must be expanded.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise among South Indian Population

S. Hiranya, A. Jothi Priya, Gayatri Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 114-123
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530634

These days people are more about how they look and are giving lots of importance to fitness. Aerobic exercise improves cardiovascular adaptations that increases the peak of oxygen consumption and increases the strength. This is more preferred than resistance exercise as it can be done at home. This study was a prospective observational study. The pros were easy to create. It has gathered large data, it is economical and it has quick interpretation. The cons were the homogeneous population and its survey fatigue. To minimize the sampling bias we have to minimize error in questions and avoid loading questions.  This study contains 15 self-structured questionnaires which validated the study design, general population, methodology and its survey questionnaire are the internal validity. From the data analysis, the results showed that  95% feel it is good to do aerobics everyday and 5% feel it is not good to do aerobics everyday. 85% prefer walking is a good exercise and 15% prefer walking is not a good exercise. 85% feel aerobics tones our body, 15% feel aerobics does not tone our body. The aim of my study is to compare the effectiveness of aerobic and resistance exercise among the South Indian population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Acidogenicity of Commercially Available Biscuits on Salivary pH - An in vivo Study

B. Vivek Babu, Jayashri Prabakar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 139-147
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530637

Saliva is a complex secretion consisting of 99% of water and remaining 1% of organic and inorganic molecules. Sucrose and starches are the predominant dietary carbohydrates in modern societies. Among all the foods consumed by children, chocolates and biscuits are the most common. Therefore this present in vivo study was conducted to assess the acidogenic effect of commercially available biscuits on salivary pH among 10 to 15 years old children. Study Design used in the study was In Vivo clinical study (Pilot Trail). The population collected in the survey was children between the age group of 10 - 15 years old children. 4 Groups were considered and 10 in each group. Group 1: Hide and Seek, Group 2: Good Day, Group 3: Dream and Cream, Group 4: Oreo. Sampling method used in the study was conducted as simple random sampling. Ethical approval of the study was obtained from Saveetha Institutional Review Board. Informed consent of the children were obtained from the parents. Descriptive statistics were expressed by means of mean and standard deviation. Shapiro Wilks test used to test the normality of the data set. Kruskal Wallis test was used to find the difference in mean Salivary pH between the groups and within the groups at Baseline, Immediate and after 15 min, 30 mins. A statistically significant difference in mean Salivary pH was observed between the groups at Immediate and after 30 mins (p<0.05). The mean Salivary pH was significantly dropped in Oreo, Dream cream and Hide & Seek groups at various time-periods. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that maximum drop in mean salivary pH was observed in Group IV followed by Group II and Group I. It was observed that in all the groups, the pH gradually got back to near normal levels due to the buffering mechanism of saliva.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Two Different Mouth Rinses on S. mutans Counts in Subjects Undergoing Orthodontic Treatment – A Pilot Study

S. Abirami, Ravindra Kumar Jain, A. S. Smiline Girija

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 148-155
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530638

The study is thus aimed to assess and compare the efficacy of Herbostra oil pulling mouthwash with Chlorhexidine mouthwash in reducing plaque accumulation around orthodontic brackets. A total of 20 patients were considered in this study randomly assigned into Group I (experimental group - Herbostra oil pulling mouthwash) and Group II (reference group-0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash). The plaque index scores were recorded in each individual at baseline (pre) and after 3 weeks (post). Dental plaque samples were collected around the orthodontic brackets at the cervical region of maxillary upper molars and lower incisors by cotton swabbing method and evaluated for the presence of microflora. Paired sample t-test for Streptococcus mutans count showed that statistically significant difference only within the group II (p=0.000) (Chlorhexidine group) and there was no significant difference within the group I (p=0.103) (Herbostra group). Paired sample t-test for plaque index score shows statistically significant difference within the groups (0.000).Independent t test showed statistically significant difference in the levels of  Streptococcus mutans count after 3 weeks between the two groups (p=0.000) with the mean values of (2.230±0.5056), (1.080±0.3458) in group I and group II respectively. From this study we concluded that, even though there was a reduction in plaque scores and S. mutans count with Herbostra oil pulling mouthwash but it was not as effective as Chlorhexidine mouth rinse.

Open Access Original Research Article

Deciphering the Genetic Aberrations in DNA Damage Response Genes and Their Possible Association with HNSCC

L. Akshayaa, A. S. Smiline Girija, A. Paramasivam, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 156-169
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530639

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) includes carcinomas in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. It is considered as the sixth most common form of cancer in the world. Several studies have confirmed that smoking and alcohol consumption are the major risk factors for HNSCC. DNA damage response genes play an important role in the maintenance of the genome. Defects in cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair mechanisms, such as mutation or abnormalities, may lead to the wide spectrum of human diseases. The present study employs databases and computational tools to identify the genetic abnormalities associated with DNA damage related genes which might have a direct or indirect association with HNSCC. The demographic details of HNSCC patients was obtained from The Cancer Gene Atlas (TCGA, Firehose Legacy) dataset hosted by the cBioportal database. The oncoprint data analysis revealed the highest frequency of gene alteration in the ATR gene (15%), followed by ATM, BRCA2 and CHEK2 (5%). Other genes showed less than 5% alteration. The gene expression profile of ATR gene revealed its differential expression pattern in different grades of tumor relative to normal samples. The survival curve analysis using Kaplan-Meier method revealed that a high level expression of the ATR gene leads to poor survival rate in the female HNSCC patients when compared to males. Thus the present study has identified gross and single nucleotide variants in the ATR gene which could have a putative role in the development of tumor. Further experimental research is required to confirm this association.

Open Access Original Research Article

An in silico Analysis of Protein Targeted by Glycyrrhizin in Common Dental Pathogens

S. Balamithra, Smiline Girija, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 170-178
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530640

Glycyrrhizin is a phytocompound which is derived from Glycyrrhiza glabra. It is used in treating the upper respiratory tract disease like cough, bronchitis, laryngitis, sore throat, etc. It has various medicinal uses in rheumatism, peptic ulcers, asthma, allergies, and inflammation. Glycyrrhizin has been reported to possess antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti inflammatory properties. In view of the above facts, the present in silico study was designed to demonstrate the molecular mechanism underlying the antimicrobial activity of glycyrrhizin against common dental pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Enterococcus faecalis and Tannerella forsythia. The STITCH tool was used to identify the drug-protein interaction. The functional class of the protein was deduced using VICMPred, followed by the identification of epitopes on the virulence factors using BepiPred. Further, the subcellular location of the virulence factors were also studied using PSORTb software. The computational analysis performed identified several virulence factors viz., short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family oxidoreductase of Treponema denticola and D-mannonate oxidoreductase of Tannerella forsythia which were found to interact with glycyrrhizin. Interestingly, phosphopyruvate hydratase was found to be the protein present in all the five genera was shown to interact with glycyrrhizin. Thus the present study reveals the target proteins on the dental pathogens which were shown to interact with glycyrrhizin. Furthermore, experimental validation of the results are warranted to provide substantial details on the anti-microbial activity of glycyrrhizin against common dental pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Salivary Changes in Patients on Poly-pharmacy Medications: A Pilot Study

L. M. Abhinaya, Muthukrishnan Arvind

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 179-188
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530641

Saliva is a biological fluid with multifactorial functional applications with regards to the maintenance of general health. Collection of saliva is non-invasive, easy and cost-effective. Xerostomia, a subjective sensation of dry mouth is one of the most common complaints in elderly and patients on polypharmacy as it is proven as a risk factor. Polypharmacy is the simultaneous use of multiple drugs by a patient for more than one systemic disease. The aim of the study was to assess the salivary changes in patients on polypharmacy. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 20 individuals who reported to the Department of Special Care Dentistry at Saveetha Dental College between November to December 2019. The collected samples were then processed for analysis of three salivary parameters-Salivary glucose, amylase and pH. The data were recorded and statistically analyzed. Out of the 20 samples,12 male (60%) and 8 female(40%) with mean age group as 41.2 years. Independent t test showed statistically significant (p<0.05) values for salivary parameters in patients on polypharmacy medication. This study has shown a significant increase in salivary parameters and further studies relating the salivary changes, systemic disease and the medication involved salivary analysis can be suggested as one of the investigations in patients on polypharmacy.

Open Access Review Article

Defluoridation Potential of Rice Husk, Groundnut Shell as a Conventional Alternative for Fluoride Removal – A Review

A. Ashwatha Pratha, Jayashri Prabakar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 124-131
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530635

Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment but we consume it in small amounts. Exposure can occur through dietary intake, respiration and fluoride supplements. The most important factor for fluoride presence in alimentation is fluoridated water. Fluoride content in groundwater has become a national issue affecting the entire India. When the recommended limit of fluoride by WHO is 1.5 mg/L, in some particular parts of India fluoride levels are as high as 35 mg/l. Increased fluoride intake causes dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and neurological problems. Major problems associated with fluoride remediation are lack of cheap adsorbent to remove fluoride content in water for poor communities of India. Hence, development of community-based defluoridation unit is needed with a technique which is cost-effective, technologically simple in operation while being able to keep the fluoride level in permissible limits. On the basis of extensive investigations, different researchers have developed simple and economical domestic defluoridation processes. The present review gives a brief account of prevalence, sources of fluoride toxicity and cost effective defluoridation method carried out on effects of fluoride in the last few decades. Thus cost effective absorbent which has high efficacy in fluoride removal from water can be provided to poor communities thereby preventing fluorosis.

Open Access Review Article

Irritants and Allergens in Dental Materials - A Review

Rinki Susan George, N. P. Muralidharan, Anitha Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 132-138
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1530636

This review aims to develop a systematic approach for the selection of suitable and safer dental materials available in the market thereby giving an insight to predict their risk of inducing allergic reactions. The review was conducted by referring to various relevant articles and retrospective studies. It was noted that the most common allergic reactions in dental staff are allergies to latex, acrylates and formaldehyde. The other dental materials that caused irritation included impression materials, metals, resins, rubber products, amalgam restorations. The study comprehended that dental personnel have high risk of allergy from latex gloves, bio aerosols inhaled during the dental practice, contact dermatitis and from the usage of various other potentially harmful dental materials. On the other hand, the patients have high risk of irritation from commonly used dental materials like metals (gold, mercury, chromium, palladium etc), root canal sealants, obturation materials, formaldehyde, amalgam restorations, resin, acrylates, impression materials, latex and local anesthesia. Patients begin to develop symptoms of stomatitis, burning, tingling, cheilitis, oral lichenoid lesions, lip and facial swelling. The oral cavity is exposed to various sensitizing substances that cause allergic reactions. Hence it is necessary to provide comprehensive dental treatment without compromising the health of the patient.