Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Multi-Drug Resistant E. coli from Drinking Water Sources in a Tertiary Institution

Iniekong Philip Udoh, Ijenwa Amarachi Iloghalu, Seto Tunrayo Aladenika

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230554

Infectious diseases control of recent is a major health concern globally due to high increase in number of microorganisms that are resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. This study aimed at ascertaining the microbiological quality and multiple antibiotic resistance profile of E. coli strains isolated from different sources of drinking water. A total of 136 water samples from different drinking water sources, including the storage tanks (the school and the commercial storage tank), sachet and bottle water were obtained from University of Nigeria Enugu Campus and analyzed. Standard microbiological techniques were employed for bacteria isolation, identification and antibiogram. From the water samples collected 25 E. coli strains were isolated. The school storage tanks account for 60% of the isolates, while bottled water showed no growth. 92% of the E. coli isolated showed resistance to the tested antibiotics. Resistant were higher with Augmentin (64%), Chloramphenicol (48%) and Streptomycin 11 (44%) while most were sensitive to Tarivid and Perfloxacine (100%). Isolates from school storage water sources showed the highest resistance to Augmentin (76.5%) while those from commercial storage water sources showed the highest resistance to Streptomycin (66.7%). Out of the 23 (92%) antibiotics resistant E. coli isolates 18 (78.3%) were multidrug resistance (MDR). The school storage water sources had the highest number of MDR E. coli 14 (77.8%) followed by the commercial storage water sources 4 (22.2%), but the sachet and bottled water had no MDR E. coli. In conclusion, drinking water may potentially contribute to the source of multidrug resistance E. coli in this community

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects Of Short And Long-Term Administration Of Alfalfa On Testicular Histomorphometry In Rats

M. Hadadi, G. Mohammadi, N. Erfani, R. Fatemi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230555

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a plant with phytoestrogenic properties, which has been used as a major part of diets in husbandry. Since there are controversial reports related to the effects of alfalfa consumption on animal fertility, its effects on rat testicular tissue were assessed in the present study. Control (n=15) and alfalfa (n=15) groups were fed with ordinary rat chow and ordinary rat chow plus alfalfa, respectively. Testicles were removed after 30, 45, and 60 days of consumption, and tissue sections were prepared to assess histomorphometric changes related to alfalfa consumption.

Based on the results, there was no significant difference in length, width, and volume of testes of treated rats to control in all groups. But the number of testicular spermatogonia cells, primary spermatocyte cells, primary spermatid cells, testicular spermatozoid cells and Leydig cells significantly or insignificantly increased in rats that received alfalfa for 30 days but all of these parameters insignificantly decreased in rats that received alfalfa for 60 days. The cause of these changes may be due to estrogenic or anti-estrogenic, antioxidant and endocrine effects of alfalfa.

Conclusion: Consumption of alfalfa for short time had only a transient positive effects on testicular tissues but use of alfalfa for 60 days had little destructive effects on testicular tissue in rats. So longer durations of time could be suggested for further research on the effects of alfalfa on rat’s reproduction index.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Giddiness with MRI

Amish Aggarwal, I. Venkatraman, M. Prabakaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230557

Giddiness is a non-specific symptom or feeling that includes sensations such as faintness, light headedness, vertigo and imbalance. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing the cause of giddiness in symptomatic patients. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 106 patients who presented with giddiness. MRI scans of these patients were analysed, and we concluded that MRI can successfully demonstrate the significant findings which cause giddiness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Hepcidin as an Inflammatory Marker in Chronic Kidney Disease

Jyothi Elizabeth Roy, B. Shanthi, V. S. Kalai Selvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230558

Background: Hepcidin is known to be the central regulator of iron homeostasis in the body. It is up-regulated by inflammation and downregulated by anemia. CKD is a state of chronic inflammation seen in kidney. Previous work has shown that serum hepcidin levels were increased in patients with CKD. This was surprising as these patients had a chronic inflammatory state and co-existent anemia.

Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study is to estimate the levels of hepcidin in CKD patients and to check the correlation of hepcidin to inflammation in chronic kidney disease.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, Central Laboratory, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chromepet, Chennai during January 2017 - June 2018 among 50 patients of chronic kidney disease in the age group of 18-60 years. The blood samples were collected using vacutainer system. Samples for serum hepcidin, ferritin and hsCRP were collected in red topped plain vacuum tube. The samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes. The samples were then processed, and values were obtained. The data were analysed using SPSS package.

Results: The mean values of s. Hepcidin, s. ferritin and hsCRP levels were found to be increased in the study population. The mean value of s. hepcidin was found to have strong positive correlation with the mean values of s. ferritin and hsCRP with r-value > 0.7.

Conclusion: Hepcidin levels are elevated in CKD and hepcidin is a predictor of inflammation since it correlated well with the inflammatory markers hsCRP and ferritin levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-proliferative Properties of New Variety Organic Rice MRQ74 Extracts against Colon Cancer Cells: In-vitro Study

Mohd Adzim Khalili Rohin, Norhayati Abd Hadi, Norhaslinda Ridzwan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230560

Aims: To examine the anti-proliferative properties of different extracts of new variety an organic rice MRQ74 towards colon cancer cells: in-vitro study.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Central Laboratory, Tissue Culture Laboratory, University of Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu from November 2019 until February 2020.

Methodology: The organic rice MRQ74 extracts had been led to tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT) assay and an inhibition concentration of 50 (IC50) value for their cytotoxic potential against colon cancer cells. Meanwhile, cells morphology observation and fluorescence double staining of treatment cells were determined using a light inverted microscope and acridine orange/propidium iodide staining.

Results: Results showed that 50% aqueous ethanol of rice grains gave the lowest IC50 values towards HCT-116 and CT-26 cell lines, while an aqueous solution of rice grains gave the lowest IC50 values towards HT-29 cells (p<0.05). Thoroughly, the treated colon cancer cells had shown morphological alterations after treated with different solvent extracts of an organic rice MRQ74.

Conclusion: The outcomes had observed preliminary results on cancer study for better health by inspiring the consumption of an organic rice MRQ74 and future product developments.

Open Access Original Research Article

A HPTLC Method for Determination of Anethole in Essential Oil, Methanolic Extract of Foeniculum vulgare and Commercial Herbal Products

Prawez Alam, Mohammad H. Alqarni, Pravej Alam, Ahmed I. Foudah, Mohammed Ghazwani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-75
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230561

A rapid and feasible method of HPTLC is standardized for quantification of anethole in essential oil’s extract and from herbal formulations of fennel seed. The developed densitometric HPTLC method was performed to estimate the existence of anethole in the essential oil, extract and herbal formulations of fennel with the optimized concentration of hexane: Ethyl acetate (8:2%, v/v, mobile phase) on glass coated silica gel 60 F254 plates (20 × 10 cm) scanned with the absorbance of λ260 nm under densitometric condition.  The Linearity of regressions revealed a satisfactory relationship between peak area and concentration of anethole in between the range of 100-600 ng/spot. This reliable method was validated as per the ICH guidelines to fulfill the necessary parameters such as accuracy and robustness. The amount of anethole in essential oil (0.098 ± 0.002%), extract (0.101 ± 0.004%) and three herbal formulations A (0.024 ± 0.004%), C (0.019 ± 0.002%) while anethole is not detected in B formulations from fennel seed was completely estimated by the developed method. The standardized methods and its validation gave new insights of HPTLC based detection and quantification of anethole in other aromatic plants as well as in other pharmacological formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Metronidazole – Drug Interactions at the Outpatient Setting in Alkharj

Nehad J. Ahmad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 76-80
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230563

Introduction: Metronidazole  is an antibacterial, antiprotozoal and amebicidal agent. It has a good activity against pathogenic anaerobic bacteria, low cost, minor adverse effects and a favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties but still it interacts with many drugs.

Objective: This study aims to assess the interactions of metronidazole with other drugs at the outpatient setting in Alkharj.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study include revision of the electronic records in the outpatient setting in a public hospital in Alkharj in order to determine the incidence of interactions between metronidazole and other drugs in 2017.

Results: In the present study, the concurrent use of metronidazole with azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, domperidone, formoterol and olanzapine may result in increased risk of QT-interval prolongation and arrhythmias. The use of metronidazole with warfarin may result in increased risk of bleeding.

Conclusion: To dispense and prescribe it appropriately antimicrobial stewardship program should be implemented and checking practice should be implemented to avoid the occurrence of Drug - drug interactions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Thrombocytopenia in Hematological Malignancies

Tirumala Kanakadurga Sripati, . Govindarajan, Hemalatha Ganapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 81-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230564

Thrombocytopenia is defined as platelet count < 1.5 lakhs/cumm. It is the commonest platelet abnormality observed in clinical practice with different clinical expression. Thrombocytopenias in hematological malignancies are clonal proliferations of the malignant hematopoietic stem cells characterized by the accumulation of blasts principally in the marrow at the cost of impaired production of normal blood cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate thrombocytopenia in cases of hematological malignancies with study of clinical profile and laboratory parameters in patients with thrombocytopenia. The present study had maximum numbers of patients were in the age group 20-39 years (8 cases). Patients with platelet count more than 150 x 109/L, patients presented with massive hemorrhage, and who received massive colloid or crystalloid transfusion for volume loss are not included in our study. The maximum number of patients presenting with thrombocytopenia were males (18 cases). It was concluded that chronic lymphocytic leukemia are more common than other hematological malignancy cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Mode of Injury, Types of Fractures and Associated Trauma in Unstable Pelvic Fractures

A. R. Arshad, M. R. Rajashekar, . Srinivasan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 86-91
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230565

Aim: The present study was aimed to analyze the mode of injury, different type of fractures and associated injuries in patients with unstable pelvic fractures who are later managed by surgical interventions.

Materials and Methods: The study involved 21 cases of unstable pelvic injuries (Tile type B and C) managed surgically patients.

Results: The result showed that out of 21 patients, 6 patients (28.6%) had associated skeletal and/or soft tissue injuries. Of which 9.4% (n=2) patients had nerve injury. Despite aggressive resuscitation including application of external fixators, the mortality of 10-20% remain unchanged.

Conclusion: Anatomic reduction and internal fixation of unstable pelvic injuries gives excellent stability, allows for early mobility with good functional outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparision of CT Colonoscopy and Conventional Colonoscopy in Evaluation of Colorectal Malignancies

Beno Jefferson, I. Venkatraman, M. Prabakaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 92-98
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230566

CT colonoscopy is one of the recent advances in the field of Computed tomography with various post processing techniques. The aim of work is to evaluate and compare the role of CT colonoscopy and conventional colonoscopy in diagnosing and characterizing the colorectal malignancies.

Subject and Methods: Our study included 50 patients with lower GI sypmtoms; 6 of them had colorectal malignancies. They ranged in age from 28 to 60 years. All patients were subjected to CT colonoscopy examination and results were compared to conventional colonoscopy and documented by histopathology in all cases.

Results: The results in our study showed that CT colonoscopy has equal sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing colorectal malignancies when compared to conventional colonoscopy and further helps in delineating the locoregional extent of the lesion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Different Bioactive Fractions Present in Boerhavia diffusa Linn. Root Extract: An in-vitro Approach

Mohammad Khalid, Mohammed H. Alqarni, Ahmed I. Foudah, Juber Akhtar, Badruddeen ., Ambreen Shoaib, Prawez Alam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 99-107
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230567

Aim and Objectives: Boerhavia diffusa (B. diffusa) frequently known as punarnava is specifically used to replenish the body. The present work was designed to evaluate the scavenging potential of its bioactive constituents.

Materials and Methods: The different fractions of B. diffusa root methanolic extract were examined for phenolic, flavonoids contents, DPPH free radical and Nitric oxide scavenging activities. Further antioxidant activity was evaluated by ABTS free radical scavenging method and also from the reducing potential scavenging activity. The total phenolic content in different fractions by using various solvent like ethanol, diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol were carried out to find the antioxidant activities.

Results: The phenolic content was highest in ethanolic fraction that was significantly comparable with ascorbic acid. The flavonoid content was highest in ethanol fraction (41.93 ± 3.92 µg/mL) followed by n-butanol fraction (31.68 ± 1.72 µg/mL), then ethyl acetate fraction (29.67 ± 2.83 µg/mL) and least in chloroform fraction (16.91 ± 2.74 µg/mL). The ethanolic fraction of B. diffusa also showed highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (101.29 ± 3.78) when compared with other fractions of same extract using different solvent phases. Moreover the nitric oxide scavenging activity of ethanolic fraction was maximum (82.31 ± 2.83) than different fractions. The ethanolic fraction also showed improved ABTS radical scavenging activity (81.73 ± 2.73 mg/mL) while chloroform fraction showed poor ABTS radical cation scavenging activity (29.51 ± 2.79 mg/mL).

Conclusions: The study concludes that Boerhavia diffusa has rich and ample source of phenolic acid and flavonoids. Among all fractions the ethanolic has potent antioxidant activity, which shows its significance for a better novel approach.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Pharmacological Screening for Antidiabetic Activity of Salvia aegyptiaca L. Ethanolic Leaves Extract

Fazil Ahmad, Abeer Mohammed Al- Subaie, Rasheed Ahemad Shaik, J. Muthu Mohamed, Abdul Saleem Mohammad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 122-131
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230569

Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein, which results in high levels of glucose in the body after a meal or fasting. This disease is caused by the absence or reduction of insulin secretion. Accordingly, diabetes is usually classified into two types, Type 1(IDDM) and Type II (NIDDM). The aim of the present study is to carry the phytochemical analysis and antidiabetic activity of Salvia aegyptiaca L ethanolic leaves extract. Phytochemical study was carried out by standard methods, shows the presence of various phytochemical constituents such as, phenols, flavonoids, steroids, proteins, glycosides, carbohydrates, lipids, alkaloids, tannins and terpenoids, while saponins shown to be absent. Antidiabetic activity of Salvia aegyptiaca L were carried out in both normoglycemic and diabetic induced rats. Normoglycemic animal group were fed with ethanolic leaves extract of Salvia aegyptiaca L at a dose of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg alone for 14days, showed decrease in blood glucose level. In diabetic animal group the rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal(i.p) injection of 100 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate, then followed by administration of ethanolic leaves extract of Salvia aegyptiaca (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg) and standard Tolbutamide (50mg/kg,p.o) for14 days. The results of the diabetic induced group also showed decrease in glucose levels. The results of the current investigation demonstrate that various phytochemical present in Salvia aegyptiaca L ethanolic leaves extracts, might be responsible for antidiabetic effect, due to its known antioxidant property.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Lympho-vascular Invasion with Various Known Prognostic Markers in Breast Carcinomna

Moumita Dam, Hemalatha Ganapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 132-142
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230570

Breast cancer is the one of the most frequent neoplasm in women. In the last decades, detection of disease in earlier clinical stages has improved prognosis, however five-year disease-free survival still remains at about 72%. For this reason, continuing efforts to establish reliable prognostic markers are made. The presence of lymph node metastasis is one of the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer.  Studies show that D2-40 immuno-stain demonstrated a significant higher detection of LVI as compared with routine H&E staining in early breast cancer. LVI is associated with axillary lymph node metastases and a long-term prognostic factor. A precise identification of LVI would have a strong clinical impact for breast cancer patients. In this study, we aim to demonstrated.

LVI as a significant predictor of poor prognosis in patients with lymph node- negative patients with primary invasive breast cancer and its association with other known parameters such as tumour size, tumour grade, nodal metastasis and age.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Klebsiella Species from Various Clinical Samples at a Tertiary Care Hospital

K. Sathyavathy, B. Kiran Madhusudhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 143-147
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230571

The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Klebsiella species from different clinical samples at Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, India. Overall 189 samples out of 980 non repetitive clinical samples obtained from wound/pus, urine, sputum swab and blood by disc diffusion method and identified as Klebsiella and analysed. Out of total 189 Klebsiella isolates, 76 out of 155 K. pneumoniae (49%) were resistant and none out of 34 Klebsiella oxytoca (0%) showed resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime by disc diffusion method. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Klebsiella exhibited 100% resistance to Ampicillin. The present study highlights the need for the continued monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of important bacterial pathogens, so that rational antibiotic policies can be formulated.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Estimation and Analysis of Anti HBs Titre in Adolescent Children in Corrleation with Socio Demographic Profile

T. Antony Leo Jerry, S. Sundari, Shanthi Ramesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 148-154
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230572

Introduction: Viruses are the most common causative agents of hepatitis today and infect many millions of individuals annually. Viral hepatitis encompasses several diseases and represents a global health problem. It induces major morbidity and mortality and places enormous demands on economic and medical resources.

Aim of the Study: Analysis of Anti Hbs Titre in Unimmunised Adolescent Children in Correlation with Socio-Demographic Profile.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics at Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai from April 2017 to March 2018. Vaccinated and unvaccinated (for Hepatitis B vaccine)  adolescents between the age group of 10-19 years, who attended the department of Pediatrics, were included in this study. 160 adolescents who were vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine and 160 adolescents who were unvaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine in the age group of 10-19 years. A total of 320 adolescents were included in the study. The correlation was done between two group based on socio-demographic data.

Results: Among the mothers, 10.93% (35) were illiterates, 25.62% (82) had finished primary school. 33.44% (107) and 21.56% (69) had done middle school and higher secondary school (HSS) respectively. 8.45% (27) were graduates. In the study it was found that 7.19% (23) of fathers were illiterates, 23.44% (75) had stopped with primary school and 18.43% (59) with middle school. 34.69% (111) have done HSS and 16.25% (52) were graduates. Of total adolescents who participated in 25.63% (82) were from rural areas and 74.37% (238) were from urban areas. Among participants, 49.37% (158) belong to lower and 30.63% (98) belonged to lower middle class. The middle class and the upper middle class had 9.06% (29) and 10.94% (35) respectively.

Conclusion:  The findings of the present study show the need for catch up vaccination among the adolescent's population, who missed their routine immunization with Hepatitis B vaccine. For health care professionals, this study is a evidence that stresses more about the importance of providing Hepatitis B vaccination among adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Control Measurement and in vitro Bioequivalence of Candesartan Cilexetil Tablets Marketed in Saudi Arabia

Mohammed Al- Bratty, Hassan A. Alhazmi, Hafiz A. Makeen, Asim Najmi, Md Shamsher Alam, Rabea Mussa Rabea Ageeli, Hisham M. A. Muzafar, Nawazish Alam, M. Intakhab Alam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 155-163
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230573

Aim: Some generics were reported to be counterfeit and inferior quality than the innovators. This study was aimed to make sure about the compliance with standard specifications and evaluation of the quality of different selected brands (generic and innovator), after performing different pharmacopeial quality control tests, of Candesartan cilexetil tablets (16 mg) commercially available in Saudi Arabia for hypertensive patients.

Study Design: In vitro study of tablets.

Place and Duration of Study: College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, KSA, between September 2018 and May 2019.           

Methodology: The different generic brands of Candesartan cilexetil (CC) and innovator brand (16 mg) were subjected to weight variation, hardness, friability, assay, and disintegration tests following the established protocols. The purity of active ingredient was authenticated by comparative analysis of FT-IR spectra with pure drug. In vitro bioequivalence was studied after analyzing the results of dissolution summaries in phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) mixed with polysorbate 20 (0.35% v/v).

Results: The results of the tests conducted for evaluation of the tablets were found to be in acceptable limits for all the selected brands. After comparative analysis of FT-IR spectra with pure drug, it was inferred that correct active ingredient was used for the preparation of tablets. The drug release profile exhibited 96.89 – 101.97% of release of CC from all generic brands, in comparison to 99.4% for innovator brand after 60 min of study. The assessment of difference factor (f1<15) and similarity factor (f2>50) revealed the resemblance of generic brands with that of innovator brand. Furthermore, the dissolution efficiency (DE = ±10% of the innovator value) of all generic brands (73.12 – 73.25%) exhibited equivalency with that of innovator brand (70.45%).

Conclusion: The selected generics were considered to be biopharmaceutically equivalent to the innovator and maintained their efficacy. As a consequence, these brands can be used interchangeably by the hypertensive patients in Saudi Arabia.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on the Sexual Functioning among Men with and without Severe Mental Illness

P. Sudhan Raj, Lakshmi Prabha, S. Nambi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 164-171
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230575

Objective: The aim of the study is to compare the sexual functioning among men with and without severe mental illness.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Psychiatry Department, Sree Balaji Medical College and hospital, Chromepet, Chennai Tamilnadu, India from the period of August 2016 to February 2018 (18 months). Cross sectional analytical study: 1. Semi structured questionnaire to capture demographic variables, illness variable, type of sexual practice and their expectations from MHPs. 2. General health questionnaire (12) tamil and English, 3. CAGE screening tool for alcohol. 4. The Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSF) for males (70).

Results: The study population covered 50% of men with severe mental illness and 50% of men without severe mental illness. Among the study population regarding the educational status it was inferred that 70% were literate and only 30% were illiterate. An attempt to identify the mental illness of the study population was made and it was found that among the total cases, the prevailing mental illness was Schizophrenia (27%). Bipolar affective disorder (17%) was ranked as second highest. Delusional disorder, major depressive disorder covered up to 4% and 1% respectively. The comparisons of quantitative variable between the groups were given in Table 7. The median (range) of the age in case was 40 (29, 58) and in controls was 39 (25, 55), which shows that the median value of age between the groups was not found to be statistically significant (P>0.05). The median value of general health questionnaire among the patients with severe mental illness was 26 (18, 34) and in controls it was 1 (0, 4) which shows that this median difference was highly significant (P<0.0001). The median value of CAGE among the cases was 1 (0, 4) and in normal males was 19 (15, 29) which shows that the median difference between the groups were found to be highly significant (P<0.0001). Similarly, the median difference of variables such as BSFI sexual drive, ejection score, ejaculation score, overall satisfaction score, problem assessment score and total score was found to highly significant (P<0.0001). This implies that the sexual function of men with severe mental illness differs significantly from the normal males.

Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction is common among men with severe mental illness than persons without severe mental illness. The male patients with severe mental illness such as Schizophrenia, delusional disorders, BPAD, major depressive disorder have impaired sexual function  compared with the  persons without severe mental illness study group which is evident from the BFSI score (17 in persons with severe mental illness vs 34 in persons without severe mental illness) which is clinically significant. In our study, sexual dysfunction among the men with severe mental illness is not proportional to the duration of the illness & the age of the patients. Recommendations based on gender identity development, attachment, non-sexual and sexual abuse, puberty/adolescence.

Open Access Review Article

A Comprehensive Review on Rheumatoid Arthritis

R. S. Nithyashree, R. Deveswaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230556

Rheumatoid arthritis is an enduring inflammatory disease that is categorized by bumping off the joint and rigidity, bone and cartilage devastation all above the joints. It is an autoimmune disease or disease caused by factors like smoking, obesity, etc. Cytokines are the main inducers for rheumatoid arthritis which produce interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 factors that cause the devastation of synovium and cartilage present at the joints. The deformation of skeletal muscles is observed in an arthritic patient. The present review is a discussion on rheumatoid arthritis that includes etiology, pathology and pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, clinical complications, diagnosis, treatment, therapy, certain patents and applications. The patents include the development of numerous novel techniques for the management of rheumatoid arthritis and diseases associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The targets to treat rheumatoid arthritis are interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, sialoprotein I and several other factors. Different biomarkers are used for different types of rheumatoid arthritis and the mechanism also varies. Certain marketed formulations were enlisted. Recent trends in the management of rheumatoid arthritis are the main concern of this article.

Open Access Review Article

Biomarkers: An Important Tool for Diagnosing and Treating Breast Cancer

Anil Sharma, Tulshi Chakraborty, Sumeet Gupta, Abhishek Sharma, Pratyay Kumar Pahari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230559

Breast cancer is a type of tumor in which individual cases deviate from each other in morphology, protein expression, molecular phenotype, genetic characteristics, and prognosis. Worldwide, breast cancer is the most-common invasive cancer in women. A patient with breast cancer may have the following symptoms:- lumps, skin dimples, nipple discharge, nipple height, nipple withdrawal, pain and burning sensation. There are many causes and risks of breast cancer, including family history (heriditary), obesity, active smoking, early and late childbearing, breast feeding for less than two weeks, exposure to estrogen and oral contraceptive pills. Most breast cancers are diagnosed through estrogen receptor (ER) -positive determination and rely on estrogen for cell growth and survival. Breast cancer treatment has encountered a few progressions in the previous decades with the revelation of explicit prescient prognostic biomarkers that make conceivable the use of individualized treatments. Blocking estrogen biosynthesis by aromatase inhibitors (AI) has, subsequently, become a first-line endocrine treatment for menopausal ladies with ER-positive breast disease. Various conventional diagnosing and treating methods of breast cancer is available but there have limitation of accuracy and treating. For that reason now a day’s various biomarkers like Molecule or Biochemical biomarkers like Estrogen receptor, Progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), human Mammaglobin (H-MAM), Osteopontin, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 (FGFR2), Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), Physiologic Biomarkers like Carcinoma Antigen 15-3(CA 15–3), Cancer Antigen 125 (CA 125), Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and Anatomic Biomarkers Oncotype Dx, and Cystic fibrosis Trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR). These biomarkers are of great importance in the evaluation and diagnosis process, which leads to better patient’s care and protection of the patients. Due to its various advantages, biomarkers are considered as an innovative tool in the progression of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Open Access Review Article

Potential Anticancer Effects of Aged Garlic Extract and its Water-soluble Organosulfur Compounds

Huda Mohammed Alkreathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 108-121
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230568

Background: Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally; it often leads to a steep rise in healthcare expenses. It is a known fact that various dietary ingredients such as aged garlic is an active anticancer agent, and its extracts do not have a strong odor and pungent taste.

Purpose: This review summarizes the potential beneficial effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) and its water-soluble organosulfur compounds on the cancer incidences, and in the prevention and improvement of malignancy factors.

Methods: The study utilizes systematic reviews on publications of previous studies obtained from scholarly journal databases including PubMed, Medline, Ebsco Host, Google Scholar and Cochrane. The study utilizes secondary information based on the studies conducted in cancer cell lines, animal and humans as there are increasing evidence of the efficacy of AGE and AGE-derived water-soluble organosulfur compounds in cancer and other malignancies.

Conclusion and Recommendation: Although animal and laboratory results were mostly consistent, there is variable evidence from human studies. The overall findings suggest that consumption of AGE and AGE-derived organosulfur compounds can offer significant protection against cancer. In our review, we found that there are shortcomings in various studies. Therefore, we recommend that more investigations are necessary to establish whether aged garlic extract could be considered for cancer prevention.