Open Access Short Research Article

Solubility of Calcium Phosphate Crystallization In vitro in Presence of Basella rubra Deproteinized Concoction used in Non-codified Medicine for Urinary Stone

G. Ramu, S. K. Navanita, Roan Ngoc Anh Huy, B. Duraiswamy, S. P. Dhanabal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130547

The solubility of calcium phosphate crystallization in vitro by an deproteinized concoction of Basella rubra plant was investigated by weight reduction assay. Soluble oxalate of the plant are partially removed prior to extraction of plant material. The weight variation and dissolution results reveals that the concoction showed considerable increased activity at the highest concentration used. The results indicate that the calcium phosphate crystal inhibition activity exhibited by the plant material may be due to their calcium phosphate solubilising capacity of phytoconstituents present in them. Regular consumption of an concoction of our plant would be helpful in calculi prophylaxis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes of Tuberculosis Treatment in a Nigerian Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Centre

D. W. Dayom, M. K. Madison, M. A. Adeniyi, B. N. Joseph, C. N. Sariem, S. G. Mohammed, A. P. Lomak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130497

Background: Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem. It causes ill-health among millions of people each year and ranks alongside the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a leading cause of death worldwide. The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical and humanistic outcomes of tuberculosis treatment at the directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) centre in Jos University Teaching Hospital.

Methods: Data for clinical outcomes was collected retrospectively at the directly observed treatment shortcouse centre of Jos University Teaching Hospital from a cross-section of patients’ folders who had been treated for tuberculosis at the study site for at least 12months as at 1st April to 30th September 2018 while a validated questionnaire was administered prospectively to a census population of tuberculosis patients still undergoing treatment between 1st October 2018 and 31st March 2019 to determine the humanistic outcomes. A descriptive data analysis was done using SPSS version 23 and proportions were tested using chi squared statistics with significance level set at P<0.05.

Results: The study revealed that tuberculosis treatment success in the centre was 76.33% which falls short of WHO standard of minimum of 85%. Patients taking tuberculosis treatment in the centre are satisfied with the services rendered to them and the improvement in their health conditions. Unfriendly attitude of some health care providers in the facility is an area for intervention.

Conclusion: Clinical and humanistic outcomes of tuberculosis treatment was found to be satisfactory in the facility owing to the level of treatment success and patient reported satisfaction with facility services and improvement in their health conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Methanolic Extract of Securigera securidaca as Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities

Ghassab M. Al- Mazaideh, Saleh A. Al- Quran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130498

In the present work, the phytochemical screening, polyphenolic content, antibacterial activity and antioxidant activity of Securigera securidaca seeds in methanol were carried out. Phytochemical analysis of seeds showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids and glycosides. Total phenolic content was estimated by Folin Ciocalteau method and the result showed the highest phenolic content of 62.28 mg/g. Methanolic extract was screened for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method and it found to be potent. The MIC of methanol extract identified by broth dilution method showed a MIC value of 0.25 mg/ml for both E. coli and Kl. Oxytoca, and also 0.5 mg/ml for both S. aureus and S. epidermis. The antioxidant effect of the seeds was tested by DPPH scavenging activity as in vitro assay. The extract had potent inhibitory activity (IC50) value of 0.057 mg/ml. The finding experimental results showed that methanolic extract of Securigera securidaca is important as a source of antibacterial activity and polyphenolic antioxidants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficiency of Three Extracts of Carica papaya as Molluscicidal and Anti-schistosomal Agents against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Schistosoma mansoni by Flow Cytometry

Ibrahim Aly, Mona S. Gouida, Hoda E. L. Sayed, Sama M. N. Attiyah, Shaimaa Shaker, Noha A. Elleboudy, Samah I. Ghoname

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130543

Schistosomias is a prevalent parasitic disease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, which comes in the second place in terms of socioeconomic and public health burden. Around 600 million people in 74 countries are infected yearly, predominantly in the developing world. The aim of this work was to assess the efficiency of three extracts from Carica papaya (methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts) for their molluscicidal and anti-schistosomal activities. The LC50 of methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts of Carica papaya against B. alexandrinea were 180, 499.3 and 509.1 mg/L while the respective LC90 values were 220.3, 700.6, 769.6 mg/L respectively. The effect of these extracts on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and larval stages of Schistosma mansoni, for miracidia the LC50 of methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts of Carica papaya against miracidia were 3.4, 15.4 and 8.1 mg/L, respectively, while the respective LC90 values were 8.4, 38.2, 11.2 mg/L, and for  cercariae the LC50 of methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts of Carica papaya were 2, 20 and 4 mg/L, while the respective LC90 values were 13.5, 80.5, 18.5 mg/L respectively  was evaluated, in addition to flowcytometric analysis of CD4, CD25, FOXP3 and TGF-β levels during S. mansoni infection in mice. The in-vivo results showed that the three extracts have variable potential against snails and miracidia and cercariae of S. mansoni. The mortality rate in B. alexandrina snails for methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts of Carcia papay were 86%, 45% and 64%, respectively. While it was 83%, 35% and 66%, respectively in miracidia and 92%, 40% and 70%, respectively in cercariae. The results indicated that methanol extract from Carica papaya recorded higher activity against snails, miracidia and cercariae. The levels of CD4, CD25, FOXP3 regulatory T (Treg) cells were decreased significantly (p<0.001) in infected mice compared to healthy controls. However, there was a significant (p<0.001) increase in levels of TGF-β. A significant increase in the levels of CD4, CD25, and FOXP3 Treg in Carica papaya treated group compared to infected control group, with a significant (p<0.001) decrease in TGF-β level than infected group. In conclusion, methanol extract was more effective at concentration of LC50 180 and LC90 220.3 than ethanol and butanol extracts of Carica papaya therefore controlling B. alexandrina snails by methanol extract is a promising way as it is an eco-friendly strategy in rural areas of developing countries, where schistosomiasis is endemic. Moreover, the increased immune defense mechanism in treated group with the same extracts is a promising target for new immune modulatory strategies against schistosomiasis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sickling Cells Inhibition and Radical Scavenging Activities of Zanthoxylum leprieurii’s (GUILL) Bark Extracts: Comparative Study

K. M. Kplé Tatiana, J. Akakpo- Akue, Fofié Yvette, Ahon Gnamien Marcel, Golly Koffi Julien, Kra Adou Koffi Mathieu, Sanogo Ibrahime, C. A. Yapo-Crezoit Chiayé

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130544

Aims: In traditional medicine, several plant species from Rutaceae’s family have been used to treat sickle cell anemia. However, more studies are needed to corroborate the antisickling activity of Zanthoxylum leprieurii species. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the sickling cell inhibition and radical scavenging activities of hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of Zanthoxylum leprieurii’s bark, a plant species used in the management of sickle cell anemia in eastern Côte d’Ivoire.

Methods: Hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Zanthoxylum leprieurii were prepared. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical tests were carried out. In addition, diphenyl 1, 2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was used to determine the antioxidant potential of these two extracts. The antisickling activity of two extracts was determined by the Emmel method.

Results and Discussion: Zanthoxylum leprieurii’s barkextracts have demonstrated antioxidant property. The IC50 value of the hydroethanolic extract (0.308±0.06) was lower than that of the decocted (0.434 ±0.06). At 10 mg/mL, the sickling cell inhibition of DZL was 81% ±2.66 while EZL was 89% ±0.44. The presence of alkaloids, sterols, Polyterpenes and phenolic compounds in both extracts could explain the sickling inhibition activity of these extracts. All the extracts revealed an antioxidant and antisickling activities higher than the standard.

Conclusion: The hydroethanolic extract (EZL) demonstrated a higher antisickling activity and exhibited a better free radical scavenging activity. The use of Zanthoxylum leprieurii’s bark in the traditional management of sickle cell anemia is justified.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Molecular Docking Study against COVID-19 Protease with a Pomegranate Phyto-Constituents 'Urolithin' and Other Repurposing Drugs: From a Supplement to Ailment

Varish Ahmad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-62
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130545

Aim: We conducted an in silico study on Urolithin and different antimicrobial agents targeting virus protease and peptidase.

Methodology: The docking study was completed by using docking tools. Drug compounds and COVID-19 receptor molecules were prepared, docking was performed and interaction was visualized through Discovery Studio visualizer.

Results: Urolithin A has interacted against peptidase (PDB ID:2GTB) with binding energy -6.93 kcal/mol and against protease (PDB ID:6LU7) with  the binding energy -5.46 kcal/mol, while Urolithin B has interacted to peptidase (PDB ID:2GTB)  with binding energy -6.74 kcal/mol  and with protease it interacted with a binding energy -4.67 kcal/mol. The antimicrobial agent Ofloxacin was found to interact against protease (PDB ID:6LU7) with a binding energy -6.84 kcal/mol and  against protease (PDB:6LU7)  with a binding energy -8.00 kcal/mol.

Conclusion: The most common interacting amino acids of target enzymes of the virus with studied drugs were His41, His164, Met165, Glu166, Gln189. From the docking studies, it is observed that Ofloxacin and Urolithin have the potential to inhibit the virus protease as well as peptidase significantly and these could prevent the entry of the virus to the inside of the host cell. Thus, further antiviral research on these antimicrobial agents and Urolithin could be helpful to control the COVID-19 disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Classification of Control and Neurodegenerative Disease Subjects Using Tree Based Classifiers

Syed Ahsin Ali Shah, Nazneen Habib, Wajid Aziz, Ehsan Ullah Khan, Malik Sajjad Ahmed Nadeem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 63-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130546

Background: The medical researchers are developing different non-invasive methods for early detection of Neurodegenerative Diseases (NDDs) when pharmacological interventions are still possible to further prevent the disease progression. The NDDs are associated with the degradation in the complex gait dynamics and motor activity. The classification of gait data using machine learning techniques can assist the physicians for early diagnosis of the neural disorder when clinical manifestation of the diseases is not yet apparent.

Aims: The present study was undertaken to classify the control and NDD subjects using decision trees based classifiers (Random Forest (RF), J48 and REPTree).

Methodology: The data used in the study comprises of 16 control, 20 Huntington’s Disease (HD), 15 Parkinson’s Disease (PD), and 13 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) subjects, which were taken from publicly available database from Physionet. The age range of control subjects was 20-74, HD subjects was 36-70, PD subjects was 44-80, and ALS subjects was 29-71. There were 13 attributes associated with the data. Important features/attributes of the data were selected using correlation feature selection - subset evaluation (cfs) method. Three tree based machine learning algorithms (RF, J48 and REPTree) were used to classify the control and NDD subjects. The performance of classifiers were evaluated using Precision, Recall, F-Measure, MAE and RMSE.

Results: In order to evaluate the performance of tree based classifiers, two different settings of data i.e. complete features and selected features were used. In classifying control vs HD subjects, RF provides the robust separation with classification accuracy of 84.79% using complete features and 83.94% using selected features. While in classifying control vs PD subjects, and control vs ALS subjects, RF also provides the best separation with classification accuracy of 86.51% and 94.95% respectively using complete features and 85.19% and 93.64% respectively using selected features.

Conclusion: The variability analysis of physiological signals provides a valuable non-invasive tool for quantifying the system of dynamics of healthy subjects and to examine the alternations in the controlling mechanism of these systems with aging and disease. It is concluded that selected features encode adequate information about neural control of the gait. Moreover, the selected features along with tree based machine learning algorithms can play a vital for early detection of NDDs, when pharmacological interventions are still possible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medicinal Plant, Anoectochilus: Distribution, Ecology, Commercial Value and Use in North Vietnam

Trinh Ngoc Bon, Trieu Thai Hung, Phung Dinh Trung, Tran Cao Nguyen, Dang Thi Hai Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoai Anh, Hoang Thanh Son, Tran Hai Long, Pham Quang Tuyen, Ninh Viet Khuong, Tran Hoang Quy, Vu Van Nam, Tran Van Do

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130551

Background: Anoectochilus orchids have been widely used as medicine. However, it has been overharvested in nature because of high commercial values. This study aims at identifying distribution ranges and ecological characteristics of Anoectochilus orchids serving for sustainable development and describing traditional uses by ethnic people in Lai Chau Province, North Vietnam.

Methods: Twenty-one plots of 100 m2 each (10 m × 10 m) were established for ecological survey and stand structures were analyzed for vegetation characteristics. While interviewing was applied to gather information on harvesting method, marketing, and medicinal uses.

Results: Three Anoectochilus orchids (A. lanceolatus, A. calcareus, and A. setaceus) were found in Lai Chau Province, North Vietnam. These species distribute in both evergreen old-growth and secondary broadleaved forests, and mixed broadleaf-bamboo forest on the elevations of 996–2,134 m. They grow in forests with a high canopy cover of 67 m2 canopy area/ 100 m2 land and high cover (> 90% land) of low vegetation (< 2 m tall). It is believed that using the whole plant of Anoectochilus can treat hypertension and diabetes mellitus and improve the development of underdeveloped children. The folk uses include soaking in alcohol and boiled water for daily drinks like green tea, and consuming as a vegetable. The best harvesting season is during Autumn–Winter and fresh product is mainly marketed with the price of up to 100 U$D/1 kg fresh mass.

Conclusion: A. lanceolatus, A. calcareus and A. setaceus are potential forest herbs for poverty reduction to ethnic communities in North Vietnam. The natural populations have been reduced remarkably because of overharvesting. Growing techniques are an urgent need for the conservation and sustainable development of such valuable orchids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistant Enterococcus sp. Isolated from Clinical Samples

Fawaz Alshammari, Mohammad Jahoor Alam, Amir Saeed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 93-101
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130553

The present study has been targeted towards; investigation of molecular epidemiology and analysis of antibiotic resistance in different bacterial sp. Total 120 new bacterial isolates has been obtained having majority of bacteria Enterococcus sp. from 4 regional hospitals of 92 patients. The antimicrobial susceptibility test has been performed using 18 different antibiotics and resistant strains have been analyzed. Additionally, the isolated strains were tested for antibiotic resistance and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been performed for van A and van B genes. In the series of antimicrobial bacterial species Enterococcus sp. has emerged as one of the potential cause to raise the healthcare problems. This study has significant impact on such kind of molecular epidemiology investigations and may be useful in producing the basic knowledge on the local microorganism to refine and resolve the antimicrobial resistance issues faced by hospitals in the world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Self-Medication Practice among Amman’s Householders: Prevalence and Factors

Salah A. Al Shehade, Derar H. Abdel-Qader, Raghdaa H. Al Zarzour, Abdul Razzak Alshehadeh, Salim Hamadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 102-113
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130562

Aims: This study is set out to explore the prevalence and the influencing factors of self-medication practice, besides, to assess the knowledge levels of Amman’s householders.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using pre-tested questionnaires. The householders (n=601) were randomly selected from two disparate regions in Amman (West and East), which reflect different segments of the society.

Results: Self-medication was practised by more than half (53.1%) of Amman’s Householders. The East of Amman householders shows a relatively lower rate (49.7%) of self-medication than the West of Amman ones (56.5%), which can be attributed to the higher ability to pay for medicines and a higher level of knowledge among West residents that might allow them to go directly to the pharmacies without consulting a physician. The relatively severe illness (e.g. respiratory diseases and eye complaints) showed the lowest influence for self-medication, which indicates a good level of awareness about the importance of consulting the health care professionals. Furthermore, the two main reasons for self-medication were experiencing a good result from previous self-medication (87.8%) and saving time (84.6%). The self-medication practice was associated with the education level and the knowledge level; the knowledge level of West of Amman residents was correlated positively with the self-medication practice prevalence; nevertheless, East ones presented a less notable pattern.

Conclusion: There is a knowledge gap regarding the proper SM practice, the health professionals must effectively educate the patients regarding the responsible self-medication practice and thus limit the adverse outcomes.

Open Access Review Article

Safety Profile and Toxicity Amelioration Strategies of Common Adverse Effects Associated with Anticancer Medications

Mallik Singaraju, Subish Palaian, Pathiyil Ravi Shankar, Sunil Shrestha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130499

More than half the cancer patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy develop adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Cancer chemotherapeutic agents have a lower risk-benefit ratio than other drug therapy and kill cancerous as well as the normal rapidly dividing cells including bone marrow cells, gastrointestinal epithelium, hair follicles, etc. Their main ADRs are nausea and vomiting, mucositis, constipation, diarrhea, hematological toxicities, cardiac toxicity, alopecia, gonadal toxicity, pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. The severity of the adverse effects may range from mild nausea to life-threatening neutropenia. Administering premedication and antidotes are very vital in these patients. Upon the occurrence of adverse effects, immediate steps should be taken to manage them. Though the ADRs due to anticancer medications are not avoidable, careful monitoring of the patients and modulating the drug schedules/dosages can help in minimizing them. Healthcare professionals should also develop strategies to minimize the occupational hazards associated with these drugs.