Open Access Original Research Article

Hematological Changes and Antidiabetic Activities of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schatt Stem Tuber Aqueous Extract in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Nwaogwugwu, Joel . Caleb, Uhegbu, F. O., Okereke, S. C., Nosiri, C. I., Amaka, E. N., Idume Joy Nwamaka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1030487

Management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of diabetes. Much work has not been done on the management of diabetes using the stem tuber extract of Colocasia esculenta. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and hematological parameter on Colocasia esculenta aqueous stem extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Sixty (60) male rats were used in the study. Seven days of acclimatization, the rats were divided randomly into six groups of five in each group. Group 1: Served as normal control, Group 2: Diabetic control group (negative control), Group 3: Diabetic group and “Glucinorm-M80” (positive control), Group 4: Diabetic group and extract at 200 mg/kg bodyweight, Group 5: Diabetic group and extract at 400 mg/kg, Group 6: Diabetic group and extract at 600 mg/kg. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan at a single dose of 120 mg/kg body weight in groups 2 to 6 after starving them for 24 hrs. The animals were given feed and water ad libitum. The albino rats were administered for twenty eight days with the aqueous Colocasia esculenta stem tuber, after which they were fasted overnight, anaesthetized with chloroform and sacrificed. The result showed that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in mean body weight of the positive control and the treatment groups (200 mg/kg to 600 mg/kg) when compared with the negative control which has a significant decrease (p<0.05) in mean body weight. The result also showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the concentrations of RBC, PCV, HB, while PLT and MCH showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in the treatment groups and negative control group when compared with the normal control group. Also there was a no significant (P<0.05) difference in MCHC of the treatment groups when compared with the control group and negative control group. Also there was a significant difference in glycosylate hemoglobin of the treatment groups when compared with the control group and negative group. This study has demonstrated that aqueous stem tuber extract of Colocasia esculenta has a significant increase on body weight which may have a role of improving the states of possible weight loss following complicated diabetes. Also, aqueous stem tuber extract of Colocasia esculenta has an ameliorative effect on sugar level and some hematological parameters of alloxan induced diabetic rats showing effective diabetic control and management of diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and in vitro Characterization of Donepezil-loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

Muhammad Wahab Amjad, Nawaf Mohamed Alotaibi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1030488

Millions of people are affected globally by alzheimer’s disease and it is regarded as a dangerous progressive medical and socio-economic burden. The drug delivery to brain is hindered due to the presence of blood brain barrier. Nanoparticle mediated drug delivery is a promising approach in this regard. Chitosan is a hydrophilic polysaccharide polymer of N-acetylglycosamine and glucosamine. Owing to its biodegradability, nontoxicity and biocompatibility it is regarded as a safe excipient. The aim of the study was to fabricate donepezil-loaded sustained release chitosan nanoparticles as a simple way to deliver nano-drugs to the brain. The nanoparticles were fabricated using ionic gelation method using different concentrations of Sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and chitosan. The fabricated nanoparticles were assessed for particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. The effect of sonication time on the particle size of nanoparticles was also studied. The nanoparticles exhibited mean particle size (between 135-1487 nm) and zeta potential (between +3.9-+38mV) depending on chitosan and TPP concentration used. The rise in the sonication time from 25 to 125 sec exhibited a decrease in particle size. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be in the range of 39.1-74.4%. Sustained and slow release of donepezil at a constant rate was exhibited from nanoparticles. The nanoparticles show potential to deliver donepezil to brain with enhanced encapsulation efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Dermal Acute Irritation Potential of Natural Veterinary Medicine Minyak Rajas in Albino Rabbits

I Made Merdana, Anak Agung Gde Arjana, Sri Kayati Widyastuti, Tisa Tetrania, Ketut Budiasa, Luh Made Sudimartini, I Wayan Sudira

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1030489

Aims: This study was designed to assess the potential for acute dermal irritation of natural veterinary medicine Minyak Rajas (produce by Songgolangit Persada Limited Company, Bali, Indonesia) in albino rabbits. It is a rather thick liquid which contains various medicinal herbal extracts, formulated with effective microorganism technology. This medicine is effective in the treatment of skin infections and inflammation, wounds, intestinal worms and digestive disorder. Additionally, it works for game fowl muscle strengthening.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Veterinary Pharmacy and Pharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University, between April 2020 and May 2020.

Methodology: Experimental animals used were three male albino rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in healthy conditions and weighing of >2 Kg. Test procedures followed the guidelines of Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and chemicals used were applied in a single dose of 0.5 ml on animal skins, with untreated skin as a control.

Results: Very slight erythema was found after the Minyak Rajas application and the lesion was about 48 hours. Overall, no severe erythema, edema or other skin lesions were observed. According to the Amanded Draize system, the Primary Irritation Indexes of 0.16 is categorized as non-irritating.

Conclusion: We conclude that the natural veterinary medicine of Minyak Rajasis safe to be used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Reported E-prescribing Medication Administration Errors at King Saud Medical City, Riyadh: A Cross-Sectional, Retrospective Study

Dalal Salem Al- Dossari, Mohammed Ibrahim Alnami, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1030491

Background: Drug prescription error is a medication error that most frequently happens in healthcare organizations and adversely affects the healthcare consumers. Most medication errors (MEs) but not all are captured and corrected before reaching the patient by designed system controls. Medication administration errors (MAEs) mostly are made by nurses but frequently reported by clinical pharmacists in hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze exclusively the voluntarily reported drug administration errors in a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh city.

Methods: This cross-sectional, retrospective study evaluated consecutively collected medication administration report forms over a period of one year from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015.

Results: The number of MAEs occurring during stage of drug administration constituted 7.1% (n=971) of total medication errors (n=13677). The maximum number of MEs (n=6838, 50%) and MAEs (n=455, 46.9%) occurred during the 4th quarter of the year 2015. The most common MAE happened to be category C (n=888, 91.5%) which means error occurred, reached the patient but without causing any harm. Concerning MAE types, the most common error included wrong frequency (40%) followed by wrong drug (17%), wrong time of administration (16%) and wrong rate of infusion (10%). Nurses made the most of the errors (92.2%) while the clinical pharmacists reported the most MAEs (75.5%). High alert medications (HAM) errors constituted 32.3% (n=314) of MAEs (n=971) and most common HAM errors included the wrong route of administration of Lanus Insulin (15%) followed by Insulin Aspart (15%), Enoxaparin (13%) and Insulin Protamine-Nvomix (12%). Look-alike and sound-alike (LASA) errors constituted 55.2% of MAEs (971/536) and most common LASA drugs identified were Gentamycin (13%), Insulin Mixtard (11%), NPH Insulin (8%) Intralipid vial (8%) and Insulin regular (6%).

Conclusion: This retrospective study provides some important tentative pharmacovigilance insights into MAEs, which are partially comparable with current international trends in drug administration errors. Further studies on MAEs are warranted not only in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia but also other Gulf countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Some Pyrazolone Derivatives

Faruk Alam, Ruhul Amin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-55
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1030492

A sequence of novel pyrazolone derivative was produced by the reaction of 2, 4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (0.1 mol) and ethyl acetoacetate with benzaldehydes followed by hydrazine hydrate and  finally treated with secondary amine and formaldehyde and the synthesized compounds were characterized by their physical properties (M.P and TLC) and UV, IR, 1HNMR, Mass spectroscopic studies respectively. The entire synthesized complex was tested for their anthelmintic, antimicrobial and haemostatic activity against gram-positive and gram-negative strains of bacteria and Eudrilus eugenia and human venous blood. The antimicrobial activity of synthesized pyrazolone derivatives was assessed by agar cup method. All the synthesized complexes were screened for the antimicrobial, athelmintic and haemostatic activity against some gram (+ve), Gram(-ve) organisms, Eudrilus eugenia and human venous blood. The complexes exhibited reasonable to upright activity when compared with the standard one.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Histopathological Study of Cisplatin-induced Acute Vascular Injuries in Vital Organs and Protective Effect of Achillea millefolium

Zahra Eslamifar, Susan Sabbagh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 56-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1030493

The aim was to study the protective effect of ethanolic extract of Achillea millefolium on acute vascular injuries induced by cisplatin in liver, heart and renal tissues 24 hour after administration and using histopathological surveys in wistar rats. 24 adult male wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group I (control group) received physiological saline for 10 days. Animals of group II had single dose of injection of CP (cisplatin) (6 mg/kg, IP) on the ninth day. Group III received Achillea millefolium extract (250 mg/kg, gavage) for 10 consecutive days. Group IV had both Achillea millefolium extract (250 mg/kg, gavage) for 10 consecutive days and a single dose of injection of CP (6 mg/kg, IP) on the ninth day. Kidney, liver and heart organs were collected on 10th day from sacrificed rats and subjected to histopathological analysis. Then the possible histopathological vascular effects of cisplatin on liver, heart, kidney tissues and the protective effect of Achillea millefolium extract was analysed. Obtained data showed the vascular injuries in CP group as congestion of cardiac capillaries (p=0.00) and interstitial edema (p=0.03). In the kidney, shrinkage of glomeruli (p=0.04), widening of Bowman's space (p=0.04), dilatation of cortical capillaries (p=0.01) were significantly altered. The findings of liver organ were increased sinusoidal space (p=0.00) and infiltration of neutrophils in portal space (p=0.01). Pretreatment with ethanolic extract of Achillea millefolium could attenuate these vascular injuries. Briefly, 24 hour after single injection of cisplatin the inflammatory process was seen in vital organs and administration of Achillea millefolium could mitigate these side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Foeniculum vulgare Fortified Diet on Coagulation Profile and Some Biochemical Parameters

Afshan Abbas, Rahila Ikram, Faiza Hasan, Qurrat Ul Ain Bukhari, Sana Sarfaraz, Abeer Adil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1030495

Aims: Coagulation profile shows the clotting ability of blood. Biochemical tests indicate health status of vital organs such as liver, heart and kidneys. Herbal products are being assessed for their role in affecting these parameters. We evaluated role of Foeniculum vulgare incorporated diet on coagulation profile and some important biochemical parameters.

Study Design:  Laboratory centred randomized controlled trial.

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmacology Department of University of Karachi, Karachi between June 2018 and September 2018.

Methodology: After selecting 30 healthy rabbits of either sex, we placed them in three groups; Control, 2% Foeniculum vulgare and 4% Foeniculum vulgare group. Control group was given standard diet whereas; 2% and 4% Foeniculum vulgare groups were maintained on standard diet containing 2% and 4% Foeniculum vulgare crushed seeds. Coagulation profile and some biochemical parameters were done after interval of a month, for two months.

Results: Platelet count and fibrinogen increased while activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) levels decreased in both the study groups animals as compared to control, while blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) elevation was noted both Foeniculum vulgare groups but within normal range.

Conclusion: Foeniculum vulgare may have some role in affecting coagulation and biochemical profile These parameters, however, need clinical trial to validate reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Metformin as an Adjuvant Therapy Attenuates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-induced Acute Colitis in Rats

Rania M. Magadmi, Fahad H. Aljahdali, Mustafa Alsawy, Ahmed S. Ali, Fatemah O. Kamel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-96
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1030496

Aims: In numerous cases, patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are refractory to standard treatment. Sirolimus (SIR) and tacrolimus (TAC) are immunosuppressant drugs with encouraging outcomes. However, they have side effects causing limitations in their use. Metformin (MET), which is an antidiabetic drug, has promising anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, this study aimed to validate the effect of the concomitant administration of MET and SIR or TAC in the management of experimentally induced colitis.

Study Design: Dextran sulphate (DSS) induced colitis model was used.

Methodology: Colitis was induced by administering 5% DSS in water twice daily via oral gavage for 9 days. MET 200 mg/kg alone or in combination with SIR 1 mg/kg or TAC 1 mg/kg was started on day 7 and was continuously administered for 12 days. Then, samples of distal colon tissues were collected for histopathological and immunohistochemistry staining. Then, the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-17A levels in tissue homogenates were measured.

Results: MET, SIR or TAC significantly attenuated the effect of DSS and the levels of all pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, adding MET reinforces the effect of SIR and TAC.

Conclusion: MET had a strong anti-inflammatory effect against DSS-induced colitis. Hence, it could be a promising adjuvant therapy in the management of IBDs. The effect was mediated, in part, by inhibiting NF-κB activation. However, the results of this study must be further validated and translated to clinical implications.

Open Access Review Article

Common Drugs with Effective Off-Label Uses

Mohammed M. Alshehri, Mahmoud M. E. Mudawi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1030490

The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is utilized broadly in the medical literature. It is a polarizing term since it may be related to incredible advantage or harm to patients. OLDU is defined as drug uses that not included in the indications or dosage regimens listed in the drug labeling. The main issue with off-label use is that there is insufficient information supports the use of the drug so this review aims to give brief information about some common drugs with effective and useful off-label uses based on scientific study and to encourage the researcher to provide sufficient information for the physician and health care providers about off-label uses to decrease the risk of harm to the patients. There are many drugs with various off-label uses that play an important role clinically such as using atorvastatin in chronic heart failure (CHF) due to its pleiotropic action also it can show a significant reduction in the frequency of hospitalization due to CHF exacerbation. However, that make off-label uses an important is several diseases do not have approved drugs, partly because the diseases are rare or conducting clinical trials and marketing the drug for such diseases may not be gainful.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19, Various Treatment Options and Special Considerations for Dentistry

Smita Singh Bhardwaj, Sami Alduwayhi, Atul Bhardwaj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1030494

Objective: The aim of this article is to analyze the epidemiology of COVID-19, comparison of routes of transmission in children and adults, comparing the clinical symptoms in adults and children, treatment protocol to be followed and possible treatment options during this pandemic. Data Sources: Data is collected from Pubmed, Medline and Embase databases.

Discussion from Previous References Used: Few studies have been done to analyze its effect on children comparing the symptoms of adults and children. Also very less work is done to analyze the special precautions taken while doing dental treatment during this pandemic.

Conclusion: The widespread effect of Coronavirus (COVID-19) or SARS-CoV-2 has created health concerns in the world. Although efforts have been taken to control the disease, it is still increasing due to the community spread. Health professionals may get patients in their practice with this infection and should prevent its spread.

Clinical Significance of this Article: It will help us to differentiate the specific clinical symptoms of adult and pediatric patients coming to dental clinics and the special considerations for them including the emergency dental treatment during COVID-19.