Open Access Short Research Article

Kewda (Pandanus odorifer) Flower Derived Phytochemicals against Salutaridine Reductase of Hepatitis Virus Causing Hepatitis A

Pratyasa Pradhan, Nibedita Patra, Subhadra Manjari Parida, Hrudaya Ballava Dash, Bhagyeswari Behera, Srimay Pradhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 122-125
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930542

Pandanus odorifer plant extract is traditionally used to cure Hepatitis A. It is caused by Hepatitis virus. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that 1, 2, 3-benzene triol can effectively deactivate the salutaridine reductase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Variation in an Outpatient Antibiotic Prescription Rates in Alkharj

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930476

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the seasonal variations in dispensing antibiotic prescriptions in the outpatient setting of a public hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. The outpatient prescriptions in 2017 and 2018 were collected from medical records in a public hospital in Alkharj.

The data include the number of prescribed antibiotics in general, the number of prescribed antibiotics in different months and seasons in the outpatient setting.

Results: In the outpatient setting in 2017 and 2018, antibiotics were prescribed excessively in most of the months. About 27.84 %of the prescriptions in 2017 were in spring season and about 26.64% of the prescriptions in 2018 were in autumn. Total number of antibiotics prescriptions in 2017 and 2018 were 5348 in spring followed by 5097 in autumn.

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed the widespread use of antibiotics by practitioners that was associated with season of prescribing. In general, there are excess use of antibiotics in all months. It is important to understand how the prescribing of antibiotic varies throughout the year to design an appropriate intervention to decrease incorrect antibiotic use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sleeping Duration, Bedtime and BMI and Their Rapport on Academic Performance among Adolescents

Walid Abu Rayyan, Shadi Salem, Wael Abu Dayyih, Aseel Al Shawareb, Riad Awad, Yazan S. Batarseh, Hisham Y. Al Matubsi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930477

Background: Proper development of cognitive skills during childhood is substantially connected with adequate sleeping. Sleeping is drastically undergoing pattern changes during the shifting from childhood to adolescence. The academic acquisition is a multifactorial process with devastating inputs. Academic achievement directly correlates with the behavioral attitudes of students. Shorter sleeping duration erodes the volume of brain gray matter in frontal and precuneus cortex regions. Moreover, the concomitant depletion of neurotransmitters is proportionally connected with inadequate sleeping.

Aims: To evaluate the associations between bedtime initiations, sleeping sufficiency and objective academic performance in a large sample of second secondary students.

Methods: The study sample consisted of 900 adolescents; 450boysand 450 girls in the second secondary class at Hail city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Participants filled a questioner about their socioeconomic factors as bedtime, sleeping duration, mental games practicing, and physical activity. Weight and height were measured to assess body mass index (kg/m2). Data extracted from the questioner used to study the contribution of the concomitant factors on academic achievement.

Results: The mean weight was 73.57±8.34 kg IQR (44-126) while the mean height was (170.38±6.45) cm IQR (141-192). The mean BMI was 33.57±14.79(IQR 21.0–38.8). The overall prevalence of childhood obesity was 460 (49.6%; 95% CI: 55.3–66.8%) while the prevalence of overweight was 85 (9.04%; 95% CI: 7.3 –11.4%). The mean ministry academic score for the second secondary class was 70±9.99 IQR (44- 99) while the school academic score was 88.07±7.44 IQR (60-99). 51.6% of the students went to bed between 10-12 pm and only 17.6% slept between 8 and 10 hours.

Conclusion: We can summarize, the independent variables as bedtime, sleeping duration, and obesity ameliorate academic achievement in a counteractive way; high BMI above 35 and prolonged sleeping duration more than 10 hours significantly curb the total academic score, whereas, healthy bedtime of 8-10 pm concomitantly augment the academic achievement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Examination of Bacterial Pathogens an in Intensive Care Unit of a Military Hospital in Alkharj

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930478

Aim: The present study was undertaken to identify the most common infectious agents for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients in a military hospital in Alkharj – Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: This study was conducted in a military hospital in Alkharj – Saudi Arabia. Identification of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was performed with standard microbiological methods.

The isolates that are collected from ICU from blood, urine and other samples in the year 2019 are included.

Results: Out of 992 bacterial isolates only 6.15% were collected from ICU. The majority of the bacteria that were found in the ICU were Gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria that were found in ICU were Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

Conclusion: We found differences in the prevalence of bacteria in the ICU compared to other studies. The predominant bacteria in ICU were Staphylococcus aureus. The present data could help physicians to know the causative organisms and to administer the most suitable antibiotics for treatment of nosocomial infections in Alkharj area after knowing the susceptibility rate of bacteria to different antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Knowledge and Self-medication Practices towards Antibiotics among Future Healthcare Professionals in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

Mariam Aboulilah, Sara Ahmed, Razan Jarjouma, Razan Sabri, Subish Palaian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930479

Objectives: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge and self-medication behavior among health professions students regarding antibiotic usage.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administrated questionnaire. A sample of 424 questionnaires was distributed randomly among health science students of a medical university in Ajman, UAE. The questionnaire is categorized into three sections which are Socio-demographic details of the participant, knowledge and self-medication practice of antibiotic. The data was entered in MS Excel spread sheet and analyzed as per the study objectives.

Key Findings: Upon assessing the knowledge of respondents, authors found 85.8% of the students were familiar with the term ‘antibiotic resistance’. Half of the students agreed that antibiotics treat common cold quickly. Regarding the self-medication practices, 55.6% (n= 236) of students reported that they always take antibiotic without prescription. Cold and flu was the common reason for using antibiotics. Augmentin (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid) was the common medication used among the students. Nearly one third of the respondents (32.78%; n=139) saved the antibiotics in case of reinfection.

Conclusions: In conclusion, antibiotic usage was common among study respondents. Preventive strategies, antibiotic stewardship programs, training, education programs and more restriction towards antibiotic dispensing should be implemented to avoid the misuse and antibiotic resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated in 2018 from Patients in a Military Hospital

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930480

Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of bacterial pathogens isolated from patients in a military hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: This was a retrospective study conducted to describe the prevalence of bacterial pathogens in 2018. Clinical culture results were collected from laboratory in a military hospital from 01-01-2018 to31-12-2018.

Results: The most common bacteria were Escherichia coli bacteria followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram negative bacteria were collected mainly by urine culture while gram positive bacteria were collected mainly from wound/pus/skin cultures.

Conclusion: In general, from this study it can be concluded that the rate of bacterial infections is high. It is important to follow the healthcare professional recommendations such as hand washing and other measures to prevent the occurrence of infections. Moreover, health care professional should know the causative bacteria to give the appropriate treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (Candesartan) and Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Inhibitor (Enalapril) Combined with Glimepiride on Glycated Hemoglobin in Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetic Rats (NIDDM)

Abdulwahab Al-Badri, Eyad Mallah, Zainab Zakarya, Ramadan Al-Shdefat, Feras Darwish El-Hajji, Mo’ath Ifraitekh, Abeer Kharshid, Wael Abu Dayyih

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930481

Background: Antihypertensive agents like Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Blockers (ARBs) are commonly indicated for patients with both hypertension and diabetes. However, the effect of these agents on blood sugar level or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is still controversial. This study aims at investigating the short, and long term effects of ACEIs and ARBs on blood sugar level and HbA1c of a group of streptozocin (STZ)-induced NIDDM rats when given in combination with Glimepiride (antidiabetic drug from Sulfonylureas group).

Methods: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced in 100 Wistar albino adult male and female laboratory rats above 8 weeks old, and weigh between 250-300 gm by the administration of Streptozocin 75% α-anomer. Two weeks later, the 100 rats were then randomized into four groups (25 rats each). Group one was the untreated control group (received placebo only), while other groups (II, III, and IV) were treated by Glimepiride only, Glimepiride plus ARB (Candesartan), and Glimepiride plus ACEI (Enalapril) respectively. HbA1C levels were measured at baseline (pre-test/directly after randomization) to ensure that there was no significant difference between study groups at the baseline, post-test (after two weeks), and delayed-post-test (12 weeks after randomization/ 10 weeks after post-test) to measure short and long-term changes in the study groups.

Results: There was no significant difference (p-values >0.05) between the four groups (groups I, II, III, and IV) in the HbA1C mean level at the beginning of this study (two-weeks after randomization and injection of STZ) (mean = 7.62 ±SD = 0.41, 7.72 ±SD = 0.48, 7.66 ±SD = 0.47, and 7.52 ±SD = 0.51respectively). However, two weeks later, treated groups (groups II, III, and IV) showed moderate reduction of HbA1C mean level compared to the untreated (placebo) group I, that was significant in groups III, and IV, and insignificant in group II (mean =7.43±SD 0.54, 6.97±SD 0.33, 6.72±SD 0.26, and 7.71 ±SD 0.44 respectively). Furthermore, treated groups (groups II, III, and IV) showed significant dramatic reduction of HbA1C mean level when compared to the untreated group (group I) (mean = 6.22 ±SD 0.51, 5.24 ±SD 0.62, 5.22 ±SD 0.13, and 7.62 ±SD 0.42 respectively).Overall, treated groups showed significantly lower HbA1C level than placebo groups. Moreover, Glimepiride + Enalapril combination showed a stronger hypoglycemic effect than the Glimepiride + Candesartan combination at post, and post-delayed tests, however, these differences were not significant.

Conclusion: The addition of either ACEIs like Enalapril, or ARBs like Candesartan to Sulfonylureas like Glimepiride to in NIDDM patients will synergize its anti-diabetic effect in NIDDM subjects, and might increase the possibility of hypoglycemia. Caution and/or dose adjustment should be considered upon using these agents together in patients with hypertension along with diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Nano Phlorotannin Powder from Brown Algae Sargassum serratum: Spray Drying, Antioxidant Activities, Physic-Chemical Characterization

Dang Xuan Cuong

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930484

Introduction: Phlorotannins are bioactive-value polymers existing in brown algae and useful for pharmaceutics and functional food. Therefore, the study focused on the spray drying conditions survey, the evaluation of antioxidant activities, and physico-chemical characterization of antioxidant nano phlorotannin powder prepared from brown algae Sargassum serratum.

Methods: To survey the effect of spray drying conditions (carriers, carrier-to-solution ratio, compressed air pressure, liquid feed speed, inlet air temperature) on antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, reducing power, DPPH free radical scavenging), and physico-chemical (solubility degree, moisture, particle morphology, and bulk density) of antioxidant phlorotannin powder from brown algae Sargassum serratum commonly growing in the Vietnam sea area.

Results: The optimum spray drying condition consisted of the carrier-to-solution ratio of 10%, compressed air pressure of 0.8 bar, the liquid feed speed of 10 ml min-1, and the inlet temperature of 110°C. At the optimization condition, the antioxidant activity of phlorotannin powder possessed total antioxidant (4.347 ± 0.018 g ascorbic acid equivalent 100-1 g DP), reducing power activity (9.390 ± 0.024 g FeSO4 equivalent 100-1 g DP), DPPH free radical scavenging activity ((70.02 ± 0.26)%), physico-chemical of antioxidant phlorotannin powder consisting of moisture content (5 ± 0.5%), phlorotannin content (2.268 ± 0.010 g phloroglucinol equivalent 100-1 g DP), solubility degree (100%), and bulk density (<1 g/ml). Phlorotannin content and antioxidant activities were affected by the spray drying condition (p < 0.05) and a strong correlation to each other (R2 > 0.9). Antioxidant phlorotannin particles possessed nanometer size and the morphology of irregular and microspheres.

Conclusion: Antioxidant nano phlorotannin powder could be usefulas functional food and pharmaceuticals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenolic Content and Enzyme Inhibition Activities Barbarea auriculata var. paludosa, B. integrifolia and B. plantaginea (Brassicaceae)'s

Merve Badem, Sıla Ozlem Sener, Nuriye Korkmaz, Seyda Kanbolat, Sermet Yildirmiş, Ufuk Ozgen, Rezzan Aliyazicioglu, Ali Kandemir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 86-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930486

Barbarea genus has been presented about 12 species, 9 taxon are endemic, in Turkey. In this sudy, enzyme inhibition was carried out on methanolic extract, chloroform extract, ethyl acetate extract, and the remaining aqueous phases from the aerial parts of B. auriculata var paludosa, B. integrifolia, and B. plantaginea species and HPLC studies were carried on their methanolic extract in the present study for the first time. Phenolic compounds were determined using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). p-OH benzoic acid, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde, coumaric acid, synapic acid and benzoic acid were detected as major phenolic compounds in the species. Assay of enzyme inhibition activities were done using spectrophotometric methods. Results of these studies reveal that the extracts from these species have moderate tyrosinase, AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity. In the biological activity studies, it was observed that B. integrifolia was the highest activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moringa oleifera Derived Phytochemicals against 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropionate Reductase of Salmonella typhi Causing Typhoid

Sonali Suchismita Behera, Seema Suvadarshini, Ipsita Aparajita Mohapatra, Sonali Dash, Akshaya Kumar Sahoo, Soumyashree Nayak, Meenakshee Mohanty, Punya Prateek Majhi, Srimay Pradhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930534

Phytochemicals from Moringa oleifera plant extract can cure Typhoid. It is caused by Salmonella typhi. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that 4,8,12,16-tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide can effectively deactivate the 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropionate reductase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nigella sativa Derived Phytochemicals against Cough

Diptiprajnya Sahoo, Minati Nayak, Sidhartha Ray, Mukundjee Pandey, Kalpita Bhatta, Sushree Susmita Palei, Debasmita Rautaray

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-101
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930535

Nigella sativa plant extract is traditionally used to cure cough. It is caused by Bordetella pertussis. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that p-cymene can effectively deactivate the adenylate cyclase thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alkanna tinctoria Derived Phytochemicals against Staphylococcus aureus Causing Eczema

Utapa Nayak, Elora Barik, Bijan Kumar Patra, Smruti Ranjan Behera, Mukundjee Pandey, Kalpita Bhatta, Arsia Tabish, Prabhashini Behera

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 102-105
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930536

Alkanna tinctoria plant extract is traditionally used to heal eczema. It is caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that 2-Hydroxy-3-Phenyl-1-4-naphthoquinone can can effectively deactivate the shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Salvia rosmarinus Derived Phytochemicals against Eczema

Elora Barik, Selina Swain, Bibhuprasad Mishra, Kalpita Bhatta, Sasmita Mallick, Pratibha Karmee

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 106-109
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930537

The bioactive or phytochemicals substance from the plant Salvia rosmarinus helps in the prevention of eczema. Staphylococcus aureus is the causal organism for this disease. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” indicates alcohol could deactivate the protein tyrosine phosphatase and thus interrupt enzyme Staphylococcus aureus life cycle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potency of Phytochemicals from Guava (Psidium guajava) Seeds against Escherichia coli to Cure Diarrhoea: An in silico Analysis

Barsha Nayak, Lopita Mishra, Bibhu Prasad Mishra, Srimay Pradhan, Bhagyeswari Behera, Mukundjee Pandey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 110-113
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930538

Machine learning to deep learning is the enduring upgrading in the pharmaceutical research field. Phytochemicals from Psidium guajava plant extract are traditionally used to cure Diarrhoea. The causative agent of the disease is Escherichia coli. To identify the secondary metabolites (ligand) which is the main responsive compound that have the capacity to inhibit the growth of microorganism was carried by molecular docking method “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that Heptadecanoic acid can effectively deactivate the shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydnora africana Derived Phytochemicals against Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase of Aeromonas hydrophila Causing Septicemia

Debajani Tripathy, Chandana Adhikari, Mukundjee Pandey, Bhagyeswari Behera, Srimay Pradhan, Akshay Kumar Sahu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 114-117
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930539

For drug discovery it takes approximately 6 years to expose in the market and for commercial uses. There are different procedure to get success in the drug discovery like preliminary phytochemical analysis, structural elucidation of the bioactive compound, preclinical test and clinical test etc. So to optimize the time for invention of new drug molecule, computer aided drug designing and molecular docking analysis is being used as one of the highly effective methodology. The phytochemical extraction of Hydnora africana plant was reported to inhibit the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila which cause Septicemia. “Biovia Discovery Studio” molecular docking methods give us opportunity to identify the effective molecule against the microbes. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” recommended that flavone can effectively deactivate the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moringa oleifera Derived Phytochemicals against Shikimate Dehydrogenase of Helicobacter pylori Causing Peptic Ulcer

Sonali Suchismita Behera, Seema Suvadarshini, Truptimayee Chhotaray, Archita Sahoo, Subhadarshini Satapathy, Manasi Mohapatra, Bhagyeswari Behera, Srimay Pradhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 118-121
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930540

Moringa oleifera plant extract is traditionally used to cure Peptic ulcer. It is caused by Helicobacter pylori. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that 9-octadecenoic acid can effectively deactivate the shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Review Article

Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine could be an Available Weapons to Treat COVID-19 Associated Pneumonia

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930482

Aims: This study aims to review the efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated pneumonia.

Methodology: This review includes searching Google scholar for publications about the use of hydroxychloroquinein the treatment of COVID-19 using the words of (Covid-19) AND hydroxychloroquine.

Results: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have proven effective in treating coronavirus in China in vitro, but till now only few clinical trials are available and these trials were conducted on a small sample size of the patients. The efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is mainly due to its effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2).

Conclusion: The use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine could be very promising but more trials are needed that include larger sample size and more data are required about the comparison between chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine with other antivirals.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Recent Phytomedicinal Investigations and the Need for DNA Barcoding of Endemic Plants of Northern Cyprus

Dudu Özkum Yavuz, Mustapha Bulama- Modu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i930483

Aims: To review the phytomedicinal researches on endemic plants of Northern Cyprus and to assess the plants of their DNA barcoding status.

Study Design: A review.

Methodology: This work reviewed available and accessible original articles in EBSCO, Ovid MEDLINE®, PubMed®, ScienceDirectTM, Scopus® and Web of ScienceTM databases on phytomedicinal investigations and BOLD System, MMDBD version 1.5 and GenBank® on DNA barcodes of the endemic plants of Northern Cyprus until May, 2020. Using keywords searches related to phytochemistry, biological activity and DNA barcoding, DNA Sequences and the data obtain evaluated and the information that does not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. We believe that this information would tentatively help researchers to ethically explore these plants for their Medicinal and Aromatic potentials.

Results: Only 6 of the 20 endemic plants of Northern Cyprus were phytopharmaceutically investigated, while DNA sequences of 5 were found to be deposited in the publicly accessible databases accounting for 30% and 25% of the total plants respectively.

Conclusion: Endemism is related to uniqueness in features including the phytomedicinal features, thus Northern Cyprus endemic plants hold ample of such. However the results of this review showed that only few were harnessed for their medicinal properties and hence the need for their pharmacological properties and comprehensive barcoding for proper authentication, detection of adulteration, and quality control.