Open Access Short Research Article

Trigonella foenum-graecum Derived Phytochemicals against Cellulitis

Bidyashree Tripathy, Soumya Jal, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 93-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730514

Cellulitis is a common and sometimes painful bacterial skin infection. Trigonella foenum-graecum extract is traditionally used to cure diseases like cellulitis. Phytochemicals from Trigonella foenum-graecum plant extract can cure Cellulitis. The objective of the study is to identify the phytochemical of Trigonella foenum-graecum capable of curing Cellulitis. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “The experiment shows that the phytochemical sarginine, carpaine, choline, gentianine and diosgenin failed to deactivate the UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes for treating Cellulitis.

Open Access Short Research Article

Trigonella foenum-graecum Derived Phytochemicals against Cough

Bidyashree Tripathy, Elina Sahoo, Sunil Jha, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 96-99
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730515

Phytochemicals from Trigonella foenum-graecum plant extract are traditionally used to cure Cough. There are many reasons for cough. It has been reported that cough can be caused as a result of Bordetella sp. infection. The objective of the study is to identify the phytochemical of Trigonella foenum-graecum capable of curing Cough.  Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. The research clearly indicates that choline, arginine, and gentianine cannot effectively deactivate the enzyme histidinekinase of the microbe. On the other hand, carpaine and diosgenin failed to deactivate the enzyme. Thus, none of these phytochemicals can effectively deactivate the histidinekinase enzyme of Bordetella sp. and thus cannot be used to treat cough caused by this particular microbe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Responsible for Work Stress among Health Care Providers and Frequency of Antidepressant Medicine Use

Nasreen Rebecca Wilson, Muhammad Akbar Memon, Naseem Bajari, Zeeshan-UL -Haque, Ihsanullah Rajar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730450

Objective: To assess the contributing factors of occupational stress and frequency of antidepressant medicine use among healthcare providers working at Isra University Hospital.

Study Setting: Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad Sind Pakistan.

Study Design: Cross-sectional.

Materials and Methods: All the health care providers of Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad of either gender formed the sample of the study. A structured questionnaire in English language was designed to gather data on factors contributing to occupational stress. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.

Results: The impact of work stress on work performance was explored in 100 study participants. The results indicated that 87% of study sample affirmed that stress lead to poor performance. Out of all participants, 79% were female and 21% were males. The analysis of stress elevating factors showed that 56% study participants had stress due to low salary, 17% felt stress due to seniors ‘negative attitude’ and 15% due to low job satisfaction. Result showed that 27.0% subjects reduce stress by sharing with their friends, 25% by prayers, 21% use the music during stress, 19.0% share with family and 8% using the antidepressant medicine during stress.

Conclusion: It was concluded that low job satisfaction, lesser pay and seniors’ attitude are common contributing stress factors. Sharing with family and friends, music, prayers and use of the antidepressant medicine were the common methods of stress reduction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer and Screening Practices among Nurses at Lahore General Hospital, Pakistan

Nazia Ayub, Mahliqa Maqsud, Huma Tahseen, Mehmona Sharif, Nahid Waris, Aliezeh Fatima Rai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730453

Objective: To find out the knowledge, awareness and screening practices of cervical cancer among nurses at Lahore general Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, interview based study was conducted on 250 nurses at Lahore general Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. The duration of this study was one year from 2017 to 2018. All the cases underwent interview based information regarding cervical cases. The questionnaire was applied to assess the knowledge, awareness and screening practices about cervical cancer among nurses. Data was collected via self-made proforma.

Results: Most of the study participants were less than 35 years. 72% nurses were married and 28% were unmarried. Most of the study participants 96% known that cervical cancer is the abnormal growth of cervical cells and few were unaware regarding it. According to causes of cervical cancer, 70% to 75.6% participants agreed with the causes of early marriage and multiple sex partners, while others had ideas of smoking, infection and hereditary causes. 25.5% nurses answered that it can occur in any age group, 11.2% replied in reproductive age group, 42.8% were agreed with menopausal age group and 20.4% had no idea. 75.6% to 95.5% nurses were in the favor of scanning, pap smear test and cervical biopsy methods. 85 participants said it is a preventable disease via vaccination, early diagnosis and safe sex activities.

Conclusion: It was concluded that nurses had satisfactory knowledge and screening practice cervical cancer at Lahore general Hospital.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Docking Analysis of Lipoprotein Receptor Antigen I –Causing Endocarditis Interaction with Antibiotics and Immunoglobulins

Bader Alshehri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730456

Bacterial endocarditis is a life-threatening infectious disease. In recent years, significant changes have occurred in risk factors, prophylaxis, common causative microorganisms, antibiotic resistance patterns of these organisms, diagnostic criteria, and antibiotic treatment of bacterial endocarditis. The viridans group of streptococci the most common cause of endocarditis, and its lipoprotein receptor antigen proteins (LraI) function as adhesins in several streptococci, as a virulence factor for endocarditis. The increasing trend of antibiotic resistance towards endocarditis, there is an immediate need to identify the mechanisms of molecular interactions of these virulence factors with common antibiotics and immunoglobulins.  Thus, in this study, a group of five Streptococcal enzymes of LraI family (SsaB from Streptococcus sanguinis, ScaA from S. gordonii, PsaA from S. pneumoniae, FimA from S. parasanguinis, and ScbA from S. cristatus) were selected and considered as reactive sites. Three dimensional structure of the target receptor LraI family enzymes were docked with the antibiotic molecules using Hex 8.0.0 molecular docking method. The study found no potential affinity between the enzymes (receptors) and the antibiotics (ligands) during the molecular docking. However, a strong binding affinity towards IgM was observed with all the LraI family of five enzymes; hence, IgM was the most efficient antibody that could be used against bacterial endocarditis.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Resistance of Staphylococcus Species to Different Antibiotics in Al-Kharj City

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730457

Introduction: Infections caused by Staphylococcus species can spread not only in hospitals but also in the community and in other healthcare institutions. These organisms were known for its capability to acquire resistance to various classes of antibiotics.

Methods: The antibiotic susceptibility and resistance rates of S. aureus strains isolated from numerous clinical samples at a public hospital in Al-kharj city were collected from the monthly antibiogram prepared by the laboratory department in the hospital.

Results: The bacterial culture results found that there were 450 Staphylococcus species; the majority of bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus. Some medications such as Vancomycin, Linezolid still very effective in treating Staphylococcus infections.

Conclusion: S. aureus infections were common in Alkharj city and the resistance is widespread for staphylococci species, mainly MRSA. To reduce the resistance rate antimicrobial stewardship programs should be implemented and antibiotic susceptibility should be monitored continuously.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Rate of Adherence to Antibiotics and Reasons for Non-adherence among the Public

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730458

Aim: Poor adherence to antibiotics is common and related to poorer clinical outcomes such as increasing the bacterial resistance. To explore the rate of adherence to antibiotics and to know the reasons that lead to antibiotic non-adherence among the public.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study include an online questionnaire survey for the participants who were prescribed oral antimicrobial drugs during the last year. The data was collected and analyzed using Excel sheet software and the Descriptive data were presented by frequencies and percentages.

Results: The majority of the respondents stated that they sometimes forget to take their antibiotics. Moreover, 78.3% of them said that sometimes they forget to carry their drugs when they go out. They reported many reasons for noncompliance but the major reasons were “they do not need to continue treatment once the condition improves” followed by “they are too busy in study or work”.

Conclusion: Numerous factors lead to antibiotic noncompliance, but the main reasons were related to the public knowledge and attitude. Therefore, antimicrobial stewardship programs should focus on the patient education to solve the problem of non-compliance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatic & Renal Toxicity of Energy Drinks, a Serious Health Risk, Wistar Albino Rats Study

Fahad I. Al-Saikhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730459

The recent years have seen a significant increase in the individual consumption of energy drinks across the globe. As a result, notable concerns continue to rise both among the public and among the scientific community, concerning the health effects that energy drinks pose to individuals. This study therefore examines the adverse effects of energy drinks on health, using ten normal albino rats as specimens. The specimen was then divided into two groups consisting of five rats each, with one group was given energy drinks while the control group was given normal drinking water days for a period of 21 days. The specimen was then sacrificed and their blood samples used for biochemical and histological studies. The study findings reveal that energy drink consumption significantly increased the serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), urea and creatinine levels when compared with the control group. In addition, the study demonstrates that energy drink consumption significantly decreased body weight and organ to body weight ratios when compared with the control group. The study further recognizes that the consumption of energy drink is associated with significant alterations in serum toxicity markers, bodyweight, organ body weight and histopathological changes. The study therefore recommends that need for public health education to educate individuals; especially youths about the risks of consuming highly caffeinated energy drinks. The study also recommends the need for further studies in order to minimize the harm excess and long-term consumption of energy drinks presented to the public. 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Anxiety and Stress of the Public during the Spread of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdulrahman S. Alrawili, Faisal Z. Alkhawaja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730460

Aim: This study aims to assess the public anxiety and stress during the spread of novel Coronavirus (COVID‐19).

Methodology: The survey was prepared using CDC “Daily Life & Coping with Coronavirus Disease 2019” section. The data were collected and analyzed using Excel software. The descriptive data were represented by frequencies and percentages.

Results: About 91% of the 304 respondents fear and worry about their own health and the health of their families and about 82.24% of them are worried about the effect of the disease spreading on work and study. The majority of the respondents think that people infected with the Coronavirus will experience social rejection and avoidance from others (61.51%) but only 12.5% think that people with the disease may be deprived of health care, education, housing and work.

Conclusion: COVID-19 spreading increase the stress and worry of the public regarding their health, their family health and negative economic effect of the disease. It is important to increase the awareness regarding COVID-19 and to improve the communication of health care professionals and the public with infected patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Studies to Define the Role of Calcium (Ca2+) and Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Blockers (vCa-CCB) against Neurosteroid Induced Obesity

Vijay R. Chidrawar, Akbar Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 60-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730461

Introduction: Obesity is closely associated with various types of illness, primarily caused by more calorie intake than body burn. In adipocytes, Calcium (Ca2+) is an important second messenger involved in the regulation of many physiological functions which are essential for survival. In the present research, we have investigated the role of Ca2+ ions in obesity by manipulating cytosolic Ca2+ ion concentration by selective blocking/advancing the Ca2+ ions through the voltage-gated calcium channels. Voltage-gated calcium channel (vCa) plays a key role in regulating intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Cytoplasmic level of Ca2+ was manipulated by supplying calcium carbonate and by using vCa blockers i.e. nifedipine- (N-type- vCa-CCB) and ethosuximide (T-type, vCa-CCB).

Methods: Obesity was induced by progesterone in female mice and test drugs were co-administered with progesterone whereas sibutramine was used as standard. The treatment was carried out for 28 days, during and after the treatment period various parameters were studied viz food consumption, change in body weight and temperature, the effect on WAT (white adipose tissue, adiposity index, histology of fat pad) and fecal lipid content.

Results: Calcium carbonate treated group has shown promising effects in the decrease in body weight by increasing fecal lipid content and lipolysis which was reflected by an increase in body temperature. Ethosuximide also offered significant protection by decreasing the food intake but has not shown any notable effect on fecal fat content, whereas nifedipine has not offered any protection against the obesity induced by neurosteroid.

Conclusion: Calcium carbonate has significant anti-obesity activity by including thermogenesis,  and increasing fecal lipid content.    

Open Access Original Research Article

Mood and Anxiety Disorders among the Public

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdulrahman S. Alrawili, Faisal Z. Alkhawaja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730462

Introduction: Mood disorder is one of the most prevalent and the most disabling disorders that affect humankind health, so it is important to know its symptoms, how it is treated suitably and how it can be assessed. This study aims to assess the mood of the public.

Methodology: This study includes an online questionnaire, the questionnaire questions were prepared using the mood self-assessment of NHS and after that converted to online google form

Results: About 20.8% of the respondents reported that they have been bothered by feeling down, depressed or hopeless in nearly every day. About 59% of them reported that they experienced an anxiety attack.

Conclusion: The results of this study show a high percentage of anxiety and depression among the public. It is important to increase the public awareness about anxiety and depression and how to deal with these disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Outpatient Use of Furosemide in a Public Hospital

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730463

Aim: The prescribing pattern of furosemide helps the prescribers in the monitoring and evaluation of the drugs and helps them in recommending the necessary modifications. So the aim of the present study is to demonstrate the outpatient use of furosemide in a public hospital.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Alkharj city. The outpatient prescriptions were reviewed to demonstrate the prescription patterns of furosemide. The study included all outpatient prescriptions that contains furosemide in 2018.

Results: Furosemide was prescribed in 46.27% of diuretics prescriptions in the outpatient setting. The majority of the patients were female patients. Most of the patients were more than 39 years old. Most of the furosemide prescriptions were prescribed mainly by resident prescribers, mainly in the cardiology department.

Conclusion: Furosemide is an important medication for treating cardiovascular diseases specially in the presence of edema. It is important to increase the awareness of health care professionals and patients regarding the use of furosemide. Moreover, it is important to increase the awareness of the public regarding the importance of adherence to furosemide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) Derived Phytochemicals against Aspartate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase of Aspergillus fumigatus Causing Aspergillosis

Biswajit Jena, Minati Rani Muni, P. K. Prusty, Sunil Jha, Deepankar Bhatttacharyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730512

Aspergillosis is an infection caused by a type of fungus. The illnesses is caused by aspergillosis infection and usually attack the respiratory system, but their signs and severity vary greatly. It has already been established that plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum belonging to the Lauraceae family has the potential to help controlling aspergillosis. This work is focused on the identification of the particular phytochemical responsible for inhibiting and decreasing the effect of aspergillosis. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that cinnamic acid can effectively deactivate aspergillosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Murraya koenigii Derived Phytochemicals against Dysentery

Ashima Mishra, Diksha Mohanta, Sarthak Siddhant Mishra, Sunil Jha, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730513

Phytochemicals are any of various biologically active compounds found in plants. These are produced by plants and have biological activity. It has been reported that Murraya koenigii leaf extract is traditionally used to cure dysentery. Dysentery is an intestinal inflammation, primarily of the colon. It can lead to mild or severe stomach cramps and severe diarrhoea with mucus or blood in the faeces. It is the infection in the intestinal tract. One enzyme, which is involved in its biochemical pathway, is known as alcohol dehydrogenase (which have pdb id.1Y9A). The molecular docking was studied by biovia discovery studio. In which the interaction is done between the phytochemical of the plant with the enzyme. The stability of the interaction was evaluated based on –CDocker energy and –CDocker interaction energy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Capsicum anum L. Derived Phytochemicals against Haemophilus influenzae Causing Bronchitis

Debadatta Nayak, Debesh Kumar Hota, Tophani Sahu, Soumya Jal, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 100-103
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730516

Phytochemicals from Capsicum anum L. plant extract are traditionally used to cure bronchitis. Bronchitis is caused by Haemophilus influenzae. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that myrcetin and quercetin can effectively deactivate the Palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of Haemophilus influenza.

Open Access Original Research Article

Coffea arabica L. Derived Phytochemicals against Haemophilus influenza Causing Conjunctivitis

Sutapa Nayak, Elora Barik, Biren Pattanayak, Sitaram Swain, Dipankar Bhattacharyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 104-107
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730517

Phytochemicals from Coffea arabica plant extract are traditionally used to cure conjunctivitis. It is caused by Haemophilus influenza. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that caffeine and chlorogenic acid can efficiently deactivate the shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme which will result in interruption of the life cycle of the microorganism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eclipta alba L. Derived Phytochemicals against Campylobacter Causing Diarrhea

Sanchayita Nayak, Subhashree Sahu, Mukesh Kumar Biswal, Sonali Dash, Sagarika Parida, Sabita Pattanayak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 108-111
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730518

Phytochemicals from Eclipta alba L. plant extract are traditionally used to cure Diarrhea. It is caused by Campylobacter. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDocker energy and -CDocker interaction energy” suggested that 6, 10, 14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone can effectively deactivate the Argininedecarboxylase enzyme (protein database code 3N29) thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eclipta alba L. Derived Phytochemicals against Escherichia coli Causing Diarrhea

Krishna Rani, Aischarya Mohanty, Sagarika Parida, Manisha Mohanty, Subhashree Sahu, Sanchayita Nayak, Sutapa Mohanty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 112-115
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730519

Phytochemicals from Eclipta alba L. plant extract are traditionally used to cure Diarrhea. It is caused by Escherichia coli. Molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that Pentadecanone can effectively deactivate the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme (protein database code 4GKV) thereby interrupting the life cycle of the organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eclipta alba Derived Phytochemicals against Jaundice

Sutapa Mohanty, Mukesh Kumar Biswal, Sanchayita Nayak, Bhagyeswari Behera, Ushasree Mandal, Srimay Pradhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 116-119
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730520

Phytochemicals otherwise known as secondary metabolites means the small organic molecules that are not essential for growth, development and reproduction but can protect from various diseases. Infact these phytochemicals are the key source of medicine. Secondary metabolites from Eclipta alba plant extract are traditionally used to cure Jaundice which is caused by Leptospira interrogans. The curative property of Eclipta alba against Leptospira interrogans was proved by molecular docking method in “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” recommended that pentadecan, heptadecane, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-petadecanone can successfully deactivate the thioredoxin-disulfide reductase enzyme thereby disrupting the cellular function as well as the lifecycle of causative organism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Budleja asiatica Derived Phytochemicals against Eye Disease

Sarthak Siddhant Mishra, Sasmita Patra, Bhakti Bhusan Das, Dipankar Bhattacharyay, Mukundjee Pandey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 120-123
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730521

The secondary metabolites in the plants are the reason for curing various diseases. And the phytochemicals present in Budleja asiatica plant extract can cure Eye disease which is caused by Haemophilus influenzae is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. For analysis of ligand-protein interaction, the molecular docking method applied using “Biovia Discovery Studio”. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that lignoceric acid can effectively deactivate Aspararte semialdehyde dehydrogenase enzyme which is important macromolecule for the regulation of amino acid biosynthesis resulting in interrupting the life cycle of the microorganism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Guava Seeds Derived Phytochemicals against Dysentery

Lopita Mishra, Barsha Nayak, Bibhu Prasad Mishra, Dipankar Bhattacharya, Mukundjee Pandey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 124-127
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730522

Phytochemicals are the secondary metabolites that are known as nonnutritive but extremely beneficial for the defensive system for the organism. These phytochemicals can be obtained from all the plants and they play a major role in curing differnt diseases. The extract of the guava seed contains various phytochemicals that can cure the disease like dysentery, caused by the protozoa parasite, namely Entamoeba histolytica. “Biovia Discovery Studio” was used for the molecular docking process. “High positive values of -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy” suggested that Heptadecanoic acid can effectively deactivate the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme further inhibiting the biological process of the causative organism.

Open Access Review Article

A Systematic Literature Review of Current Therapeutic Approaches for COVID-19 Patients

Saber Soltani, Amir Mohammad Zakeri, Mohammad Reza Karimi, Sara Akhavan Rezayat, Fateme Zomorodi Anbaji, Alireza Tabibzadeh, Parastoo Yousefi, Armin Zakeri, Ali Jafarpour, Mehdi Norouzi, Yousef Erfani, Vahdat Poortahmasebi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i730455

Background: In December 2019, the pneumonia outbreak reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. WHO introduced a novel coronavirus and the virus named Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in January 2020. There are not any specific antiviral agents for coronavirus disease 19 (COVID‐19).

Objective: Our review aimed to discuss treatment options and the efficacy of currently prescribed drugs and supportive care in COVID‐19 patients.

Study Design: A literature review of the articles in the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE conducted.

Results: Lopinavir/ritonavir combination was the most frequently used drug, followed by Arbidol and Oseltamivir and Methylprednisolone. Lopinavir/Ritonavir outcome showed the fever and respiratory infection improve in day two and day eight, respectively. Also, negative PCR of SARS‐CoV‐2 in days six and 7day was seen and finally these patients discharged in 10 days.

Conclusions: Lopinavir/Ritonavir was the most improving administrated antiviral combination, which might be a good option for COVID-19 due to its availability. Although supportive care such as O2 supplementary and IV fluid therapy has improved outcomes. There are not evidence for suggesting a new treatment or a new drug, which mean the necessity of further investigations for drug research in a clinical trial for a conclusion about the optimum treatment.