Open Access Original Research Article

Neuroprotective Potential of Mahanimbine against Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-Induced Neuronal Deficits on SK-N-SH Cells and Antioxidant Potentials in ICR Mice Brain

Nur Syamimi Mohd Azahan, Vasudevan Mani, Kalavathy Ramasamy, Siong Meng Lim, Ahmad Alhowail, Sultan Sajid, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i230294

Aims: Murraya koenigii commonly known as curry leaves, is traditionally used in India and other South Asian countries as a spice for its characteristic flavor and aroma. Mahanimbine is a major carbazole alkaloid derived from Murraya koenigii leaves. There are numerous reports that support the neuroprotective role of various alkaloids. The present study investigated the neuroprotective potential of mahanimbine against lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced neuronal deficits of SK-N-SH cells and antioxidant potentials in ICR mouse brain.

Study Design: The targeted compound mahanimbine was subjected to both in vitro and in vivo studies.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia and College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between June 2015 and August 2017.

Methodology: For the in vitro study, SK-N-SH cells were induced with the 100µg/ml of LPS. Then, neuroprotection and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays were conducted to assess cell viability and the formation of ROS. On the other hand, ICR mice were being fed with mahanimbine (1, 2 and 5 mg/kg, p.o.) for 30 days for in vivo study. Neuroinflammation was thereafter induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (250 μg/kg) for 4 days. At the end of the treatment, the animals were sacrificed. The brain was collected for antioxidants assays, measuring oxidative biomarkers such as catalase, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and thiobarbituric acid (TBARs).

Results: SK-N-SH cells exposed to 100 μg/ml LPS showed a significant cell viability loss and increased level of ROS.  However, pre-treatment of SK-N-SH cells with mahanimbine significantly prevented cell loss and consequently attenuated LPS-induced ROS formation. In addition, mahanimbine also inhibited β-secretase (BACE50 = 4µg/mL) that is important for production of β-amyloid (Aβ).  For in vivo study, the biochemical analysis of the whole brain detected increased catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GRD) levels, and significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in mahanimbine treated groups as compared to LPS-induced but untreated group.

Conclusion: The overall findings supported the neuroprotective and antioxidant potential of mahanimbine against LPS-induced neurotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Activity and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometric Characterization of Aqueous Extracts of Acacia senegal and Acacia tortilis on Phytopathogenic Fungi

Al-Otibi Fatimah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i230295

Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of Acacia senegal (A. senegal) and Acacia tortilis (A. tortilis) against three phytopathogenic fungi (viz., Alternaria alternata [A. alternata], Helminthosporium rostratum [H. rostratum] and Fusarium solani [F. solani]).

Methods: Crude aqueous extracts of A. senegal and A. tortilis at 1%, 2.5% and 5% concentrations were used for screening. Antifungal activities of the extracts were evaluated against three phytopathogenic fungal strains (A. alternata, H. rostratum and F. solani) by poisoned food technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the treated and untreated mycelia was employed to analyze the ultrastructural changes and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry analysis was performed to identify important functional groups.

Results: Aqueous extract of A. tortilis at high concentrations exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against the selected fungal strains. The aqueous extract of A. senegal showed no effect on A. alternata, while exhibited very mild activity against H. rostratum and F. solani at high concentrations (2.5% and 5%). Scanning electron microphotographs of the untreated fungal cells showed no structural changes (well‒defined mycelium and conidia without any distortion), whereas the treated cells showed structural distortions, twisted and wrecked mycelia and showed the presence of vesicles on the surface. FTIR analysis showed the presence of important functional groups such as alcohols, carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds.

Conclusion: Results from this study indicate that the aqueous extracts of both A. senegal and A. tortilis have the potential to be used as natural fungicidal agents in the management of diseases caused by plant pathogenic fungi.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Level of Awareness Regarding Ten Steps Guideline for Successful Breastfeeding among Hospital Staff

Milad Khodadadi, Ali Arjmand Shabestari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i230297

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of familiarity of hospital personnel with the executive instruction on breastfeeding promotion in the hospital.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on hospital personnel who had entry criteria. Their awareness of the breastfeeding guidelines was checked and recorded on the checklist. This checklist consists of two parts, the first part of which is the demographic information including age, gender and work experience of the participants. The second part of the checklist contains ten questions. In this study, statistical analysis was performed based on SPSS 23 software. In the statistics section, frequency and percentage were used.

Results: In this study, 451 and 228 personnel of Amirkabir and Taleghani Hospitals were enrolled, 75.6% and 76.75% of Amir Kabir Hospital and Taleghani Hospital staffs had an acceptable familiarity with these guidelines. In addition, employees of Taleghani Hospital obtained higher scores than Amir Kabir Hospital staff and this difference was statistically significant. In other words, Taleghani hospital staff was generally more familiar with the guideline for promoting breastfeeding. The age of the personnel has a meaningful relationship with their level of knowledge and employees with the age of 41 to 50 years have the highest level of awareness. The level of knowledge of personnel showed a significant relationship with work experience, where the highest level of personnel awareness was observed in employees with a history of over 20 years.

Conclusion: Although the awareness of hospital staff was good about the 10-point action plan for promoting breastfeeding, however, more training was needed to achieve more favorable  outcomes. Our findings showed that personnel with less work experience had less information in this regard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Illness Perception and Adherence to Medication in Cardiovascular Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Northern Cyprus

Abdikarim Mohamed Abdi, Begard Agha, Nevzat Birand, Bruke Berhanu Billoro

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i230298

Background and Aims: The Patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease are strongly recommended to adopt healthier behaviors and adhere to prescribed medication. The role of patients' illness perceptions in patient care and impact on health outcomes was studied previously in a wide range of health conditions. However, among patients with cardiovascular diseases, this has not been well examined. Purpose of this study was to assess treatment adherence, illness perception, and relationship between illness perception and treatment adherence in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Study Design:  A cross-sectional descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted from November 2018 to January 2019 to all patients who admitted to the cardiology department of Near East University Hospital in North Cyprus.

Methodology: A survey form of three sections were used to gathered data; a socio-demographic section, Brief Illness Perception Scale, and Brief Morisky Adherence Scale. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for window version 20.0 software. P-value less than 0.05 were statistically significant.

Results: The patients who participated in the study involved 49 (61.2%) male and 31 (38.8%) female. The mean ± SD age of the sampled group was 61.16 ± 12.60, with 15 (47.5%) being older than 65 years old. The Median (Max-Min) of the total Illness Perception Questionnaire positive perceptions shows significantly higher scores in males compared to female’s illness perception 52.0 (73.0 – 20.0) Vs. 41.0 (74.0 – 18.0), z=-2.297; p < 0.05, respectively. Also, university graduate patients had significantly higher positive perception scores compared to patients who graduated from only high schools or less 57.0 (71.0-40.0) Vs. 45.0 (74.0-20.0) and 43.0(68.0-18.0) df=2; p=0.013, respectively.

Conclusion: There is a significant positive correlation between different subscales of perception scale, while higher positive perception scores were identified in adherent patients and males.  It is crucial to strengthen patients' illness perceptions, with especial consideration to emotional responses besides personal, treatment control, and disease understanding. We recommend an educational intervention in order to improve adherence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Electronic Cigarettes: Awareness among Medical Students

Ahmad Taha Khalaf, Jun Wan, Karim Al-Jashamy, Samiah Yasmin Abdul Kadir, Jamaludin Zainol, Saeid Reza Doustjalali, Negar Shafiei Sabet, May Kyi Aung, Yassin Hani Arafeh, Jessica Lok Xia Shin, Izzatul Akmal Binti Sahrom, A. E. Muftah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i230296

Background: Whereas the use of electronic nicotine devices, such as e‐cigarettes and nicotine replacement therapy, is on the rise, the awareness of these treatment options among health workers especially medical students is not well investigated. 

Objective: This study was aimed to determine the knowledge and perception of the nicotine, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and e‐cigarettes among medical students.

Methodology: This study is a descriptive study in which the research is measuring the knowledge and perception regarding tobacco cigarettes, nicotine, NRT and e‐cigarettes, as well as observing the smoking rate in a given population simultaneously. A questionnaire was designed and applied to medical students in all 5 years. The sample size targeted was 200 with equal distribution among pre-clinical and clinical medical students. However, the number of responses obtained during the process of data collection was 184.

Results: The results of this study showed the knowledge and perception of the tobacco smoking hazards towards health and its substitutes had 46.0% and 53.6% on moderate knowledge levels and the majority 91.0% and 97.6% did not smoking among the preclinical and clinical respectively. The overall findings regarding opinion and knowledge on health risk among all participants are shown the majority participants 93 (76.9%) the tobacco cigarettes caused health risk. Regarding NRT, majority of preclinical 42(57.6%) and clinical 33 (69.8%) participants having low knowledge of NRT of health risk with a P value of 0.08 between the two groups. Also, majority of participants showed extremely agreed the smoking-related to the lung cancer, atherosclerosis in coronary and peripheral arteries. Majority of the participants in both preclinical and clinical agreed with the smoking addiction and agreed that facts on electronic cigarettes contain tobacco. Majority of preclinical and clinical students showed low knowledge of health risk and dependence potential.

Conclusion: medical students are not reasonable and overestimate the true hazards of tobacco smoking towards health. Additionally they are not knowledgeable about nicotine, NRT and e-cigarettes. Although, a large proportion of participants were exposed frequently to smokers, especially clinical phase students, they lack the knowledge and the correct perception regarding nicotine replacement therapy.