Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria in Some Selected Street Food Samples

Mohamed H. El-Sayed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i130288

Antimicrobial resistance is a subject of great concern in the public health. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among food pathogens has increased during recent decades.

Studying the incidence and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial species isolated from fish and vended street fruits.  

Eleven fish swabs and thirteen sliced fruit samples were collected and prepared for isolation of bacterial species through inoculation onto selective and non-selective nutrient media. The grown colonies were purified through subculturing on nutrient agar plates then identified by morphological and biochemical methods. The obtained pure cultures were then kept on nutrient agar slants. Testing antibiotic resistance of the isolated bacterial strains was studied by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar using ten antibiotics belonging to different classes. The resultant inhibition zone was interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute.

Twenty-eight bacterial cultures were isolated from the collected food samples. The conventional identification using morphological and biochemical methods of these cultures revealed presence of three Gram positive species; Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp. and Bacillus subtilis in addition to four Gram negative; Escherichia coli, Brucella sp., Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis. The incidence of the obtained bacterial species was arranged as 29.16% for both S. aureus and E. faecalis followed by Brucella sp. 16.66%; B. subtilis & E. coli 12.5% then Streptococcus sp. and P. mirabilis with an incidence of 8.33% each. Testing antibiotic resistance pattern of seven bacterial species against ten antibiotics showed that, among three Gram positive bacterial species, only one (33.33%) strain S. aureus exhibited resistance to six antibiotics; amoxicillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, fluconazole and dicloxacillin. Among four Gram negative bacterial strains only one (25.0%) strain Enterococcus faecalis exhibited resistance to eight antibiotics; amoxicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin and cloxacillin.

Occurrence of multi-drug resistant bacteria in fish and vended street fruits poses not only risk of disease to the foods but public health hazard to food handlers and consumers in general. Also the result of this study recommended augmentin and cephazolin as good choice antibiotics for treatment of infection in the study area. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Relationship between New Diagnostic Technology and Information Technology in Diagnosing Cancer: Focusing on Breast Cancer

Nina Farzan, Nahid Nafissi, Seyyed Yaser Foroghi, Shima Sadat Madani, Mohammad Mahdi Zaheri, Samine Saghafinya, Fahimeh Shahjooie

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i130289

Introduction: The use of computer-assisted diagnostic tools has increased dramatically in various fields of medicine, especially cancer. It is essential and inevitable to use these tools, especially when there is a need to process large volumes of data, but new diagnostic methods was based on the use of Nano-sensors that have many advantages and they can be used to diagnose breast cancer, one of the most common neoplastic malignancies in the world. The study aims to investigate the relationship between new diagnostic methods and information technology in cancer diagnosis by categorizing research topics and important known aspects of cancer related illness from 1984 to 2017.

Methods: The evaluation conducted in March 2018 and used to access the articles on diagnostic and therapeutic methods from the PubMed, Medline, and Cochran library, WHO, Iranmedex and PsycINFO databases.

Results: The findings of this study in two sections of cancer and biological sensors show that biomarkers detect disease, and health information technology is expanding and innovating new methods. This can play an important role in managing chronic diseases such as cancer.

Conclusion: Primal diagnosis, reducing the time to diagnose and improving the quality of care during treatment, is one of the health’s information technology (IT) benefits of diagnosing cancer. In general, the results this study indicate that the use of information technology to increase the speed of effective therapeutic stages. Resulting in general health, as well as the relationship of information technology with diagnostic and therapeutic methods in our country can greatly increase the level of health and well-being and development, and create a new way of linking information technology and new diagnostic methods to cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Total Phenolic Contents and In vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Most Common Coffee Brews Available in the Local Markets of the Northern Region of Saudi Arabia

Olfat M. Nassar, Mohamed H. El-Sayed, Abd El-Nasser A. Kobisi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i130290

Background: Coffee is the most preferred morning beverage throughout the world due to its pleasant flavor and stimulating properties. It contains a multipart combination of chemicals constituents, which associated with health benefits. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia there are many types of coffee in the local markets with different characteristics.

Aims: The present study was designed to identify the total phenolic contents, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activities for three of the most commonly consumed coffee brews; Intenso (Arabica), Reebass (Turkish) and Lavazza (Brazilian) purchased from some local markets at the Northern region in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Study Design: It was an in-vitro study.

Methodology: The purchased coffee types were extracted using the boiling water method. Determination of total phenolic content of the obtained extracts was carried out using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Measurement of antimicrobial activity was determined by disk diffusion method against number of microbial test strains. The obtained data were statistically analyzed and results with p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: The obtained results showed that, the estimated phenolic contents were arranged as 745.50 ± 10.5, 668.86 ± 11.2 & 651.25 ± 13.0 mg/g of gallic acid/1 g of coffee for Lavazza (Brazilian), Reebass (Turkish) & Intenso (Arabica) respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher 78.83% for Turkish coffee than Arabica 71.59% and Brazilian 65.90% types. Regarding antimicrobial activity; Arabica coffee extract was the highest antimicrobial activity compared to the other two extracts of both Turkish and Brazilian types where the mean diameter of inhibition zone for three coffee types were ranged from 11.0 ± 0.15 to 16.0 ± 0.40; 9.0 ± 0.25 to 11.0 ± 0.10 and 9.5 ± 0.10 to 13.0 ± 0.50 mm for Arabica, Turkish and Brazilian coffee extracts respectively.

Conclusion: The present study concludes that coffee types under investigation showed high phenolic content and strong antioxidant activity as well as promising antimicrobial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Perceptions about Antimicrobial Stewardship

Nehad J Ahmed, Khalil Y Abujheisha, Mohamed F. Balaha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i130291

Introduction: Antibiotic resistance is considered one of the serious threats to global public health. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should be implemented by all hospitals to improve antimicrobial use. It is important that pharmacy students have a sound knowledge of antimicrobial stewardship.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions about antimicrobial stewardship.

Methodology: The study included a questionnaire that was used to assess the background knowledge of pharmacy students and their perceptions on antimicrobial stewardship.

Results and Discussion: Out of 103 students who completed the survey, 25 students (24.27%) reported that they know what antimicrobial Stewardship is, and only 39 students were familiar with antimicrobial stewardship programs in Saudi Arabia. Most of the students (95.14%) reported that they need more antimicrobial stewardship training.

Conclusion: Our results, therefore, recommend that pharmacy students should have more training on bacterial resistance, antibiotic use and antimicrobial stewardship.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parent's Attitude, Knowledge and Belief of Child's Fever Managements in Al-Qassim - Saudi Arabia

Yasser Almogbel, Jouza H. Al-Qussair, Abdulrahman M. Alamri, Ahmad Alhowail, Mugahid A. Mobark

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i130292

Background: Parent’s misconception of fever, result in increased anxiety and antipyretics are commonly used in this situation. So any lack of parent’s knowledge regarding strategies of using them raises the possibility of drug-related problems.

Objective: This study evaluated the parents’ knowledge, attitude and beliefs in dealing with the children’s fever.

Methods: An ethically approved cross-sectional study was conducted in Qassim region -Saudi Arabia.

Results: A total of 490 parents were participated in this study, 83.7% of them were mothers. Half of parents use the armpit site for measuring temperature. The majority of parents considered the temperature ≤37°C as normal and more than half of them considered ≥38°C as fever temperature. Convulsion was believed to be a complication of fever in 71% of parents and there was a significant association between the number of children and the practice of giving antipyretics. A wrong practice of assessing fever was using hand touch, and this study revealed that this behavioral was presented in a nearly third of parents. Acetaminophen was the commonly used antipyretics beside ice packs as a common non pharmacological therapy. The study also showed the majority of parents didn’t know the importance of weight in considering antipyretic.

Conclusion: Over all, parents participated in this study have inadequate knowledge about fever, its assessment and decision of giving a medication. However, past experiences and the number of sibling highly influence their practice and knowledge. Therefore, there is a need of effort to maximize parents’ information and awareness about fever.