Open Access Data Article

Chronicles of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Medicinal & Therapeutic Overview in Bangladeshi Aspect

D. S. Kadir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i530282

Nervous system and Neurological disorder sounds like a deep-sea of neurobiological harmony, reflecting a glorious bond and symbolizing a deep sign of interrelated linkages. Neurodegenerative diseases especially; Alzheimer’s disease is a widely renowned disorder with a larger scope of research opportunities. Nowadays, there are an abundance of research activities been carried out on this specific topic. It’s quite frightening to witness the ultimate outcome of Alzheimer’s disease sometimes which can turn out to be the deaths of the patients. In our data analytical program, we have emphasized on Alzheimer’s disease present therapeutic condition in Bangladesh, where in recent times this disorder has transformed into a household scenario. A handful number of patients been analysed through the regular observations based on their previous therapeutic history, expert opinions of scientists and physicians, as well as a smartly organized collection of medicinal and therapeutic information’s been used in order to estimate and indicate an up to dated circumstance of Alzheimer’s disease in Bangladesh. However, it’s a matter of concern that even with the development of modern technology, this age-old innocence of the inability to treat such a class of apocalypse has raised a finger at the capability of civilized human beings. Here, we have also focused on the in-general medical therapeutics of Alzheimer’s disease from which we are able to formulate a portfolio on the medicinal agents used in Bangladesh. Additionally, a data graphic is provided to figure out an estimated analysis of the approximate number of Alzheimer’s disease affected patients in Bangladesh. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Reporting Outcome and Evaluating the Efficacy of Biplanar Lateral Distal Femoral Osteotomy: Two Years Follow up Study

Ali Yeganeh, Babak Otoukesh, Mehdi Moghtadaei, Alireza PahlavanSabagh, Mani Mahdavi, Shayan Hosseinzadeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i530278

Introduction: Genu valgum could be approached by uniplanar or biplanar osteotomy in which site union and postoperative knee range of motion play important roles in technique selection.

Methods: Study was performed on 30 cases including 14 males and 16 females. Two of them had severe genu varum deformity and 28 had genu valgum. Participants underwent biplanar lateral distal femoral osteotomy. Osteotomy requirement was assessed by Lateral distal femoral angle measurement.

Results: Thirty patients underwent the biplanar procedure over the 4 years. Two years follow up showed complete union, full knee range of motion and within the acceptable alignment.

Conclusion: Biplanar osteotomy is an effective method to create the wider inner cancellous surface to achieve better osteotomy site union and knee range of motion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Clinical Characteristics and Clinical Complications of Norovirus gastroenteritis in Admitted Children to the Hospital

Alireza Nateghian, Fereshteh Moshfegh, Zabihollah Shoja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i530277

Aim: The current study aimed to detect Norovirus infections based on the use of sensitive and specific Multiplex PCR and to evaluate their clinical symptoms among children.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among patients with acute gastroenteritis (99 subjects) admitted to Ali Asghar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015. Fecal specimens were examined for Norovirus using Multiplex PCR. Clinical characteristics and severity of diarrhea were provided as a comparison of two groups (norovirus-positive and -negative children) using Chi-squared and independent Samples t-test.

Results: The prevalence of Norovirus infection was determined as 18%, among all samples genotyped, all genogroup was determined as GII and the GI was not identified in any of the samples. The age of non-Norovirus patients (16 months) was found to be significantly higher than that of Norovirus-positive patients (9 months) (P = 0.001). Based on the data presented herein, patients with Norovirus infection were diagnosed with fever in more than 50% of them followed by diarrhea (90%), vomiting (over 80%), and abnormalities (over 80%). however, no clear difference was found as comparison of both groups. The serum potassium level in non-Norovirus patients was found to be increased as compared to Norovirus positive patients (0.011) and the presence of hypoxia (Po2) in patients with Norovirus infection suffering from diarrhea was markedly higher when comparing with non-Norovirus types (P = 0.014). Moreover, MCV levels in Norovirus positive patients were significantly lower as compared to subjects with non-Norovirus diarrhea (p = 0.045).

Conclusions: Our data suggested that this genotyping of Norovirus, due to their higher rate of attack, is likely to cause a severe viral outbreak. The most important result of this study is the change in the level of potassium in patients with heart problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Single Center Report of Vitamin D Deficiency among Young Orthopaedic Patient in Iran

Ali Yeganeh, Babak Otoukesh, Mehdi Moghtadaei, Alireza Pahlavan Sabagh, Mani Mahdavi, Shayan Hosseinzadeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i530279

Background: Orthopaedic patients are at risk of having irregular levels of vitamin D and calcium due to lack of motility and sun light exposure. Among entire population of patients, Juvenile members of society are considered high-risk groups for vitamin D inadequacy. By considering the high prevalence of this complaint according to domestic studies in Iran, this study aims to provide a report of vitamin D and related factors among orthopaedic patients in Iran.

Methods: Participants were selected based on simple non-probable sampling method. Variables were including age, gender, the serum level of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, concurrent diseases, and history of taking nutritional supplements. Results were analysed using SPSS software (version 22, USA).

Results: 696 patient with mean age 15.5±1.8 were involved among which 440 participants were male and 256 cases were female. Mean of vitamin D calcium, phosphorous serum level was 12.1±4.3, 9.7± 0.5 and 4.3±0.8 respectively. 208 cases were living at urban and 488 members were living at rural locations. 176 cases had degrees of muscular pain, and 72 patients were suffering from developmental problems, and 32 patients were presenting obvious skeletal deformities.

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is a common issue among orthopaedic patients. Young patients are in a high danger for consequence of vitamin deficiency in orthopaedic ward due to critical age of bone formation and growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Academic Motivation and Self-directed Learning in Nursing Students

Masoomeh Adib, Shahrzad Ghiyasvandian, Shokoh Varaei, Zahra Atrkar Roushan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v30i530281

Introduction: Rapid development of knowledge and information in various fields of medical sciences indicates the need to encourage self-directed learning in nursing students to provide quality and updated care. This study examined the relationship between self-directed learning and academic motivation in nursing students.

Materials and Methods: Through a descriptive-correlational study, 305 nursing students studying at the Shahid Beheshti School of Nursing and Midwifery, Rasht were recruited by the census in Spring 2015. These students were asked to complete the Self-Rating Scale of Self-directed Learning (SRSSDL) and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Instrument reliability of these scales was confirmed in previous studies. Data were analysed by descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and analytic tests (Pearson coefficient of correlation and Chi-square).

Results: There is a positive and significant relationship between self-directed learning and academic motivation (r=0.164; p=0.004). Among components of self-directed learning, the highest coefficient of correlation was related to interpersonal skills (r=0.125, p=0.025) and the lowest was related to evaluation (r=0.111, p=0.053).

Conclusion: Findings showed a significant relationship between academic motivation and self-directed learning. Planners and decision-makers need to plan for increasing academic motivation of students, facilitating and developing self-directed learning to provide optimal care for patients.