Open Access Original Research Article

Diabetes Self-management and Its Related Factors among Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Primary Health Care Settings of Kerman, Southeast Iran

Ali Khalooei, Lila Benrazavy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i430241

Aims: Diabetes self-management (DSM) plays a crucial role in diabetes control. The present study was conducted to evaluate DSM and its related factors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among T2DM patients from January to March 2017 in urban healthcare centers of Kerman city, southeast Iran. A total of 600 T2DM patients were enrolled in the study using a multistage sampling method. Valid and reliable diabetes self-management questionnaire (DSMQ) was employed for data collection.

Results: The mean (±SD) score of DSM was 6.92 (±1.17) out of 10 with inter quartile range 6.25-7.70. DSM mean score was higher in patients with higher educational level and household income significantly. Employed subjects (mean=7.18) had a higher DSM mean score than unemployed ones (mean=6.84). Moreover, DSM was better in patients who receive insulin and those with diabetes-related complications. DSM had a direct correlation with the number of visits by specialist physicians (r = 0.257, P < 0.001) and treatment duration (r = 0.103, P = 0.013). University education (Beta = 0.243, P < 0.001) was the strongest predictor of DMS, followed by high school education (Beta = 0.226, P < 0.001) and number of annual visits in primary healthcare centers (Beta = 0.205, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Self-Management behaviors were suboptimal among the diabetes patients. There-fore, designing and implementing effective interventions to improve self-care behaviors of diabetic patients is necessary in the first level of health delivery system in Iran.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potential of Enhydra fluctuans Available in Bangladesh

S. Kamal, S. R. Rony, S. Sharmin, F. R. Laboni, M. H. Sohrab

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i430243

Objectives: The possible phytochemical constituents, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities of the crude ethanolic extract of Enhydra fluctuans (CE) were investigated along with the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials of its petroleum ether (PESF), carbon tetrachloride (CTCSF), chloroform (CSF) and aqueous (AQSF) soluble fractions.

Materials & Methods: The coarse leaf powder was extracted at room temperature with ethanol. Solvent-solvent partitioning was done to obtain the four soluble fractions. Anticoagulant potential was determined by the in vitro thrombolytic model, membrane stabilization method was used to assess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, the disc diffusion method was used for anti-microbial screening, antioxidant potential was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and brine shrimp lethality bioassay method was used for cytotoxic activity determination.

Results: Chemical screening of the crude extract evidenced the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, reducing sugars and gums. It showed significant clot lysis property of 46.91%. It also significantly inhibited heat and hypotonic solution induced lysis of the human red blood cell membrane with values of 71.80% and 47.60%, respectively. CTCSF and PESF showed mild antimicrobial activity. AQSF showed most prominent antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 12.27 µg/mL. CTCSF showed LC50 value of 0.84 µg/mL, with most potent cytotoxic activity.

Conclusion: Significant thrombolytic, membrane stabilizing, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxic activities of the ethanolic plant extract were observed in this study. In vivo activities and isolation of active compound(s) from this extract are yet to be investigated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Play Therapy on Social Development: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Malihe Masoudifard, Zohreh Mahmoodi, Azam Bagheri, Mahrokh Dolatian, Kourosh Kabir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i430244

Background: The early years of life are vital and sensitive for the growth and development of a child. This aimed to examine the effect of play therapy on the social development and maturity of infants aged from 12 to 24 months.

Methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial conducted on 76 eligible infants aged from 12 to 24 months referred to comprehensive health centers in Kashan city during 2017-2018. Infants who had inclusion criteria were included in the study and then randomly assigned to the two groups of intervention and control. Before the intervention and the end of the counseling sessions, Vineland Social Maturity Test Toolkit for Children in the both groups was completed and the data were analyzed using SPSS software.

Results: There was no significant differences between the two groups regarding the social development score before the intervention (p >0.001). There was a significant difference between the mean score of social development in the two groups after the intervention, in which the mean of the total score and each area of social development increased significantly (P <0.001).

Conclusion: Considering the importance of the early years of life in the development of infants and findings of the present study, it can be said that the advisory of play therapy for improving the development of a infants can be very helpful.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Self-medication among Pharmacy Students in North Cyprus

Sarah Khamis, Hasan Sheqer, Gunay Arsoy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i430246

Aim: The aim of our study is to assess the attitude, knowledge and practice of self-medication among fifth year Pharmacy Students at Near East University in Northern Cyprus.

Study Design: A cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in faculty of pharmacy in Near East University in Northern Cyprus on 28 of December 2018.

Methodology: A 7- part self administered questionnaire was used among fifth year pharmacy students who were available during the study time.

Results: A total of 77 questionnaires were distributed to be filled by respondents, all of them were filled completely and collected. 88% of the participants in our study were in the prevalent age group of 22-26 years and most of these students were from Turkey (58.3%). 25.7% of students visited a physician when they had a disease, however 25% of them didn’t comply with physician’s prescription. Headache (16.8%) and common cold (14.0%) were the most frequently reported illness for which self-medication was taken. Analgesic medicines (37.4%), followed by vitamins (29.7%) and antibiotic (13.5%), were used commonly as self-medication. Nearly all of students 95.9% knew the meaning of OTC and prescription only drugs. About 30.7% of students medicated themselves because it isn’t a serious disease. The main source of information about self-medication for students was  the advice from pharmacist (29.7%). 26.8% of students  agreed that pharmacists are good source of information for minor medical problems, 18.2% agreed that self-medication is acceptable for pharmacy students however 4.1% accepted that self-medication is not acceptable at all and it would be harmful.

Conclusion: The practice of self-medication is prevalent amongst fifth year pharmacy students even with adequate knowledge and awareness about the consequences. Proactive pharmacist may contribute in management of minor illness and rationalized self-medication.

Open Access Review Article

Salivary Megaliths: A Literature Review of Giant Salivary Sialoliths Larger than 30 mm

Rosa Mostafavi Tabatabaee, Reza Mostafavi Tabatabaee, Majid Sanatkhani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v29i430245

Background and Aim: Sialoliths are the most common salivary gland disease, Among them, there are rare sialoliths that have a size of more than 15 mm in one dimension, and salivary stones larger than 30 mm in one dimension is megalith that are very rare. Depending on the location and size of the stone, there are different diagnostic and therapeutic methods. In this article, we review the articles about salivary megaliths of unusual and gigantic size, the cause of stones formation and the method of diagnosis and treatment of salivary megaliths.

In this review article finding the number of reported salivary megaliths, causes, mechanism of stone formation, clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic methods were written.

Materials and Methods: In this article review, Information was extracted through searches in databases by entering the keywords. Articles with incomplete data or articles that were less relevant to the topic or reported articles with giant stones smaller than 30 mm were excluded.

Results: A total of 77 articles, 85 patients suffering from megaliths and 86 salivary megaliths with a size of 30 mm and upwards have been reported up to now. The largest size is reported to be 83 mm. Megalith is more common in men and in the submandibular duct.

Conclusion: salivary megaliths are rare and Depend on the location of megaliths various diagnosis and treatment are available. The exact cause of the formation of them is unknown and further research is needed to identify the etiopathogenesis of the formation of these kind of gigantic salivary stones.