Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Complexation Behaviour of Chloroquine towards Ti (II) Ion

I. E. Otuokere, L. O. Okpara, K. C. Amadi, C. O. Alisa, A. Okoyeagu, F. C. Nwadire

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i330168

Aims: Chloroquine is a member of the drug class 4-aminoquinoline used for the prevention and treatment of malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects.

Our aim is to synthesize the chloroquine – titanium complex and to study its coordination behavior.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, 2019.

Methodology: Ti(II) complex of chloroquine was synthesized by the reaction of chloroquine phosphate with titanium(IV) oxide. The metal complex was characterized based on UV, IR and 1H NMR Spectroscopy.

Results: The UV spectrum of the complex suggested intra ligand charge transfer (ILCT), ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT), and d-d transition. The IR spectrum of the complex showed the involvement of amine and imine group in coordination to Ti. This showed that chloroquine acted as a bidentate ligand. 1H NMR of the spectrum further showed the involvement of the amine group in coordination.

Conclusion: The ability of chloroquine to sequestrate Ti (II) ion has been assured. This drug can be used to chelate Ti ions from solution, environment, and biological system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Flow Cytometry in Detecting Bacterial Contamination in Platelets

Maryam Habibi Ziari, Farhad Razjou, Shahram Vaeli, Fatemeh Abedi Poshtiri, Abolfazl Dabirmoghadam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i330169

Introduction: Bacterial contamination of platelet products is a major risk of infections in blood transfusion. Due to their storage conditions at room temperatures (22 to 24°C), cases of septicemia and even death caused by platelet injection have been reported. Therefore, use of appropriate diagnostic methods can improve the health of this product. In this study, flow cytometry was used to detect contaminated platelet units.

Methods: This study was a diagnostic interventional type. 15 units of platelet concentrate was prepared at a minimum interval time after production. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were each added to 6 platelet bags, with a concentration of 10 CFU / ml, while 3 bags were used as negative control. Platelets were stored in a shaking incubator at 22 - 24°C, for 0, 6, 24 and 48 hour-intervals after inoculation. Samples were then taken at 1 ml volume and evaluated by flow cytometry.

Results: The sensitivity of the flow cytometry method to detect contaminated platelet units in infections with both Staphylococcus epidermidis and E. coli, in a 1 ml volume in all samples at 0, 6, 22 and 24 hours after inoculation, was 100%, and the number of bacteria increased in 24 hours of incubation, except for E. coli that decreased after 24 hours.

Conclusion: This study shows that flow cytometry can be a useful method for detecting bacterial contamination in platelets, and can detect low concentrations (10 CFU / ml) of bacteria in small volumes of sample (ml) in a short time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cardioprotective Effect of Marine Astaxanthin on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Normal Rats

Ali A. AlQahtani, Abdel-Moneim M. Osman, Zoheir A. Damanhouri, Huda M. Al-Kreathy, Hamdan S. Al-Malky, Wafaa S. Ramadan, Sameer E. Alharthi, Fatemah O. Kamel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i330170

Background: Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective antineoplastic drug indicated to treat many cancerous diseases but its clinical usefulness is limited by many side effects. The main and the most serious one is DOX induced cardiotoxicity. Many strategies have been tried to minimize this side effect such as addition of cardioprotective agent to DOX treatment protocols.

Aims: The aim of this work was directed to investigate whether marine astaxanthin (ATX), a xanthophyll carotenoid pigment with potent antioxidant effect, could protect heart against the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX.

Methodology: Forty Male Wister rats were divided into four equal groups and treated for one week as follow: Group I rats were treated with normal saline (2 ml/kg, x7, i.p.) and considered a control group. Group II rats were treated with ATX (40 mg/kg, x7, i.p.). Group III rats were treated with normal saline (2 ml/kg, x7, i.p.) and a single dose of DOX (20 mg/kg, i.p.) at day 7. Finally, group IV rats were treated with ATX (40 mg/kg, x7, i.p) and with a single dose of DOX (20 mg/kg, i.p.) at day 7. After 24 and 48 hrs of treatment, rats were anesthetized and prepared for collection of blood samples and heart isolation. The cardioprotective effect of ATX against DOX induced cardiotoxicity were evaluated by measurement of the serum level of cardiac enzymes CPK by colorimetric assay and CK-MB by Eliza. Also the levels of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured colorimetrically. In addition, the Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in heart tissues homogenate by colorimetric method. In addition, Heart sample were taken for histopathology studies.

Results: The Addition of ATX to DOX significantly (p<0.05) decreased the serum level of cardiac enzymes (CPK, CK-MB) and increased the serum total antioxidant capacity in compare with these levels in sera of rats treated with DOX only. This addition also significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde and increased the reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase significantly in the heart tissues homogenate in compare to corresponding levels in rats treated with DOX alone. Histopathological investigation of cardiac tissues confirmed the biochemical studies, where addition of ATX to DOX treatment protocol showed that the fragmentation of the muscle fiber revealed normal with central vesicular nuclei and prevented a marked disruption of normal cardiac architecture which resulted from DOX treatment.

Conclusion: Marine astaxanthin provides excellent cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnostic Value of Distal Forearm Densitometry for Osteoporosis; Alone or Add to Hip and Spine Densitometry?

Nasrin Moghimi, Khaled Rahmani, Mohsen Rajabnia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i330171

Background: In most centers of the world, for diagnosing osteoporosis is used densitometry in hip and spine, but due to the high prevalence of distal forearm fracture and osteoporosis as its main etiology and on the other hand, evaluation of the distal forearm densitometry as an predictor indicator for axial osteoporosis, evaluate the diagnostic value of distal forearm densitometry for osteoporosis; alone and with adding to hip and spine densitometry.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was carried out on 250 patients referring to Sanandaj densitometry center from September 2017 to September 2018. For the studied subjects, BMD was performed by DXA method in three regions of hip, spine and distal forearm. Data were analyzed using independent t-test, fisher exact test, chi-square test and logistic regression test using SPSS v. 23 software.

Results: In this study, 68 cases (27.2%) in the spine region, 38 cases (15.2%) in the hip and 85 cases (34%) in distal forearm were osteoporotic. Based on the results of this study, using the conventional method (hip and spine) in comparison with the studied method (hip, spine and distal forearm), 29 (11.6%) of those cases with osteoporosis are not diagnosed. Distal forearm densitometry alone in comparison with the conventional method has diagnostic sensitivity 74.66%, specificity 83.43%, positive predictive value (PPV) 65.88% and negative predictive value (NPV) 88.48%.

Conclusion: Adding distal forearm densitometry to conventional method significantly increasing diagnostic sensitivity of osteoporosis and would prevent misdiagnosis. Distal forearm densitometry can use as a predictor indicator of axial osteoporosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Proximate Composition and Phytochemical Constituents of Corchorus oliterious (Ewudu) Harvested in Ugep, Cross River State

Grace Ekpo, O. E. Eteng, Stella Bassey, Alabi Leah, Kenyoh Abam, Saviour Ufort, Friday Uboh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v27i330172

Aims: To Determine the proximate composition and phytochemicals constituents of Corchorus olitorious leaves harvested in ugep, Cross River State. The leaves were purchased locally. Methodology: The leaves were washed to remove sand and other particles like pieces of wood which may act as contaminants, thereafter the leaves were dried to a certain temperature. The dried leaves were blended into powder using a standard method of AOAC (2005) (Association of analytical chemist). Evaluation of Corchorus Oliterous for proximate and phytochemical composition were conducted using standard methods.

Results: The result obtained on the proximate composition of Corchorus Oliterious revealed the following; Moisture (84.40±0.10 mg/100g), Ash (2.90±0.10 mg/100g), Protein (4.66±0.02 mg/100g), Fibre (2.70±0.10 mg/100g), Fat (4.30±0.10 mg/100g) and Carbohydrate (85.10±0.02 mg/100g). The phytochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of Corchorus olitorious which was done both Qualitatively and quantitatively revealed the presence of alkaloids (2.40±0.10 mg/100g), glycoside (2.53±0.01 mg/100g), saponins (3.32±0.02 mg/100g), Tannins (0.47±0.01 mg/100g), flavonoid (6.30±0.10 mg/100g), reducing compounds (4.60±0.02 mg/100g) and polyphenols (6.50±0.02 mg/100g).

Conclusion: the leafy vegetables of this plant if consume in sufficient amount would contribute greatly to the nutritional requirement for human health.