Open Access Original Research Article

Attachment Styles, Marital Conflicts, Coping Strategies, and Sexual Satisfaction in Spouse Abused and Non- Abused Women

Maryam Yekeh Fallah, Abouzar Nouri Talemi, Maedeh Bagheri, Yasaman Allameh, Mohammad Mazloumirad, Fatemeh Zandnia, Bahram Gheitarani, Shahrbanoo Ghahari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i430141

Introduction: Intimate partner violence refers to any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes emotional, physical and sexual problems to victims. Coping strategy as significant factors in mental health is defined as behavioral and psychological attempts to control stress and confront stressful situations.

Aims: This study aimed to compare spouse abused and non- abused women in attachment styles, marital conflicts, coping strategies and sexual satisfaction.

Methods: This is a comparative study. Statistical population of study consisted of all women who had referred to healthcare centers in Alborz province during February-May 2017. All of women filled spouse abuse questionnaire and 300 c spouse abused women compared with 300 non- abused  women. Both groups were similar in terms of age, education level, number of children, and living place using convenience sampling method. Sample members filled out Sanaee’s Marital Conflict Questionnaire, Endler and Parker (1990) Coping Strategies Inventory, Hudson et al.  (1981) Sexual Satisfaction Scale, and Collins and Reid (1990) Attachment Scale. Data analyzed by t test, Pearson correlation coefficient, MANCOVA and Levin test through SPSS-21 Software.

Results: Results showed that spouse women had more marital conflicts, insecure attachment, dysfunctional coping strategies and less sexual satisfaction than non-abused women (0/000).

Conclusion: There were insecure attachment style, more marital conflicts, and dysfunctional coping strategies, less sexual satisfaction in spouse abused women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Gastrointestinal Study on the Leaf Extract of Stachytarpheta angustifolia Mill Vahl (Verbenaceae) in Rabbit Jejunum

M. Mohammed, A. Danmallam, M. T. Kolo, A. A. Abubakar, M. Babakano, U. M. Jajere

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i430142

angustifolia (Verbenaceae) is mostly prescribed by the folkloric healers for various gastrointestinal disorders. This study was carried out to ascertain the gastrointestinal effect of the ethanol leaf extract and other various fractions (CHCl3, EtOAc, n- BuOH and residual aqueous) on rabbit Jejunum. The ethanol, n-butanol and residual aqueous of the extract exhibited dose concentration at (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/ml) dependent contraction of the rabbit Jejunum which was blocked by atropine suggesting that the observed pharmacological actions was mediated through the muscarinic receptors. In contrast, chloroform and ethylacetate fraction of the leaf extract exhibit dose concentration dependent relaxation of the rabbit jejunum. Intreperitoneal LD50 of the extract in mice was found to be 295.8 mg/kg. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaf extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycoside, sterols and terpenoids. The result indicated that, the plant extract possesses some pharmacological activity, hence justifying its use traditionally in alleviating gastrointestinal disorder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiabetic, Analgesic, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potentials of Methanol Extracts of Fruits and Shoots of Brassica oleracea L. Var. Italic.

Tanzina Sharmin Nipun, Md. Mohaiminul Islam, Jahidul Islam, Md Shakhawat Hossain, Ferdous Ahmed, A. K. Azad, Refat Tasnim Taizy, S. M. Naim Uddin, S. M. Moazzem Hossen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i430143

Background: Brassica oleracea L. var. italic conjointly known as “broccoli” is a crucial ayurvedic medication in traditional medicine mostly cultivated in Italy, France, England and USA. The aim of the present research work was to determine the antidiabetic, analgesic, antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of fruits and shoots of broccoli.

Methods: In this study, antidiabetic activity was investigated using alloxan induced diabetic model. Analgesic activity was manifested using acetic acid-induced writhing reflex. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH scavenging method while antimicrobial activity screening was carried out by disc diffusion method.

Results: Qualitative phytoanalysis of methanol extracts assured the existence of flavonoids and tannins etc. Moreover, it contains mild antibacterial and antioxidant activity where IC50 of the extract is 1424.30µg/ml. It also contains slightly analgesic and antidiabetic activity.

Conclusion: Our results recommend that presence of flavonoids and tannins renders Brassica oleracea L. var. italic with therapeutic potential for oxidative stress and inflammation associated disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiglycation and Fatty Acids Profiling in Response to Phyocyanin Extracted from Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca Algae Loaded on Albumin Nano-particles (ULANP) in Diabetic Rats

Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki, Elie K. Barbour, Khadijah S. Balamash, Fawzia A. Alshubaily, Khalid O. Abualnaja, Wesam H. Abdulaal, Mustafa A. Zeyadi, Maryam H. Al-Zahrani, Taha A. Kumosani, Said S. Moselhy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i430144

Aim: This study evaluated the effect of Phyocyanin extracted from Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca algae loaded on albumin nano-particles (ULANP) on diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods: Fifty albino rats were divided into 5 goups.  GPI: control and GPII: rats were injected with alloxan (75 mg /kg) i.p for six consecutive days for induction of diabetes. This group was subdivided into 4 subgroups: GP IIa: (Untreated diabetic): GP IIb: rats were given with ULANP (100 mg/kg).GP IIc: Rats were given ULANP (200 mg/kg) i.p. GP IId: Rats were given insulin (100 unit/ day). Serum NO, interleukin-6 glucose, AGEs and fatty acids profile was determined.

Results:  Analysis of ULANP by FTIR showed the characteristic band (2100 cm-1~ 3700 cm-1) that is indicated mainly from -COO, – CO and conjugated double bond. These bonds showed spectral bands peak 2985 cm-1 and 2860 cm-1, 2986 cm-1.  Administration of ULANP in diabetic rats exerted an anti-inflammatory by lowering NO and IL-6 levels and hypoglycemic effects by decreased glucose and reduced AGEs levels. In addition, ULAPN lowered percent of saturated fatty acids while elevated unsaturated fatty acids percent.

Conclusion: It was concluded that, ULAPN is a promising effective anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic agent compared with other therapeutic agents with lower site effects. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Median Lethal Dose and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Assessment of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Phyllanthus amarus

O. E. Adolor, I. Onyesom, A. O. Opajobi, J. C. Mordi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i430145

Aims: To determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of crude ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus and evaluate its sub-chronic oral toxicity in experimental mice (BALB/C strain).

Study Design: One-factor, one-control, one-test group experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria, between December, 2014 and November, 2015.

Methodology: Crude ethanolic leaf extract of P. amarus was prepared as previously described and twenty (20) Swiss albino mice (BALB/C strain) were randomly and equally divided into two (2) groups and administered 2000 mg/kg body weight (Group A) and 5000 mg/kg body weight (Group B) of the prepared extract as single oral dose in line with the limit dose method of determining LD50. For the sub-chronic oral toxicity study, ten (10) mice were assigned into control (n=5) and experimental (n=5). The control animals were given placebo-normal saline, but the experimental mice were administered with nocebo – 300 mg/kg body weight of P. amarus crude ethanolic extract for twenty one (21) days. Thereafter, the animals in each group were sacrificed and then, serum and liver homogenate were obtained for the assay of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and oxidative damage (Malondialdehyde-MDA) Using documented methods. Liver tissue was also processed for histopathological examination using H&E stain.

Results: Data showed LD50 of the extract to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. Assessment of the herb’s sub-chronic oral toxicity indicates that the leaf extract significantly (P=.03) enhanced total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in both serum (Control: TAC = 0.10±0.03 mM, Experimental: TAC = 0.33±0.05 mM) and liver (Control: TAC = 0.12±0.09 mM, Experimental: TAC = 0.34±0.06 mM) but reduced (P = .01) the biomarker for liver tissue damage (Control: MDA = 41.89±3.36 µM, Experimental: MDA = 4.67±4.04 µM). In addition, hepatic cells were invigorated by P. amarus treatment as suggested by the histopathological features.

Conclusion: Collectively, P. amarus crude ethanolic leaf extract possesses high degree of tolerance and hepatic tonic potential with no identifiable toxic or side effects.