Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Piper guineense, Cassia alata, Tagetes erecta and Ocimum graticimum

A. C. Amadioha, Kenkwo Promise Chidi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i330136

Phytochemicals are biologically active naturally occurring chemicals produced by plants to help them thrive or thwart competitors or pathogenic organisms. The phytochemical experiment revealed varying degrees of flavonoid, alkaloid, saponin, tanin and phenol as naturally occurring bioactive chemicals of water and ethanol leaf extracts of Piper guineense, Cassia alata, Tagetes erecta and Ocimum graticimum. T. erecta had the highest flavonoid, alkaloid, saponin and tanin content of 3.17%, 5.43%, 3.50% and 5.15% respectively in ethanol extract and this was significant (P≤ 0.05), and followed by C. alata, O. graticimum, and P. guineense. The highest phenol content of 3.50% was recorded in water extract of C. alata followed by water extract of T. erecta, O. graticimum, and ethanol extract of P. guineense. The exploitation of antimicrobial potentials of these phytochemicals in the control of plant diseases incited by pathogenic organisms is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variations in the Anatomy of Sphenoid Sinus: A Computed Tomography Investigation

Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Amir Hosseini, Javad Mohajer Ansari, Ehsan Golchini, Zeinab Namjoo, Keywan Mortezaee, Ebrahim Pirasteh, Amirhossein Dehghani, Saeid Nassiri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i330137

Aims: The sphenoid sinus is surrounded by many neurovascular structures which are very vulnerable to intrasphenoid sinus surgeries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the variation of sphenoid sinus structure by CT scan imaging.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study of 3D images of a paranasal sinus in 129 cases. In this study, three-way metering of the sphenoid sinus, additional septum, pneumatization of the period process (PP), anterior clinoid process (ACP) and greater wing of sphenoid and protrusion and dehiscence of adjacent structures will be assessed.

Results: Protrusion of internal carotid artery (ICA), a vidian nerve, maxillary nerve (V2) and optical canal were seen respectively 50.4%, 57.36%, 62.5% and 54.3% but dehiscence of this structure was seen 8.5%, 7%, 3.9% and 6.2%. penumtazition of PP, ACP and greater wing of sphenoid were seen 96.87%, 43.9% and 41.1%. Additional septum also is seen in 76% of the population.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates numerous variations in sphenoid sinus structure. Some of the variations cause many problems during intrasphenoidal surgery. Therefore, physicians should evaluate patients completely before surgery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and 1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylpropan-1-one Isolated from the Leaves of Annona muricata (Linn.)

Festus O. Taiwo, Olaoluwa Oyedeji, Moyosore T. Osundahunsi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i330138

Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bioactive compounds isolated from Annona muricata (Linn.) leaf extract.

Study Design: In vitro antimicrobial assay of bioactive compounds isolated from solvent fractions of plant leaf extract against selected clinical bacterial and fungal isolates. Antioxidant assay of plant leaf extract.

Place and Duration of Study: All the work was carried out in the Departments of Chemistry and Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria between March, 2015 and January, 2016.

Methodology: Isolation of bioactive compounds was by column and thin layer chromatographic techniques. Isolated compounds were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods while antioxidant activity was investigated using the 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay.

Results: Two compounds kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (1) and 1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-Phenylpropan-1-one (2) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of leaf extract of A. muricata. The two compounds showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 26.00 ± 1.73 to 31 ± 1.00 mm and 17.33 ± 1.15 to 31.33 ± 1.15 mm respectively, for compounds 1 and 2 for the test bacteria species and 15.33 ± 1.15 to 31.33 ± 1.15 mm and 17.67 ± 0.58 to 29.67 ±1.53 mm respectively, for compounds 1 and 2 for the test fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged between 0.625-5.00 µg/mL and 1.25-5.00 µg/ml respectively, for compounds 1 and 2. Minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 2.5-10.00 µg/mL for both compounds which compared favourably with the reference drugs used. DPPH radical-scavenging activities were IC50 = 13.41 ± 0.64 µg/mL and 7.42 ± 0.90 µg/mL for compounds 1 and 2 respectively, compared with IC50 = 51.99 ± 1.44 µg/ml obtained for the standard ascorbic acid. The results show that both isolated compounds from A. muricata leaf possess in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and they may be useful as active ingredients in antimicrobial drug formulations and as agents for the control of free radical-related pathological disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychometric Properties of Iranian Version of Clustera Personality Disorder Questionnaire

Nazanin Farokhi, Farah Lotfi Kashni, Shahram Vaziri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10,
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i330139

Objective: This study was conducted to determining psychometric properties of Cluster A personality Disorder Questionnaire in Iran.

Methods: This was a methodology study. Statistical population consisted of 1375 students of Islamic Azad University North Branch. Central Branch, Roudehen Branch and Karaj Branch selected using random sampling method. Of completed 1375 questionnaires, 1303 questionnaires were selected because of invalid and malformed collected questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics-mean, standard deviation inferential statistics- determination coefficient, and Cronbach’s alpha- to examine validity and reliability of test; Millon Personality Disorder Questionnaire considered as external benchmark. In addition, t and z tests were used for standardization.

Findings: Results showed the obtained Cronbach’s alpha for subscales including Paranoid, Schizoid, and Schizotypal equal to 0.610- 0.674 and 0.650 respectively. Internal consistency of questionnaire items was significant based on Cronbach’s alpha at level of 0.05 (P<0.005) indicating internal stability, validity and reliability of test. Evidences from simultaneous validity correlation indicated positive and significant correlation between scores of two tests.

Discussion and Conclusion: It can be stated in accordance with the results obtained from study that Cluster A Personality Disorder Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to diagnose clinical symptoms of cluster A personality disorder in Iranian community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Capsule of Evening Primrose Oil and Misoprostol on Cervical Ripening of Nulliparous Women with Post-term Pregnancy

Soma Bahmani, Kajal Hesamy, Shola Shahgheibi, Daem Roshani, Roonak Shahoei

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i330140

Background and Objective: The rates of perinatal mortality and neonatal morbidity are higher for post-term pregnancies than for term pregnancies. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of vaginal capsule of evening primrose oil and misoprostol on cervical ripening of nulliparous women with post-term pregnancy.

Materials and Methods: This one-blind randomized trial conducted on 130 pregnant women with post-term pregnancy visiting to the labor ward of  Sanandaj Be`sat Hospital. Samples were divided into two groups of intervention and control with the randomized allocation method. The intervention group received 500 mg vaginal evening primrose capsule and 25 micrograms of sublingual misoprostol, and the control group received a placebo-vaginal capsule and 25 micrograms of misoprostol sublingually. Data collecting tools include: demographic questionnaire and bishop checklist. Data was analyzed by SPSS software version 15 with using Chi-square, T-test, one-way ANOVA test.

Results: The results showed that the mean bishop score of the subjects in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group (p <0.05). There was no significant difference in uterine contractions, fetal heart rate and vital signs between two groups (p> 0.05).

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that vaginal capsule of evening primrose oil with misoprostol on the cervical ripening in post-term pregnancies was more effective than misoprostol alone.