Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Executive Function of Brain between Drug-dependent, in Abstinences and Normal Individuals in Tehran

Zahra Sadghi, Abouzar Nouri Talemi, Shahrbanoo Ghahari, Ali Asghar Asgharnejadfarid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i230130

Aim: Drug addiction causes many of brain dysfunctions and intellectual abnormalities so that its problem should be addressed. Hence, this study is aimed  at comparing executive functions among drug-dependent, in abstinence, and normal individuals in Tehran.

Methodology: Research method is descriptive-comparative. Studied samples consisted of men chosen from addiction treatment centers in Tehran, using random sampling method. Members of normal groups consisted of 25 normal people without any experience of opiates use; drug user group consisted of 25 drug-dependent patients; and group of in abstinence individuals consisted of 25 members who had been drug abusers before but were under treatment during this study. To compare executive functions of the brain of these three groups, Letter-Number Sequence Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were used.

Results: Drug users had lower function compared with normal but had a better function compared with in-abstinence groups in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. in Letters-Digits Sequence Test, normal group have better performance than two other groups significantly; whereas, among two drug user and in-abstinence groups, drug users significantly performed better than in-abstinence group. Also. this current study showed that there is a relationship between substance use duration and low executive functions of brain (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Drug users have lower function compared with normal and in-abstinence groups in Wisconsin Card Sorting and Letters-Digits Sequence test. Moreover, short-term deprivation from drugs correlate with lower executive function of brain in cognitive tasks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neuroprotective Effect of Different Doses of Vitamine D3 in Diabetic-Induced Alzheimer Rat Model

Yahya A. Al-Zahrani, Mai A. Alim A. Sattar, Sameer E. Al-Harthi, Huda. M. Alkreathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i230132

Background: Many studies revealed that diabetes is an independent risk factor for developing cognitive dysfunction, and Alzheimer. During diabetes, overexpression of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 beta could lead to Aβ accumulation and neuronal death. 

Aim: To examine the neuroprotective effect of different doses of vitamin D3 against diabetic-induced cognitive dysfunction in rats. Moreover, possible underlying mechanisms were also investigated.

Methods: High-fat diet plus streptozotocin were used to induce diabetes in Westar rats. We sub-grouped the diabetic rats into six subgroups, positive control, vitamin D3 groups (100, 500 and 1000 IU/kg/day), vitamin D3 plus rivastigmine, and rivastigmine monotherapy. After the induction of diabetes, we started treatment for sixteen months. Morris water maze test was used to evaluate cognitive function, followed by estimation of beta-amyloid-42, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β levels in the hippocampus by ELIZA kits.

Results: Vitamin D3 treatment significantly (p<0.05) and dose-dependently mitigated cognitive deficits observed in Morris water maze test, with significant, suppresses in beta-amyloid-42 and nitric oxide synthase pathway via attenuated hippocampal inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide overproduction (p<0.05). Moreover, vitamin D3 decreased inflammation state of diabetic rats brains by significantly lowered (p<0.05) pro-inflammatory cytokines levels including, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β as an underlying mechanism for the resulted improvement.

Conclusion: The results of this research suggest that upregulation of nitric oxide synthase pathway along with the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines is critically involved in cognitive dysfunction associated with diabetes. Vitamin D3 can ameliorate these effects and has a promising neuroprotective effect in diabetic-induced cognitive dysfunction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Storage Temperature and Preservatives on the Stability and Quality of Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harms Herbal Health Drinks

Nguyen MinhThu, Hoang Le Son

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i230133

Aims: Polyscias fruticosa has been well-known as a traditional medicinal herb which shares the same function as ginseng, favorable for their antioxidant capacity. In this study, the herbal health drink had been developed based on the Polyscias fruticosa extract. The effect of preservatives and storage temperature on the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and total saponin content were investigated over the period of 16 weeks.

Methodology: Polyscias fruticosa extract based herbal drinks were formulated. Potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate were used as preservatives while storage temperature was set at 4 and 250C. Determination of total phenolic content was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Meanwhile, analysis of total flavonoid and saponin content was conducted by colorimetric methods.

Results: In general, the effect of preservatives and storage temperature on the concentration of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content can clearly be seen after 6 weeks, while significant difference in concentration of total saponin content had been evidenced from week 11. Typically, The concentration of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and total saponin content in formulas added preservatives and kept at 4°C were measured at 2.80±0.26 mg GAE/g, 8.24±0.44 mg CE/g and 20.29±0.27 mg OAE/g after 16 weeks, respectively; however, without adding preservatives and stored at 25°C, these components were found at a value of 1.77±0.1 mg GAE/g, 0.0±0.28 mg CE/g, 14.63±0.59 mg OAE/g, respectively.

Conclusion: Overall, the presence of preservatives and fridge temperature (4°C) has been the optimal condition to maintain the quantity of biological phytocomponents in herbal health drink; however, the addition of preservatives and storage temperature should be taken into consideration depending on the storage time of herbal drink.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium on Anxiety during MRI Imaging in Patients with Spinal Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Nishtman Ahani, Kamal Salehi, Jamal Seidi, Bakhtyar Salehi, Bijan Nouri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i230134

Objective: Anxiety is one of the most significant problems of patients during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Anxiety affects the quality of images, increased costs and repeating the imaging process. Aromatherapy is regarded a complementary therapy that is assumed to be highly effective in reducing anxiety. The present study aims at investigating the effect of aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium on anxiety in MRI imaging.

Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was done on 80 patients with spinal disorders that were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, inhaling Citrus aurantium essential oil was conducted two minutes before entering the MRI machine and right before entering the MRI machine. As for the control group, the patients were provided with only the common cares of the medical center. Right after the imaging process, the anxiety experienced was evaluated based on the Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ). The data collected were analyzed in SPSS-21 with statistical tests including independent T-test, Fisher’s exact test, and chi-squared test.

Results: The samples of both groups were homogenous in terms of age, sex, marital status, educational level, occupation, and the kind of disease. The mean of MRI anxiety experience was 23.32±12.72 and 37.4±15.41 in the intervention and control group respectively; the independent T-test indicated a significant difference.

Conclusion: Citrus aurantium is likely to reduce the anxiety in MRI imaging. Given the proper effectiveness, inexpensiveness, and the easy administration of this aromatherapy, it is recommended to be applied for reducing the MRI anxiety.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Novel Stress Indicating RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for the Simultaneous Estimation of Velpatasvir and Sofosbuvir in Bulk and Its Tablet Dosage Form

D. Chinababu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i230135

Aim: The objective of the study was simplest, accurate, precise and robust reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the estimation of Velpatasvir (VEL) and Sofosbuvir (SOF) in the bulk and its tablet dosage form.

Study Design: The Quantitative and Qualitative estimation and designed forced degradation study of Velpatasvir & Sofosbuvir by RP-HPLC.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried at Santhiram College of Pharmacy and time taken 4 months.

Method: The method was attained by used Waters( 5µm, C18 250 x 4.6 mm) column with mobile phase consists of  0.5 mM disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer pH adjusted to 6.5, with Orthophosphoric acid and Methanol in the ratio of 78:22 v/v, a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and ultraviolet detection at 285 nm.

Results: The method was validated as per ICH guidelines with different parameters, the mean retention times of VEL and SOF were found to be 2.8 & 4.7 min respectively. The resolution between VEL and SOF was found to be 10.66. The Correlation coefficients for calibration curves within the detection range of 32.5 - 97.5 and 125 - 375 µg/mL were 0.999 for VEL and SOF respectively. The LOD and LOQ for VEL and SOF were found to be 0.0068-0.029 µg/mL and 0.104-0.342 µg/mL respectively.

Conclusion: The results were indicated that the developed method was used for the routine analysis of VEL & SOF combined form in bulk and its commercial formulation. To the best of our knowledge, there was no method of RP-HPLC for the determination of VEL alone or in combination with SOF molecule.