Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Study Anti-proliferative Potential of Algae Extract against Cancer Cell Line

Morog R. Maddah, Etimad A. Huwait, Abeer Ali Al-balawi, Said S. Moselhy, Maryam A. ALghamdi, Mustafa A. Zeyadi, Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki, Taha A. Kumosani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i130124

Background: Oxidative stress is defined as imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant ratio, that lead to oxidative damage of biologically active molecules, finally lead to different disease and initiate carcinogenesis. The drug discovery using natural products as medicinal plants or marine organism still an important target for recent research. This study investigated anticancer activity of algae extract obtained from Red sea at Jeddah.

Materials and Methods: Aqueousand methanol extracts ofDictyotaciliolata(DC) were tested on HCT-116 and HepG2 cell lines using WST-1. Aqueous extract (AEDC) and methanol extract (MEDC) at doses 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/ml and positive control 0.3% H2O2 at doses 0.5 mg/ml for 24,48 and 72 h (for two cell lines).

Results: AEDC showed the mosteffective antitumor activity against HCT116 and HePG2, the IC50 dose for HCT116 cells was 0.05 mg/ml at 72 h, while for the HePG2 it was 0.01 mg/ml at 72 h. These results showed that HePG2cells was more sensitive to the AEDC. However, IC50 for MEDC were 0.01 mg/ml for HCT116 and 0.05 for HepG2 at 48 Hrs. The algae extracts contain sulfated polysaccharides and different pigments as chlorophylls, carotenoids and phycobiliproteins. These pigments were approved as biological active biomolecules that exert different biological activities as antioxidants, antitumor and rich source of micronutrients. In addition, AEDC or MEDC exert apoptotic activity by increase activity of caspase 3 and 9 in HepG2.

Conclusıon: The antitumor effect of AEDC or MEDC is promising for development of chemotherapeutic agent as effective with no side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Phenolic Contents by HPLC, and Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Antityrosinase, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Psephellus huber-morathii

Nuriye Korkmaz, Sıla Ozlem Sener, Nuray Balturk, Seyda Kanbolat, Merve Badem, Rezzan Aliyazicioglu, Ufuk Ozgen, Ali Kandemir, Sengul Alpay Karaoglu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10,
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i130125

The goal of our study was to examine of antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticholinesterase activities, and phenolic composition of Psephellus huber-morathii. The antioxidant activities of extracts have been assessed by Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging. Phenolic constituents were measured using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and antimicrobial activity was investigated using the agar well diffusion method. Total phenolic content, FRAP, and CUPRAC results of aqueous extract have been better than methanolic extract, except for DPPH activity. Benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid as major phenolic compounds were specified. Methanolic extract was especially effective against all microorganisms tested except for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The methanolic extract have been displayed inhibitory effect on tyrosinase. All extracts have been exhibited lower acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities than galantamine. P. huber-morathii can be considered in the food, and drug industries due to antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activities of the species. It can be potential source as anti-browning agents  because of its average tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antifungal Activity of Cinnamon, Clove, Thymes, Zataria Multiflora, Cumin and Caraway Essential Oils against Ochratoxigenic Aspergillus ochraceus

Zohreh Abdi Moghadam, Hedayat Hosseini, Zahra Hadian, Bita Asgari, Leila Mirmoghtadaie, Abdorreza Mohammadi, Ehsan Shamloo, Nasrin Haji Seyed Javadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i130126

Introduction: Mycotoxin producing fungi are major contributors to food contamination and many epidemics in humans and animals. The adverse effects of the use of chemical preservatives have led to a special focus on the use of natural compounds, especially plant derivatives. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal properties of herbal essential oils of Cinnamon, Clove, Thymes, and Zataria multiflora, Cumin, and Caraway on the growth of Aspergillus ochraceus.

Materials and Methods: Briefly, the presence of mycotoxin producing gene was investigated using PCR. Furthermore, production of mycotoxin in a medium with high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (FLD) was evaluated. Ingredients of essential oils were determined using GC/MS. The amount of antifungal activity of essential oils was assessed by disc diffusion and well diffusion method. Additionally, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by macrodilution method.

Results: Gene presence and mycotoxin production were confirmed by PCR and HPLC-FL. Among all studied essential oils, Cinnamon with MIC and MFC of 0.078 μl / ml exhibited the greatest effect on A. ochraceus growth as compared to other essential oils.

Conclusion: This study indicated that essential oils have an effective role on controlling A. ochraceus growth and have shown promising to be a good bioactive natural preservative in food industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Interaction between Tigecycline and Sulbactam

Hakan Sezgin Sayiner, Fatma Genç, Fatma Kandemirli

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i130128

Drug interactions can have desired, reduced or unwanted effects. The probability of interactions increases with the number of drugs taken. Side effects or therapeutic drug interactions can increase or decrease the effects of one or two drugs. Failure may result from clinically meaningful interactions. Clinicians rarely use foreseeable drug-drug interactions to produce the desired therapeutic effect. For example, when we consider two drugs each causing, peripheral neuropathy increases the likelihood of neuropathy occurrence. In this study geometry optimizations of tigecycline and sulbactam drugs and their combination have been carried out with the evaluation of B3LYP/6-311G (d, p), B3LYP/6-311G (2d, 2p) levels, and the reaction mechanism at semi empirical PM6, which was parameterized for biochemical systems and B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) levels. The main objective of the study is to understand the interaction ofsulbactam with tigecycline, to describe energetic condition of bond formation and electronic structure (orders of the broken and formed bonds). The reaction mechanisms of sulbactam with tigecycline have been studied as stepwise and concerted mechanisms using semi-empircal PM6 and B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Stress of Infertile Couples (Male, Female) and the Factors Affecting It

Sima Mirzaei-Moghadam, Farzane Zaheri, Leila Hasheminasab, Daem Roshani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2019/v26i130129

Background and Objectives: In addition to physical and mental problems caused by perception of being impotent, social reactions in the society, and the economic and emotional burden of medical costs, infertility causes emotions such as fear, depression, guilty conscience, denial and uncertainty about the future.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 560 infertile couples referring to the Kurdistan Infertility Diagnosis and Therapeutic Center in 1397. Data were collected using a demographic checklist, Newton's Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and a Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale.

Results: The results showed that gender variables, infertility factor and social support had a significant impact on perceived stress in infertile couples (P <0.05). Additionally, if other variables persist, as social support increases, the perceived stress decreases in the infertile couples. For the infertility cause variable, the stress levels of those who were the infertile spouse were high and the stress of the group whose wife was the infertile spouse was low, and those who were still not certain about the cause of infertility had a lower level of stress.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the perceived stress level in infertile men is more than infertile women and the perceived stress level of respondents who were infertile themselves was more than other factors.