Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Morphine Loaded Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles (HAPs) and Determination of Genotoxic Effect for Using Pain Management

Hava Kölemek, İbrahim Bulduk, Yavuz Ergün, Muhsin Konuk, S. Elif Korcan, Recep Liman, Funda Karabağ Çoban

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i630116

Morphine is used as a standard analgesic for intensive pain relief. It relieves acute and chronic pain by acting directly on the central nervous system and to treat myocardial infarction and shortness of breath. However, the use of morphine for the alleviation of chronic pain is controversial because of the its adverse side effects. The overall success of this medicine in chronic therapy is due to the long-term activity of the drug at a reasonable concentration. Nanoparticle-based carriers have emerged as a new class of drug delivery systems that can overcome traditional drug side-effect limitations by reducing toxicity to a minimum. In this study, a morphine-loaded HAPs drug delivery system was investigated. Fouirer Transform Infrared Spektrofotometre (FTIR) analysis was used to characterize typical functional groups found in the chemical composition of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles (HAPs) and morphine loaded HAPs (HAP+M). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyzes were performed to examine the size, morphology, and porosity of morphine loaded HAPs. Characterization analysis showed that HAP nanoparticles were loaded with morphine. The effects of pH on release of morphine-loaded HAPs was determined. The release time of the entrapped morphine in the nanoparticle increased in all conditions, thus increasing the morphine time in the human body. Thus, patients will have to take less morphine. In addition, it was investigated whether the morphine loaded HAP cell produced oxidative stress and genotoxic effect on DNA. Findings presented in this paper suggested that morphine-loaded HAPs have a promising future as a nanocarrier for pain treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biological Screening of Traditional Medicinal Plants from Villages of Akkuş (Ordu) in Turkey on the Effects of Tyrosinase

Merve Badem, Nuriye Korkmaz, Sıla Ozlem Sener, Seyda Kanbolat, Ufuk Ozgen, Serhat Sevgi, Rezzan Aliyazicioglu, Maksut Coskun

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i630118

In the present study, ethnomedicinal uses of the plants naturally growing in 35 villages of Akkuş District have been determined. Informations about the uses of the plants have been obtained from villagers using a questionnaire. At the end of the identification of the plants collected from villages, 58 taxa belong to 32 families have been determined. Furthermore, tyrosinase enzyme activity studies of methanolic extracts of all the species carried out spectroscopicallly. Eventually, the plants has been demonstrated to be used as folk medicine, food animal feed, ornamental,  stuff, dyeing, odour, insecticide  and fishing. According to the biological screening studies, some species have been indicated to have inhibitory effect, but the others have activator effect on tyrosinase enzyme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Salivary Alpha-amylase Activity Level in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients

Behrang Rezvani Kakhki, Mohsen Salarirad, Seyed Ali Akbar Shamsian, Javad Ramezani, Elnaz Vafadar Moradi, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi, Amir Masoud Hashemian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i630120

Background and Objective: Sudden death is the main cause of mortality and disability in patients with coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity level of salivary alpha-amylase to predict malignant ventricular arrhythmias in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.

Materials and Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, 42 patients with STEMI who referred to Imam Reza Hospital participated. First, salivary amylase was taken from all STEMI patients and then these patients were divided into two groups of patients with malignant ventricular arrhythmia or without malignant ventricular arrhythmia during 72 hours.

Results: A total of 42 patients were included in the study out of which 30 (71.4%) were females and 12 (28.6%) males. The average salivary amylase in patients was 118/41 ± 96/87. There was no significant difference in the frequency of diabetes, blood pressure, blood lipids, ischemic heart disease, and involvement severity in both groups with arrhythmia and lack of arrhythmias (P> 0.05). Also there was no significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, blood glucose, temperature and severity of infarction (P> 0.05). However, the two groups were different in terms of salivary amylase levels. Salivary amylase levels were significantly higher in arrhythmic group than in the non-arrhythmic group (P< 0.001).

Conclusions: Our result shows that there is a difference in the concentrations of salivary Alpha-amylase activity level in with and without ventricular arrhythmias groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Error Analysis of Adsorption Isotherm Models for Sulfamethazine onto Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Davoud Balarak, Amir Ali Salari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i630121

In the present study, Multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was used for the adsorption of Sulfamethazine (SMZ) antibiotics. The adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, surface area (BET) and transmission electron microscopy. Batch experiments were carried out by varying the parameters like contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial Sulfamethazine concentration at fixed pH and temperature. The equilibrium data were tested with Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R), Redlich-Peterson (R-P), Sips, Toth and Khan isotherm models at five Error Analysis EABS, X2, ARE, RMSE and SD and it was found that the Langmuir and Toth isotherms best fitted the adsorption of SMZ with highest value of R2 and lowest overall experimental error. Also according to the results, a maximum removal efficiency of 99.1% was obtained at pH of 7 and the contact time of 60 min; initial SMZ concentration 20 mg/L and adsorbent dose 0.8 g/L.

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Ciprofloxacin from of Pharmaceutical Wastewater by Adsorption on SiO2 Nanoparticle

Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, Davoud Balarak, Marzieh Baniasadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i630127

The removal of Ciprofloxacin (CFX) on SiO2 nanoparticle was performed as a function of initial CFX concentration, contact time at fixed pH and adsorbent dose and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area. Amount of CFX uptake increased with increasing contact time and decreased concentration of initial CFX. Adsorption behavior was well described by pseudo second-order kinetic model. It was observed that equilibrium dye uptake significantly increased from 49.01 to 174.58 mg/g when initial CFX concentration increased from 25 to 100 mg/L. Experimental data were well fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D–R) models. Three different error functions were conducted to find better model to describe the experimental data. The lower values of error functions exhibited that Langmuir model was more suitable for the adsorption of CFX, which implied a homogeneous sorption phenomenon.

Open Access Review Article

Comparison and Evaluation of Seven Animal Models of Ischemic Skin Wound: A Review Article

Mohammad Bayat, Sufan Chien

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2018/v25i630119

Focusing on pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of ischemic wounds is apriority for medical and basic scientists in order to develop new clinical approaches. However it is not always easy for researchers to choose optimal animal models for their particular assessments. This review provides concise information on all currently available ischemic animal models, including rabbits’ ear ischemic models, axial skin flaps (axial pattern flaps), burns, ischemic limbs, localized ischemic wounds, pressure ulcers, and skin flaps, along with their citations as a measure of their acceptance among other researchers. We searched the numerous databases consisting of PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Key words included ischemic wound, skin, and animals alone or in combination. Some important features of the seven types of ischemia as well as their results are presented in Tables 1 -7. Table eight presents the results of entire groups of ischemic animal models, with their number of papers, number of wounds, and total and average Google Scholar citations, and web of science citations. We found that rabbits’ ear ischemic models, localized ischemic wounds, and pressure ulcers have the highest total and average citations amongst the studied groups. It was concluded that the rabbits’ ear ischemic model, rat pressure ulcer models, and localized ischemic wound models, have made the greatest contribution to our understanding of the pathophysiology of the ischemic wounds and increased production of new therapeutic protocols based on the citations reported by Google scholar and the web of science databases between 1977 and 2017.