Open Access Original Research Article

Health Benefits, Therapeutic and Pharmacological Properties of Moringa- A Review

N. A. Tamilselvi, T. Arumugam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/37179

Moringa yields at least four different edible parts viz., pods, leaves, flowers and seeds. Moringa leaves are the excellent source of protein, β-carotene, vitamins, A, B, C and E, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, folic acid, pyridoxine, amino acids, minerals and various phenolic compounds, phytochemicals and omega 3 and 6 fatty acids. The leaves of moringa are rich in palmitic and linolenic acids whereas the seeds are predominated by oleic acid. The leaves are used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers in many developing countries, particularly in India, Pakistan, Philippines, Hawaii and many parts of Africa. Pregnant women and lactating mothers use moringa leaf powder to enhance their child or children’s nourishment especially in underdeveloped countries where women are suffering from malnutrition. These natural plant phenolics present in moringa leaves could be a good source of antioxidants and antimicrobials for food and pharmaceutical industries. Perhaps using the multi-mix approach of food product development more food products could be developed especially for programs on malnutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Ethanolic Extract of Trichosanthes dioica Leaves Can Ameliorate the Liver Damage in Paracetamol Induced Liver Toxicity in SD Rats

Md. Masum Billaha, Md. Abir Hasan, Uma Rani Sarker, Ratri Banik, Md. Imran Hossen, Md. Nahid Hasan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/46204

Traditional plants have been used to treat hepatotoxicity by folk medicine practitionars. Trichosanthes dioica (TD) has been used in folk medicine to alleviate several diseases. In the present study, the ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes dioica leaves has been utilized to study its activity on paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Swiss albino mice (25-30 g) and SD Rats (140–200 g) were used. Acute hepatotoxicity was induced by paracetamol (800 mg/kg body weight), administered once daily for one week whereas the test extract was given orally throughout the whole experiment at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w.) was given orally as standard hepatoprotective drug. The degree of hepatoprotection was determined by the estimation of biochemical parameters like ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin, total protein and albumin level.

The increased plasma levels of hepatic marker enzymes including AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin found in the paracetamol control group, which may be due to the liver cell destruction or changes in the cell membrane permeability indicating severity of hepatocellular damage induced by paracetamol. Pre-treatment with TD as well as standard hepatoprotective agent silymarin recovered the increased plasma levels of these hepatic enzymes to the reduced levels.

The results of the study provide evidence that the Trichosanthes dioica leaves has shown hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Concern: Drug-Drug Eluting Stent Interaction (DDESI) between Drugs Prescribed and Drug Eluting Stents (DESs) after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) in Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Patients: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Observational Study

Vinoth Prabhu Veeramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/46632

Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the interactions between commonly used drug eluting stents (DES) and prescribed medications in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients those underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Study Design: Retro-prospective, Multicenter, Cross-sectional, Observational study.

Methodology: A total of 127 CAD patients those successfully underwent PCI with different DES were enrolled in this study. The study population were divided into 3 groups; i) Patients stented with Sirolimus DES (n=52), ii) Everolimus DES (n=46) and iii) Zotarolimus DES (n=29) respectively, the patients case report and drug chart were reviewed periodically up to one-year regular follow-up period and retro-prospectively analysed. Results were statistically analysed using Graph Pad Prism software version 7.01 to determine the statistical difference between each study group. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Baseline clinical characteristics, angiographic and procedural characteristics, commonly prescribed medications and the new medical terminology Drug-Drug Eluting Stent Interaction abbreviated as DDESI were compared.

Results: Out of 127 total populations, patients stented with Sirolimus DES reported less (0.85%) DDESI compared to Everolimus DES (2.54%) and Zotarolimus DES (1.69%) DDESI. Drugs such as aspirin, atorvastatin and clopidogrel were found to be three most commonly prescribed drugs to maximize benefits and minimize the complications in CAD patients those underwent PCI with different DES.

Conclusion: According to the available patients data and results obtained it is concluded that Sirolimus DES was found to be more suitable and safe when compared to Everolimus DES and Zotarolimus DES after the one year regular follow-up period in CAD patients post PCI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipidomic Profiling Disturbance as Good Follow up Index in Obese Diabetic Patients

Rukaiah M. Almahmoudi, Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki, Said S. Moselhy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/46359

Background: Metabolite profiling, or metabolomics, has become a powerful approach that has been widely adopted for clinical diagnostics. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolomics profile in obese and obese diabetic patients as the early predictor of diabetes with obese patients.

Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on fifty-four from one hundred and sixty unrelated individuals. Participants were mainly 35–70 years of age were classified to four groups are normal, obese and obese diabetic, obese.

Results: It was found a significant increase in mean values of LDL concentration in obese as compared to healthy group. It also found that, in obese subjects with the metabolic syndrome and T2D, oxidative stress is increased and the redox state is a potentially useful therapy. Some lipid metabolism-related metabolites, including saturated fatty acides, palmitate and stearate and unsaturated fatty acid archidonic acid, have been identified in diabetic, which indicate a dysregulation of lipid metabolites in diabetic subjects.

Conclusion: In conclusion, metabolomics of lipid intermediate was considered as good index of metabolic syndrome and diabetes and can be taken in consideration for follow up and treatment.

Open Access Review Article

Radio-protective Effects and Mechanisms of Medicinal Plants against X-ray: A Systematic Review

Mohamad Ali Dayani, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani, Johannes Salcher

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/46764

X-ray is used routinely in many medical procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. But despite many benefits, there are several complications including breakdown of different bio-molecules, lipids, DNA and proteins that cause cytotoxicity in the body tissue by several mechanisms like the generation of free radicals and oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the radio-protective effects and mechanisms of medicinal plants against X-ray damages and X-ray-toxicity in diagnostic radiology. Medicinal plants and their derivatives contain polyphenols which exert potent anti-oxidant activity via up-regulated mRNAs of anti-oxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thus may counteract the oxidative stress induced by ionizing radiations. In addition, they exhibit protective effects against radiation-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 gene expression, with a significant decrease in BAX gene expression in irradiated cells and tissues and reduction in caspase-3 and caspase-6. Medicinal herbs and their compounds act as anti-inflammatory agents and exert their radio-protective effects against x-ray they exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence the possible protective mechanisms against X-ray are anti-oxidant activity, anti-inflammatory and anti apoptotic properties of medicinal plants.