Open Access Short Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Papaya Peel Powder and Paste Incorporated Chapathis

C. S. Pavithra, S. Suchiritha Devi, W. Jessie Suneetha, Ch. V. Durga Rani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41384

Consumption of natural bioactive compounds and dietary fibre offers health benefits and protection against lifestyle diseases. Papaya peel which is discarded waste contributes to environmental pollution, but it can be a good source of minerals, fibre and phenolic compounds with antimicrobial antioxidant and cardio-protective properties. In the present study, chapathis were incorporated with 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0% of blanched papaya peel paste and powder. Sensory and physical parameters of chapathis were evaluated using 9 point hedonic scale. The chapathis with 15% blanched papaya peel paste, and 10% papaya peel powder were the most accepted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Cola acuminata Gum as a Potential Pharmaceutical Excipient

E. A. Bamigbola, M. A. Momoh, O. Ikebudu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/14526

Aim: Gums are polysaccharides composed of varying chemical compositions and a wide range of molecular weights. Appropriate evaluation of their physicochemical properties assists in determining their suitability as pharmaceutical excipients in the preparation of various dosage forms and drug delivery systems. The present study focused on characterization of a novel natural polymeric gum extracted from the pods of Cola acuminata plant for its possible application as pharmaceutical excipients. 

Methodology: The novel Cola acuminata gum (CAG) was extracted by soaking the sliced Cola acuminata pods in water and precipitated using acetone. Phytochemical screening and characterization of physicochemical properties such as particle size distribution and densification, organoleptic and flow properties, solubility in various solvents, pH, moisture sorption, swelling index and apparent viscosity were carried out on the extracted gum using standard and official methods. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Wide angle X Ray Diffractometry (WAXD) were also employed to further characterize the gum. Acute toxicity and in vivo skin irritation of the gum on rats were determined using standard methods. 

Results: The results revealed that CAG is tasteless, odorless and brown in colour. The dry CAG powder is a hydrophillic polysaccharide gum containing mixture of monosaccharides and possesses good compressibility and flow properties. It is slightly acidic with pH of 5.37 and exhibited pH dependent swelling in water to produce viscous mucilage with pseudoplastic flow. LD50 of the gum in rat is greater than 5000 mg/Kg and Primary Irritation Index (PII) is zero. DSC revealed a glass transition  temperature of 224.5°C ; WAXD showed predominantly diffused diffractogram with only two sharp peaks at 2θ = 20.9° and 2θ = 26.6° while FTIR spectrum showed characteristic bands at 3427 cm-1, 2935 cm-1, 1625 cm-1, 1230 cm-1, 1045 cm-1, 870 cm-1 and 770 cm-1   which indicate the amorphous nature of the gum.

Conclusion: CAG obtained from a waste product exhibited good physicochemical properties, it can be considered as a novel pharmaceutical excipient with a great potential for wide range of applications in varieties of pharmaceutical formulations from simple dosage forms to advance drug delivery systems. Its safety for both oral and topical applications was also established.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Multi-particulate Drug Delivery System for Metformin Hydrochloride by Spray Drying Method

Abhay Shirode, Vilasrao Kadam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39698

Diabetes mellitus is a serious emergency right now which is considered to be one of the major causes of death in all the nations. MET is considered to be one of the major medications to treat type two or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Though this process of oral administration may reduce the level of glucose in the blood, it shows some adverse effect on the kidney. In the presented work, a successful attempt has been taken to formulate the multiparticulate drug delivery system for MET prepared by spray drying technique. The study of the In-vitro release profile of spray dried particles produces the desired release profile for SR of MET. The proposed formulations have an excellent floating property which is predictive for gastro retention of the proposed formulation. It was found that concentration of Carbopol 934 and ethyl cellulose affect over the few variables. The desired release of MET was achieved by adjusting the drug and polymer ration and the drug and (polymer: polymer ratio.) SEM studies reflected that the spray dried particles obtained from optimized batch and optimized process parameters have good surface morphological characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Controlled Release Binary and Ternary HPMC-HPC-Gelucire® 50/13 Hybrids Based Solid Dispersions of Indomethacin: In vitro Evaluation and In vivo Anti-inflammatory Studies

J. N. Reginald-Opara, K. C. Ofokansi, F. C. Kenechukwu, C. G. Nwaigwe, A. M. Nnogo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/22643

Aim: The aim of this study is to formulate and evaluate solid dispersions of indomethacin based on Gelucire 50/13, Hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose and/or Hydroxylpropyl cellulose hybrid binary or ternary system, with a view of enhancing oral bioavailability, sustaining drug release with optimum anti-inflammatory activity and minimal side effects.

Methodology: Solid dispersions were prepared by solvent-evaporation method at varying polymer ratios (with HPMC and Gelucire 50/13 at 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and HPMC, HPC and Gelucire 50/13 at 1:1:1) with a constant concentration of indomethacin (100 mg). The formulations were characterized in terms of morphology, stability and drug content. The release profiles of indomethacin from the solid dispersions were examined in vitro using two different media i.e. SGF and SIF, without enzymes. The anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated.

Results: The formulated solid dispersions were stable and almost spherical to irregularly-shaped. The drug content of the formulations was accepted according to the Pharmacopoeial limit. In vitro dissolution studies showed an increased dissolution rate at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2 for the various batches with solid dispersions showing a faster and sustained dissolution rate than the pure crystalline drug. The percentage inhibitions of edema produced by the formulations in the in vivo studies were significantly higher and sustained than the pure drug.

Conclusion: Solid dispersions prepared with these biodegradable polymer hybrids, HPMC/HPC/Gelucire® 50/13, showed promising potential in clinical practice for enhancing the delivery of indomethacin. 

Open Access Review Article

Advances in the Use of Nanoparticles as Anti-Cystic Echinococcosis Agents: A Review Article

Bushra Hussain Shnawa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/44642

Echinococcus granulosus is the etiological agent of cystic echinococcosis, which is globally distributed and considered as a neglected tropical disease. It is one of the most important zoonotic parasitic infections in both humans and animals. This parasite forms hydatid cysts in various organs of numerous hosts including humans. Surgery remains the predominant therapeutic modality, but other methods also play important role in this disease management. Several scolicidal agents are used for inactivation of the protoscoleces within the hydatid cyst during surgery because spillage of hydatid fluid is the major reason for recurrence. Till now, no effective and safe agent is available. Benzimidazole is the only chemical synthetic drug licensed for the treatment of this disease. Usage of this medication is limited owing to its poor water solubility and low bioavailability, as well as its severe adverse effects.  As a result, there is a constant motivation toward exploring a novel alternative to prevent the recurrence rate of the disease and to overcome the side effects of synthetic therapy. The current review focuses on the recent efforts toward obtaining better scolicidal compounds including the achievements in the frontiers of Nanomedicine technique. This review highlights the result of newer therapeutic attempts such as, the introducing of biogenic selenium, silver, gold and chitosan nanoparticles as potential agents against cystic echinococcosis in addition to the applying of Nano-carriers drug delivery system that promises to further extend the treatment options.