Open Access Original Research Article

The Airway Relaxant Effect of Horse Purslane, Trianthema portulacastrum, Linn. (Aizoaceae), is Mediated through Dual Blockade of Muscarinic Receptors and Ca2+ Influx

Samra Bashir, Saima Abbas, Safur Rehman Mandukhail, Anwarul Hassan Gilani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/44409

Aim: The horse purslane, Trianthema portulacastrum, Linn. (Aizoaceae), is used in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of asthma. The current investigation was aimed at exploring possible mechanisms underlying the potential bronchodilator effect of Trianthema portulacastrum (T. portulacastrum).

Methodology: The whole plant extract of T. portulacastrum was studied on rats for its in-vivo bronchodilator activity and on isolated rabbit trachea, to find out the mechanistic basis of the therapeutic effect. The data were analysed using Student’s t-test.

Results: T. portulacastrum crude extract dose-dependently (3 - 30 mg/kg) inhibited carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction in anaesthetised rats, similarly to aminophylline. When tested on rabbit trachea, the plant extract inhibited carbachol (1 µM) and high K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in a fashion similar to dicyclomine, indicating the presence of airway-relaxant activity, possibly mediated through blockade of calcium channels and muscarinic receptors. The presence of a dual muscarinic and Ca2+ channel inhibitory mechanism was confirmed when the crude extract, caused a rightwards shift of carbachol and Ca2+ concentration-response curves, similar to dicyclomine.

Conclusions: This investigation indicates that the T. portulacastrum extract possesses bronchodilator activity that is possibly mediated through a combination of an anti-muscarinic effect and calcium channel blockade, providing a scientific basis for its medicinal use in asthma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection Probiotic's DNA of Lactobacillus paracasei in Healthy Human Faeces

Baraa M. Altaha, Jamal Wadi, Asem A. Shehabi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/44636

Aims: To examine the DNA abundance of the probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus paracasei) in the faeces of healthy adults after one month of its consumption and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of this bacteria.

Study Design: Thirty apparently healthy adults were examined for the presence of probiotic bacteria DNA in their faecal samples over a period of one month after one week of probiotic consumption.

Place and Duration: Department of Pathology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, Between July 2017 and January 2018

Results: L. paracasei DNA detected in 90% of these adults within a week of probiotic consumption, whereas after stopping the probiotic consumption, L. paracasei DNA was detected only in 10% and 6% of the faecal samples after one and two weeks, respectively. Minimal side effects were recorded among these volunteers’ adults. L. paracasei was susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, imipenem and piperacillin–tazobactam, intermediate susceptible to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin and resistant to amikacin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, gentamicin, oxacillin, meropenem and vancomycin.

Conclusion: The consumption of probiotic L. paracasei for one week, resulted in a limited colonisation capacity in the human intestine, therefore, we recommend longer administration period. The susceptibility patterns of the probiotic bacteria L. paracasei should be considered when it will be administrated during antibiotic treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vitamin D3 Serum Level Relationship with Severity and Activity of Lupus Disease

Elham Rajaei, Karim Mola, Mehrdad Dargahi-Malamir, Sahar Hatami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42473

Background: The importance of vitamin D and its inhibitory effects has been proven in many autoimmune diseases. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between serum levels of vitamin D3 and the severity and activity of lupus disease.

Materials and Methods: In a descriptive-analytical study, serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in 100 patients with lupus and 100 non-infected individuals as a control group with matching age and sex. The deficiency and insufficient level of vitamin D was calculated based on 10 and 30 ng/mL, respectively. The medical history of all patients was checked out, and the disease activity was evaluated based on SLEDAI criteria. Finally, the collected data were analysed by SPSS software.

Result: In the present study 96 women and 4 men with lupus participated. The mean level of vitamin D3 in the lupus patients group was significantly higher than the control group (42.44 ± 16.87 ng/mL vs. 81.69 ± 13.30 ng/mL; p=0.012). Also, 79% of patients with lupus and 87% of patients in the control group had deficiency and insufficient vitamin D levels. There was no significant relationship between vitamin D3 level and severity of disease (SLEDAI) (P = 0.362). But there was a significant relationship between the duration of the disease and serum levels of vitamin D3 (P = 0.045).

Conclusion: Given that vitamin D deficiency in the control group and SLE patients are of        common difficulties, but vitamin D levels in patients with SLE did not correlate with the disease activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmaceutical Care Intervention Improves Adherence to Antiepileptic Medication

Eshiet, Unyime Israel, Okonta, J. Matthew, Ukwe, Chinwe V.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/44377

Purpose: Adherence to the chronic pharmacotherapeutic regimen is poor resulting in negative therapeutic outcomes. Health education has been shown to improve the adherence of patients to their antiepileptic medication. The Pharmacist has the responsibility of providing patient education and counselling in the context of pharmaceutical care. The study aims to evaluate the efficacy of pharmaceutical care intervention on patients’ adherence to prescribed self-administered antiepileptic medications.

Method: An opened, randomised, controlled, longitudinal and two-arm parallel prospective study with a 6-month patient follow up period was carried out on patients with epilepsy recruited from the medical and neurology out-patient clinics of two tertiary hospitals. Patients in the intervention group were provided with pharmaceutical care services. The impact of the pharmaceutical care intervention was evaluated by using the eight-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to test the difference in the mean adherence score of the control and intervention groups over the time of intervention. The Pillai’s Trace F was the corrected statistical test of choice for the model estimate, while the estimated effect was assessed with Partial etha.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference in medication adherence scores between the control and intervention group over time with F (2, 154) = 62.621, p= 0.000, partial η2 = 0.45, as the mean medication adherence score of the intervention group increased from 3.70 (±1.60) at baseline to 4.04 (±1.42) and 6.89 (±0.77) at 3 months and 6 months respectively, indicating a substantial  increase in medication adherence among patients in the intervention group compared with the control group where mean medication adherence scores were 3.86 (±1.69), 4.02 (±1.37) and 4.84 (±0.92) at baseline, 3 months and 6 months respectively.

Conclusion: Pharmaceutical care services implemented by a clinical pharmacist significantly improved the adherence to antiepileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy.

Open Access Review Article

Morphine Tolerance Effects on Neurotransmitters and Related Receptors: Definition, Overview and Update

Shima Mehrabadi, Seyed Morteza Karimiyan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41936

Morphine is the essential opioid drug that use in the clinic to attenuate chronic and severe pain. However long-term administration of morphine leads to the development of anti-nociceptive morphine tolerance. Mechanisms that involved in morphine tolerance are complicated and affect a different part of CNS and change neural circuits. One of the most critical candidates for the development of morphine tolerance are neurotransmitters Which makes the communication between neurons and establish neural circuits. The most prominent neurotransmitters that involved in the development of morphine tolerance are NMDA one of the most popular excitatory neurotransmitter, GABA most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS, and monoaminergic neurotransmitters: dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline and serotonin have a lot of crucial roles in CNS. Also, Changes that occur in the level of opioid receptors, neurotransmitters and its receptors make alternation cross-talk between neurons. Understanding these changes help us to have an overall concept about the development of morphine tolerance.