Open Access Original Research Article

Family Influences on Substance Abuse Tendency among Secondary School Students in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

C. P. Denwigwe, P. A. Okpechi, P. N. Asuquo, A. E. Eze

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42708

Substance abuse among young people is a complex and a problematic social phenomenon which is growing steadily worldwide and family influences on it have been hypothesized from diverse research and theoretical perspectives. This paper focused on family influences on drug abuse tendency among secondary school students in Yakurr Local Government Area (LGA) of Cross River State, Nigeria. A questionnaire with a reliability coefficient range of 0.78 and 0.85 was used to collect data from 250 respondents while the t-test statistics was utilized for data analysis. The findings revealed that family type and family size were significant predictors of drug abuse tendency among secondary school students. These results provided support for families to monitor and control their children in order to curtail their involvement in inappropriate drug use; the encouragement of monogamous family type (which is closely knitted and replete with love and affection) over and above polygamous family type while a smaller family size which is easier to manage should be preferred to a large one.

Open Access Original Research Article

Repeated Exposure of Herbal Concoction Imprints Toxicological Implications through Redox Imbalance in Male Wistar Rats

J. O. Fatoki, J. A. Badmus, O. T. Adedosu, A. A. Adegoke, O. R. Lawal, I. A. Ogunmola, T. M. Omotayo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42002

Aim: A Large percentage of the Nigerian populace consumes herb concoction prepared by local vendors without due regard to quality control such as toxicity and validity testing. The present study assessed the toxicological effects of continuous intake of some locally prepare herbs in male Wistar rat.

Materials and Methods: The animals (n=50) were exposed to 2.5 ml/kg b.w of herbal concoctions sourced from ten (10) different vendors for four (4) weeks. Control animals (n=5) received distilled water for the same period. Plasma AST, ALT, urea, creatinine and erythrocyte SOD and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Hepatic reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation were also assessed spectrophotometrically. Histological changes in hepatocytes were examined. ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test was used to analyze the results with p= 0.05 considered significant.

Results: Plasma transaminases and urea significantly reduced while increase (p = 0.05) was observed in the level of creatinine in most of the treated groups relative to the control group. Some Herbal concoctions induced a significant decrease (p = 0.05) in liver GSH concentration and GPx activities while some induced non-significant reductions in SOD activities. Significant increase (p< 0.001) in the levels of erythrocyte and liver malondialdehyde was the hallmark of the observations in the treated groups. Hepatic histopathology revealed that there were disruptions of hepatic architectures, congestion as well as infiltration of mononuclear cells.

Conclusion: This study indicates that the continuous intake of locally formulated herbal concoction disrupts erythrocyte and hepatic redox balances and hepatic architecture and functions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nonlinear Isotherms and Kinetics and Application Error Functions for Adsorption of Tetracycline on Lemna Minor

Davoud Balarak, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, Aram Dokht Khatibi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42583

In this study, removal of Tetracycline (TC) antibiotics from artificially contaminated water has been investigated with the aim of detoxifying pharmaceutical wastewater before their safe disposal onto land or into river waters. The adsorption of TC occurred by studying the effects of adsorbent dose, TC concentration and contact time at fixed temperature= 25ºC and PH=7. The removal of TC effluent is a rapid process. At adsorbent dose 2 g/L and at room temperature, the adsorption equilibrium is reached after 60 min for low concentration and 90 min for high antibiotic concentration and kinetics follow a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm is in good agreement with the Langmuir model. The adsorption of TC on the surface of LM biomass was done in monolayer and maximum adsorption capacity of TC was determined as 18.26 mg/g. Also in this study, have also been done five types of error functions. The results of error functions showed that the best fit was obtained for the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order model with  =0.9975 and  = 0.9912.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative Determination of the Secondary Metabolites and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extracts from Different Plant Families (Boraginaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Lauraceae) against Microorganisms of Clinical Importance

Ruby A. Ynalvez, Kassandra L. Compean, Alfred Addo-Mensah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41205

Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activities of Sassafras albidum (Nutt.), Ehretia anacua (Terán & Berl.), Melissa officinalis (Linn.), Eysenhardtia texana (Scheele), and Melissa odorata. Specifically, this study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial potential and to qualitatively determine presence of secondary metabolites in the different leaf extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Plant leaves were collected from the San Antonio Botanical Garden in Texas. The microbial assays and chemical analysis were done at the Department of Biology and Chemistry, Texas A&M International University, Laredo Texas. This study was done from October 2013 to May 2016.

Methodology: Leaves were collected and aqueous, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethanol leaf extracts were prepared. Antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi were investigated via disc diffusion assay. Phytochemical screening was done to qualitatively determine secondary metabolites.

Results and Conclusion: The ethanol and diethyl E. anacua (Boraginaceae) extracts showed a statistically significant antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. Although the values, 7.4 mm and 7.5 mm for the ethanol and diethyl ether extracts could be low values for zone of inhibitions, the potential for E. anacua for anti-S. aureus activity cannot be undermined. Phytochemical analysis showed detectable presence of alkaloids, diterpenes, and phenols in the ethanol and diethyl E. anacua extracts. Results of this study, although preliminary, demonstrated the potential of E. anacua as a new source of bioactive metabolites. Further investigations are needed in order to specifically identify, quantify, and isolate the bioactive compounds that might act against S. aureus associated skin infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Characterization of Self-Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery System of Ibuprofen

Z. S. Yahaya, A. R. Oyi, T. S. Allagh, A. Abdulsamad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/43090

Aim: This work aimed to formulate self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for augmenting the biopharmaceutical performance of ibuprofen, a poorly-water soluble drug and subsequently evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity.

Methodology: Pseudoternary phase diagram studies facilitated selection of caprylic/capric glycerides as the oily phase, cremophor EL as surfactants, and polyethylene glycol-400 as the cosurfactant for formulating the SNEDDS. A stable combinations from the phase diagram consisting of 27% caprylic/capric glycerides, 58% cremophor EL and 15% polyethylene glycol-400 was loaded with ibuprofen and characterized with respect to globule size, polydispersity index (PDI), stability, emulsification time, % drug loading efficiency (DLE), in vitro drug release, infinite aqueous dilution, post-dilution drug precipitation and in vivo anti-inflammatory tests.

Results: The optimized ibuprofen SNEDDS (ibu-SNEDDS) had a mean globule size of 25.23nm, PDI of 0.093, showed excellent emulsification time of 5.0 s, released > 94% of the drug within 15 min while the pure drug showed only 8.8% drug release over a period of 1 h, exhibited no phase separation and demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) higher anti-inflammatory effect than the reference drug. 

Conclusion: Our study illustrated the potential use of SNEDDS as a promising nano drug carrier for the efficient delivery of ibuprofen that may solve the low bioavailability, high intra- and intersubject variability frequently associated with the oral delivery of the drug.