Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of the Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Calotropis procera (Ait). R. Br. (Apocynaceae)

Ernest Obese, Elvis Ofori Ameyaw, Robert Peter Biney, Isaac Tabiri Henneh, Fred Jonathan Edzeamey, Eric Woode

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42529

Aims: Inflammation has been implicated in many disorders and currently available therapies elicit adverse effects. The coarse shrub of Calotropis procera has been used in folk medicine to treat several ailments such as asthma, rheumatism and also fever. The anti-inflammatory potential of Calotropis procera was assessed in this study to evaluate its effectiveness.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Cape Coast, Ghana between June 2016 and March 2017.

Methodology: This study was carried out to screen for the phytochemical constituents and investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of Calotropis procera extract (CPE) using four in vitro assays (heat-induced haemolysis, hypotonic-induced haemolysis, albumin denaturation and the bovine serum albumin assay (BSA)) and, two in vivo models (carrageenan and formalin-induced paw oedema models). Three graded concentrations of the plant extract (CPE) and a standard anti-inflammatory agent, diclofenac: 100, 300 and 1000 μg/mL were used in the in vitro models while 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg were used in the in vivo experiments. Qualitative tests for tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, triterpenoids, steroids, proteins, reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins and amino acids were performed to determine the phytochemical constituents of the extract.

Results: The phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, tannins and triterpenes, reducing sugars, sterols, amino acids, and glycosides. CPE 1000μg/mL demonstrated anti-inflammatory characteristics by significantly stabilizing RBCs exposed to heat and hypotonic solution and also inhibiting protein denaturation in heat-induced denaturation (69.24%); hypotonic-induced (85.09%); albumin denaturation (87.80%) and BSA (96.86% assays). Similar results were observed for the two lower doses of CPE as well as diclofenac. In the in vivo tests, CPE was able to significantly reduce both carrageenan-induced (P=0.0105) and formalin-induced inflammation (P<0.0001) in rats. Diclofenac the reference anti-inflammatory agent also showed similar effects in both tests. The percentage inhibition of paw oedema produced by CPE 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg in the formalin test were 19.61% 35.88% and 47.66% respectively while diclofenac (10 mg/kg) produced 85.16% inhibition of paw oedema. 

Conclusion: From the present study, it can be observed that CPE possessed anti-inflammatory properties and thus vindicates the folkloric use of this plant in inflammatory conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Methanolic Extract of Vernonia amygdalina on Electrolytes and Renal Biomarkers in NaCl – Induced Hypertensive Male Wistar Rats

O. B. Onyema-iloh, S. C. Meludu, E. O. Iloh, C. E.Dioka ., C. N. Obi-Ezeani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41908

Vernonia amygdalina popularly called bitter leaf is used in traditional medicine to treat fever, malaria, diarrhoea, dysentery and diabetes. They serve as laxatives and fertility inducer. They are commonly used as vegetable. The effects of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina on electrolytes and renal biomarkers in NaCl- induced hypertensive male wistar rats were assessed. Forty wistar rats (120-160) g were assigned to 5 groups of eight rats each. Group 1,2,3,4 and 5 constitute the normal, hypertensive group, VA (200 mg/kg bwt) group, VA (400 mg/kg bwt) group and reference drug (lisinopril, 30 mg/kg) group respectively. Group 3 and 4 were given the extract through oral gavage for 4 weeks while group 5 was given the reference drug. All groups except group 1 were induced with 8% NaCl for 0- 4weeks before treatment with VA and reference drug for 4-8weeks. Phytochemical analysis of Vernonia amygdalinashowed the presence of phenol, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and steroids. The biochemical results showed significant (p=0.05) decrease in serum sodium and chloride after treatment with VA (200 mg/kg bwt), VA (400 mg/kg bwt) and lisinopril. Serum urea and creatinine showed significant (p=0.05) increase after induction of hypertension when group 1 (at 4 weeks) was compared with the treatment groups: VA (200 mg/kgbwt), VA (400 mg/kg bwt) and lisinopril (30 mg/kg). The increase in urea and creatinine decreased after treatment with the VA extract but not in reference group. In conclusion, VA extract contains useful phytochemicals that may enhance the proper functioning of the kidney when supplemented in hypertensives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in the Absence of Proper pH Control in Patients Admitted to ICU

Afshin Zarghi, Fanak Fahimi, Behnaz Arabpanahan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39316

Introduction: Stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) occurs in many critically ill patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU) and may develop within 24 hours of admission. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) therapy has been documented to produce more potent inhibition of gastric acid secretion than Histamine 2 Receptor Antagonists (H2RAs) and suspension preparations can increase the gastric pH more than intravenous PPIs. The incidence of clinically important gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, indicated as overt bleeding complicated by hemodynamic instability, low hemoglobin, and/or need for a blood transfusion from stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) is 3.5% in the ICU patients who are mechanically ventilated for ≥ 48 h. In addition, this type of ulceration is accompanied by increasing the risk of mortality. Moreover, it prolongs the length of stay in the ICU. Although ischemia of the gastric mucosa leads to SRMD, the significant role of gastric acid in the development of mucosal damage and bleeding could not be ignored. Thus, early preventive prophylaxis of the probable GI bleeding, by means of acid-reducing agents, in these patients is rational Studies have shown that patients with gastrointestinal bleeding are admitted for longer periods of time to ICU. The role of gastric acid in the development of SRMD and the need for early intervention to prevent the potential occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have led to the preventive use of gastric acid-reducing agents in patients admitted to ICU. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of omeprazole oral suspension in increasing gastric pH and compare it with the previous study which has been done in the same center, followed by upper gastrointestinal bleeding that may occur due to lack of proper pH control in patients admitted to ICU.

Methods: Patients were selected to treat with omeprazole suspension 2 mg/ml (40 mg every day) for up to 4 days. Gastric aspirates were sampled before and 1-2.5 hours after the drug administration for the pH measurement using an external pH meter. To evaluate the results more accurately, the results were compared with results of a previous study conducted in the same center (Masih Daneshvari Hospital). In the previous study, pH changes were higher in the groups receiving pantoprazole suspension and omeprazole suspension than the intravenous pantoprazole group, while the present study reported that pH changes were close to that of the intravenous pantoprazole group (p = 0.00).

Results: In this study twenty-nine critically ill patients (14 male, 15 female, mean age: 60.41±15.35 years) were followed for the control of the gastric pH.

On each of the 4 trial days, the mean of the gastric pH alteration was +1.48±1.2. The rate of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was 10.34%.

Discussion: Statistical analysis of the results showed no significant differences between 4 groups in terms of the prevalence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (p = 0.97). Based on results of this analysis, gender, risk factors of sepsis and coagulopathy, the presence of coffee ground in the gastric juice sample was related to post-administration gastric pH and all had a direct and significant relationship with post-administration gastric pH. In the previous study, GI bleeding was evident in 3 cases, of which 2 (11.1%) were in the group receiving intravenous pantoprazole solution and 1 (5.6%) was in the omeprazole oral suspension group. In the present study, the rate of GI bleeding was shown only in 3 (10.43%) patients.

Conclusion: this study showed no significant difference between the group studied here and three groups evaluated in the previous study in terms of prevalence of bleeding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Characterization of Dill Seed Vaginal Cream Based on a Traditional Medicine

Zohreh Sarhadinejad, Fariba sharififar, Zarrin Sarhadynejad, Zohreh Salari, Haleh Tajadini, Farzaneh Mohamadi, Amir Asadi-Khanouki, Mehdi Ansari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42143

Background: Dill seed has been used as a vaginal discharge remedy according to traditional origins, but its application by traditional methods is difficult and time-consuming.

Aims: The main aim of this study was preparing a vaginal dosage form with acceptable physicochemical properties from dill seed extract-essential oil combination to be easily applied, and the dosage can be precisely determined.

Study Design: This is an experimental study and statically designed according to the approved protocol for drug assessments.

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmacognosy Department, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran, between May 2016 and June 2017.

Methodology: Dill seed was purchased and authenticated. Some phytochemical properties like volatile contents, total flavonoid, and phenolic content, extractable matter were determined. In addition, gas chromatography/ mass spectrophotometer (GC/MS) analysis and thin layer chromatography fingerprints were done. Physical properties, pH, chemical stability, microbial contamination, and release study of the vaginal cream were carried out.

Results: GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of the essential oil are dl- Limonene and carvone. The presence of rutin in the extract was confirmed by TLC fingerprints. Total flavonoid content was expressed as rutin equivalent to 22.5±1.6 μg per mg of the extract. The total phenolic content was expressed as gallic acid equivalent to 201.6±1.0 μg per mg of the methanolic extract. The released percentage, on the basis of total extract from the cream after 24 hours was about 36.9±8.4. Chemical stability showed that major components of DSVC including carvone and limonene remained about 102.8 and 106.9%, respectively after 24 months. Microbial control of the final products showed no pathogenic contamination. 

Conclusion: The results from phytochemical of the dill seed and physicochemical of the vaginal cream were in an acceptable range which supports its stability and applicability in clinical trials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rheological Properties of Low-calorie Red Deer Meat Pâté

Eleonora Okuskhanova, Maksim Rebezov, Zhanibek Yessimbekov, Diana Tazeddinova, Pavel Shcherbakov, Tatiana Bezhinar, Oksana Vagapova, Tatiana Shcherbakova, Marilyne Stuart

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42317

Background: The formulation of new meat products requires evaluation of the effect of different ingredients on physical-chemical and rheological properties of meat batters.

Objective: In this study, the yield stress properties of three low-calorie meat pâté recipes were evaluated under different conditions. Changes in physical properties associated with the addition of a protein fortifier (PF) and ground boiled bean (GBB) to red deer meat pâté recipes were measured.

Materials and Methods: Three formulations of meat pâté were developed that included different amounts of PF and GBB as follows: the first recipe contained no PF or GBB; the second recipe contained 15% PF and 20% GBB; and the last recipe contained 25% PF and 10% GBB. Proximate composition, water-binding capacity (WBC), and pH were measured using standard methods. Yield stress was measured using a cone penetrometer.

Results: The addition of PF and GBB increased yield stress, WBC, and pH. Increasing the temperature from 12 to 25°C significantly lowered yield stress. In addition, temperatures ranging from 0-5°C increased yield stress, with a holding time of up to 11 hours for all recipes. However, at 25 hours, the yield stress deceased up to at least 50 hours after.

Conclusion: Enrichment of meat pâté with protein fortifier and beans enhanced nutritional composition but did not significantly change rheological properties.