Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritive Value of Goat and Cow Milk Sampled from the Region of East Kazakhstan

Ainur Serikova, Sergazy Duyssembayev, Almagul Nurgazezova, Gulnur Nurymkhan, Salima Tugambayeva, Nurgul Ikimbayeva, Aizhan Akhmetzhanova, Eleonora Okuskhanova, Zhanibek Yessimbekov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41889

This paper presents the results of a nutritional profile of goat’s milk sampled from the region of East Kazakhstan. The chemical composition determined showed that goat’s milk contained 4.63% fat, 3.5% protein and 8.14% non-fat milk solids, while cow’s milk had less fat (4.15%), protein (3.2%), but more non-fat milk solids (12.05%). The vitamin and mineral composition of goat milk consisted of vitamin B1 (0.036 mg/100 g), vitamin B2 (0.125 mg/100 g), vitamin B6 (0.057 mg/100 g), vitamin C (0.183 mg/100 g), sodium (193 mg/l), potassium (167.72 mg/l), calcium (386.43 mg/l), phosphorous (302.56 mg/l) and magnesium (42 mg/l). For cow’s milk, the major mineral elements were represented by potassium (151.03 mg/l), calcium (125.73 mg/l), sodium (51.67 mg/l) and magnesium (14.54 mg/l). The majority of the essential amino acids were represented by histidine (0.278 g/100 g), leucine (0.264 g/100 g) and arginine (0.260 g/100g) in goat’s milk. The overall nutritional profile of goat’s milk was demonstrated to have particularly beneficial and healthful effects on the human body.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy and Our Clınıcal Experıences

Sidika Deniz Yalim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41559

Aim: This study aims to evaluate the results of drug-induced sleep endoscopy(DISE) patients.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of otorhinolaryngology between January 2018 and March 2018.

Methodology: A total of 38 patients (32 males,6 females; mean age 42.0±9.11 years; range 23 to 67) Demographic data, apnea-hypopnea indexes and the level of obstruction of the patients were discussed in the light of literature.

Results: Most patients were with mild obstructive sleep apnea (42.1%).Most of the patients had a multilevel obstruction(60.5%). Most commonly seen level of obstruction was soft palate. When the patient's age, sex, BMI(body mass index), AHI(apnea-hypopnea index) and level of obstruction was compared there was not a statistically significant relation. (p>0.05).

Conclusion: There was no difference between the level of obstruction, body mass index and apnea-hypopnea index values.  Large research studies are needed to investigate the value of drug-induced sleep endoscopy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Swertia chirata on nSTZ-T2DM Rats: A Chronic Study

Amrita Bhowmik, M. Mosihuzzaman, Yearul Kabir, Begum Rokeya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/41878

Aim: The present study aimed to investigate antidiabetic effects and to explore the underlying mechanism of S. chirata on neonatal-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic model (nSTZ-T2DM) rats.

Methodology: Stem-barks were collected from local market, identified from Bangladesh National Herbarium; 96% ethanol extract and overnight soaked water solution were prepared. T2DM was induced by a single ip injection of STZ to 48 hours Long Evans neonatal pups. After 3 months, T2DM adult rats (confirmed by OGTT) were divided into 4 groups: i) water control; ii) Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg bw); iii) soaked water (SCWS, 0.25 g/10 ml/kg bw) and iv) ethanol extract (SCE, 0.25 g/kg bw)treated groups respectively. Blood was collected by cutting tail tip on 0 and 21 day; by cardiac puncture on 28 day for measuring biochemical parameters. The data were analyzed using univariate & multivariate tools.

Results: SCE (p=0.003) and SCWS (p<0.001) treated group significantly improved OGTT of T2DM rats after three weeks administration. A significant decrease of fasting glucose level (p=0.01) and HOMA IR (p=0.01) were noticed in SCWS treated group after 28th day in comparison to initial day value respectively. Cholesterol was significantly decreased in SCWS on 28th day (p=0.02 and p=0.03) in comparison to water control and initial day respectively. Triglycerides was decreased in both treated groups and LDL level decreased by 42% in SCWS group respectively. Hepatic glycogen content of SCE was significantly increased (p=0.05) compared to water control. Serum ALT and creatinine level almost remained unchanged. A gradual fall of glucose absorption in SCE-krebs-glucose solution through GIT after 30 minutes was shown in Gut Perfusion Technique. Conclusion: S. chirata stem-bark possesses significant antihyperglycemic activity in T2DM rats which may be improved glucose tolerance, increased glycogenesis, decreased insulin resistance and total cholesterol level that may provide a rationale for using it in diabetic treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Ginseng Effects on Spermatogenesis Multiplications (TDI, RI, SI) Proceeding Scrotal Heat Shock Induction in Rat

Hamed Moradpour, Mehrdad Neshat, Esmaeil Safavi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42177

Objective: Ginseng is a plant which has high Antioxidant feature and contains Ginsenosides that has a high affectivity on testicle’s tissue. This study is done to increase the survival of germ cells and also to find out its effects on decreasing the restoration time of damaged testicle tissues proceeding heat shock induction.

Methods and Materials: In this study 60 Vistar rats with the weight of 180-220 g are used which were placed in the same environmental conditions (12 hour light, 12 hour darkness – and temperature of 22±2) and were given the same food. Rats were randomly divided into four groups. Except for the group that was in 23c temperature condition and received the normal amount of Saline, other groups were each divided into three subgroups (ginseng, Vitamin E and 43c). Except for the normal group, all groups were kept for 60 days and went under autopsy in day 15-30-60. Testicles were removed and put into Formalin 10%. After 48-72 hours Lam was made out of samples.

Conclusion: In this study effects of Ginseng on testicle tissues which went under heat shock were visible. And the difference in all groups was meaningful and Ginseng had a better function in the restoration of damaged tissues caused by heat than Vitamin E.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stem Bark Extract of Sterculia setig­era Delile Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Properties through Membrane Stabilization, Inhibition of Protein Denaturation and Prostaglandin E2 Activity

Isaac Tabiri Henneh, Robertson Akrofi, Elvis Ofori Ameyaw, Daniels Konja, George Owusu, Bashiru Abane, Joseph Acquah-Mills, Fred Jonathan Edzeameh, Francis Tayman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/42030

Aims: The stem bark of Sterculia setigera has been used in several African countries for the treatment of many inflammatory conditions. However, there is no scientific report to authenticate this usage. The current study, therefore, aims at assessing the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of the stem bark extract of Sterculia setigera (SSE).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Laboratories of Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana between October, 2016 and April, 2017.

Methodology: In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were assessed using heat and hypotonic solution - induced red blood cell haemolysis assays, as well as egg and bovine serum albumin denaturation assays. In vivo anti-inflammatory effect of SSE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and diclofenac (10 mg/kg, p.o.)  was assessed using carrageenan as well as prostaglandin E2 -induced paw oedema models in rats.

Results: SSE inhibited heat and hypotonic solution-induced haemolysis by a maximum effect of 62.81 ± 1.18% and 76.05 ± 3.08% respectively as compared to diclofenac which was 76.63 ± 3.36% and 76.49 ± 1.67% respectively. Also, egg and bovine serum albumin denaturation were markedly inhibited by SSE with a maximum inhibitory effect of 74.84 ± 64% and 45.73 ± 8.41% respectively. Diclofenac had a maximum inhibitory effect of 72.23 ± 3.14% and 52.02 ± 0.72% respectively for egg and bovine serum albumin denaturation assays. Also, SSE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and diclofenac (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly and dose-dependently reduced rats’ paw oedema in the carrageenan and prostaglandin E2 – induced inflammation tests.

Conclusion: SSE exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in both in vitro and in vivo models and this gives credence to its folkloric usage.