Open Access Short Communication

On the Side Effects of ‘Pain’ and ‘Dehydration’ in the Top 20 Selling Pharmaceuticals of 2017

Paul A. Oakley

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39544

Aims: To critically review the potential side effects relating to pain and dehydration symptoms from the top 20 selling pharmaceuticals.

Methodology: The Physicians’ Desk Reference medication guide and website was used to review medication side effects. The categories of ‘pain’ and ‘dehydration symptoms,’ were used to screen for possible side effects from the top 20 selling medications from the year 2017. A listing of likely symptom descriptions relating to pain and dehydration were first established and then used as the screening criteria.

Results: All medications had side effects; 100% (20/20) of the top selling medications caused pain as a potential side effect and 95% (19/20) caused symptoms related to dehydration as a potential side effect.

Conclusion: All medications have multiple potential side effects, and it is alarming that virtually 100% of the top 20 selling drugs may cause both pain and symptoms of dehydration. Since co-morbidities are very prevalent among ailing patients, pain syndromes and symptoms related to dehydration likely progress because of continued use of top pharmaceuticals. It is recommended that physicians routinely practice poly-de-prescribing and practice the simple prescription of physiologic treatments such as ‘drink more water’ and ‘drink less alcohol/caffeine.’

Open Access Original Research Article

Inverse Regulation of Mir Let-7g and HMGA2 Gene in HPV-Infected and Not Infected Cervical Cancer Patients

Fatemeh Barazandeh, Khadijeh Onsory, Anahita Mohseni Meybodi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/34725

Introduction: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common neoplasm among women worldwide, with the majority of cases occurring in developing countries. High-risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) types are accounted for more than 90% of cervical carcinomas. Despite standard treatment for cervical cancer, no specific molecular markers can predict the clinical response of patients diagnosed yet. Decreased in the miRNAs Let-7 family expression is reported to be associated with cervical cancer and Re-expression of that inhibits the proliferation and migration of cells via HMGA2 in carcinoma. The aim of the current study was to determine the correlation of the miR Let-7g and HMGA2 gene expression in HPV-infected cervical cancer patients and compare it with not infected patients and control groups among participating refereed to MirzaKochak Khan Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2015.

Material and Methods: Total of 60 samples including 20 HPV-infected cervical cancer, 20 patients with no HPV infection and 20 healthy individuals as control were collected. Cervical cancer was determined by Pap smear and tissue sampling tests. The HPV 16 and 18 types were investigated by Real Time High-Risk HPV assay. The RNA was extracted, quality and quantity of the RNA were determined and the expression of the Let-7g, HMGA2 and GAPDH genes were determined using Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and ∆∆CT computational techniques. Data were analyzed using Graphpad Prism 6 software.

Result: According to the results, miR Let-7g expression decreased in HPV infected and not infected cervical cancer patients compare to control group (P=0.0002, P=0.0132 respectively). We found a significant decrease in miR Let-7g expression in HPV infected compare to not infected patients (P=0.0001). We observed an increased HMGA2 gene expression in infected and not infected cervical cancer patients compared to healthy individuals (P=0.0001, P=0.0005 respectively). Also, a positive association was observed with increased in HMGA2 gene expression in HPV infected patients compare to not infected women (P=0.0001).

Conclusion: these results suggested miR Let-7g along with the HMGA2 gene is a useful indicator for early prognosis of the HPV infected cervical cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterisation of a Soil Microbial Streptomyces Strain that Produces Membrane-Active Antimicrobial Metabolites

Parisa Azerang, Parviz Owlia, Vahid Khalaj, Farzad Kobarfard, Soroush Sardari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39144

In continuation of our previous research, more than 60 microbial strains that were isolated from soil samples collected from desert, farming and mineral regions of Iran and sixteen isolated strains that produced antimicrobial metabolites were found to be effective against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Staphylococcus aureus microorganisms. A total of 3 out of 16 strains produced membrane-active ethyl acetate fractions based on artificial vesicle assay. The antimicrobial and membrane interfering activities of crude extract and fractions from Actinomycetes strain were investigated in the current study. We report the isolation two compounds from biologically active fractions obtained from Streptomyces sp 0811 culture. Fractionation of Streptomyces sp 0811 demonstrated antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeast strains. Vesicle assay showed membrane activity for the mentioned fraction. This suggests the presence of an antimicrobial membrane active agent. Further fractionation and purification strategies were applied to finally identify the isolated moleculesby using appropriate spectroscopic methods, such as 1HNMR, COSY, and LC-MS. The two identified structures are described to be indole-type and ether amino derivative.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Bacterial Strains Able to Biopolymer Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) Production from Soil of Al-Kharj Probes, Saudi Arabia

Gamal A. Gabr

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39532

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), which is produced by several bacteria, is a biodegradable polymer that has many industrial and medical applications such as heart valves, scaffold, suture and drug delivery. The aim of the present study is to isolate and identify the bacteria producing polyhydroxybutrate (PHB) from the soil sample of Al-Kharj, south of Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. After staining the bacterial isolates with Nile red stain, the only lighted isolates were selected for further identification. The strongest florescent strain (G-4) was identified by morphological and biochemical tests as Bacillus sp. For further confirmation, PHB was extracted from the G-4 isolate by three different methods of extraction and analyzed by IR. The effect of different conditions on PHB produced by bacterial isolate (G-4) including carbon sources, nitrogen sources, incubation temperatures, pH and incubation periods were studied. The highest production of PHB was observed with cultural media containing 8% of date palm syrup (Khalas) at the pH of 7.2. These results show that Bacillus species identified in soil sample of Al-Kharj produced highest concentration of PHB by using date palm syrup as a carbon source that can substantially reduce substrate and production costs of PHB.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cell Proliferation and Cytotoxic Studies of Vernonia amygdalina on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and HT 29 Cell Lines

Adegbolagun T. Adeoye, Ademola A. Oyagbemi, Temidayo O. Omobowale, Olusegun A. Fagbohun, Momoh A. Yakubu, Adeolu A. Adedapo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39496

The antiproliferative effects of the methanol leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (V. amygdalina) Del (Asteraceae) on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC) and Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cell line (HT 29) were investigated using the Cell Titer 96 MTT Proliferation Assay where the viable cells were seeded at a density of 5 × 104 (100 μL/well). For VSMC, log concentrations of the extract at 200 and 800 μg/mL were added and incubated for 24 and 48 h time points. Incubation of the extracts in the presence of VEGF and ET-1 (the mitogens) was also conducted at different time points. Concentrations of the extract (200, 400 and 700 μg/mL) were also added and incubated with the HT 29 cell line for 24, 48 and 72 h time points. The result showed that after 24 hours, the effect of the extract of the plant on the VSMC alone and in the presence of the mitogens was more of proliferation except the 200 μg/mL in which there was no proliferation in the presence of ET-1. At 48 hrs, the proliferation was even more marked. For instance, the 800 μg/mL of V. amygdalina in the presence of VEGF caused 153.3% increase. In the case of HT 29 cytotoxic study, the extract at all doses used caused cytotoxic effect. For instance, the 200 μg/mL concentration of V. amygdalina caused 69.2% cell inhibition at 72 hours time point. It must however be noted that it was at 24 hrs time point that the effect of the extract was most pronounced and consistent. It could be concluded from this study that while the extract has proliferative effects on the VSMCs, the reverse is the case for the HT 29 cell line. It thus showed that the extract caused inhibitory effects on HT 29 cell line indicating that the extract exhibits cytotoxic effect and could then serve as lead agents in the search for anticancer drug from natural products.