Open Access Original Research Article

Levocetirizine and Amlodipine Restores Hepato-Cardiac Function in the Forced Swim-Induced Cardiac Remodelling Rat Model

Abdulaziz S. Al-Orabi, Kaleemuddin Mohammed, Tariq Jamal Khan, Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki, Saida Sadath, Fahad A. Al-Abbasi, Firoz Anwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39268

Aim: Drug combination studies are of keen interest, especially to the clinician who encounters patients with multiple disease symptoms. In our study, we tried to assess the toxic/beneficial effect of a prominent calcium channel blocker–Amlodipine, when administered with Levocetirizine–an antihistamine drug, in forced swim-induced stress model of Albino Wistar Rats.

Methodology: Animals were subjected to forced swim-induced stress (FSIS) for remodelling in heart followed by Amlodipine (3 mg/kg/day) and Levocetirizine (0.5 mg/kg/day) treatment. Biochemical parameters like serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, triglyceride, uric acid, serum amylase, sodium, potassium, calcium and total protein were assessed in serum samples. The modulations in cellular architecture were studied by heart and liver histopathology.

Results: The overall alteration in alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, triglyceride, and uric acid significantly demonstrated the protective role of this drug combination in the stress-induced remodelling of the heart. Elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase were observed in the single-drug therapeutic groups (P < 0.05). The combination therapy restored the biochemical parameters, revealing the synergistic effect. A similar trend of change was observed in the levels of amylase (P < 0.01). In support of the serological findings, our histopathology results revealed FSIS-Amlo Levo group demonstrated near to normal cellular architecture with less fat depositions when compared to FSIS-Amlo and FSIS-Levo.

Conclusion: The combination therapy of these drugs demonstrated a significant beneficial effect on stress-induced cardiac remodelling under the given set of conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attenuation of TNF-α Induced Liver Injury by Cinnamon Extract in Rats

Khadijah S. Balamash, Said S. Moselhy, Jehan A. Khan, Etimad H. Huwait, Nawal Helmi, Khalid O. Abulnaja, Widad M. Al-Bishri, Abdulrahman L. AL-Malki, Taha A. Kumosani, Soonham S. Yaghmoor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/40272

Background: Nowadays, alternative medicinal therapy is recommended for protection and management liver diseases. Cinnamon is popular flavoring ingredient, widely used in as additive worldwide.

Objective: The mechanism of hepato-protective activity of water (WE) or ethanolic extracts (EE) of cinnamon against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced lipid peroxidation and the hepatic injury was investigated in rats.

Materials and Methods: Four groups of male rats were included in this study, Group1: control, Group II; CCl4 intoxicated, Group III (CCl4+ WE) and Group IV (CCl4+ EE) of cinnamon. 

Results and Discussion: Serum AST and ALT were elevated in rats induced by CCl4 while oral administrated with 100 mg/kg of either (WE or EE), daily showed improvement in these enzymes. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-6 and TNF-α (P<0.001) were elevated in response to CCl4, while the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly decreased (P<0.001). Results showed that WE or EE improved liver functions and lower hydroxyproline content. The results obtained indicated that EE has potent hepatoprotective action more than water extract against CCl4 by inhibiting release of inflammatory cytokines that enhance release of proteases and neutrophil that cause liver injury. In addition, these extracts exert a protective effect by lowering MDA level and induce the antioxidants capacity.

Conclusion: It is concluded that free radical-scavenging polyphenols contents inhibit production of inflammatory mediators and enhancing antioxidant capacity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Vernonia amygdalina Leaf Extracts, Hibiscus esculentus Fruit Extract and Garcinia kola Seed Extract from Kisangani Plants

Frederick M. Katemo, Roland D. Marini, Justin N. Kadima

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/40667

Objective: Many plants used in traditional medicine still need to be studied scientifically in order to verify their medical usefulness and standardize their pharmaceutical properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from local species of Vernonia amygdalina Delile (Va), Hibiscus esculentus (He) and Garcinia kola Heckel (Gk).

Methods: The tests were done on Va-aqueous, Va-ethanolic, Va-butanolic and Va-saponin leaf extracts; He-aqueous fruit extract and Gk-aqueous seed extract. The extracts were prepared using conventional methods. The activity was evaluated in male rabbits given orally 100 mg of extracts per Kg BW and overloaded with glucose (4 g/Kg) 30 minutes later. Glibenclamide 0.2 mg/Kg was given as reference positive control. A negative control group of untreated animals was also included. Blood samples were collected on the animal ear at different times. The assay was performed using a handheld Glucometer®. 

Results: The percentages of reduction in glycemia calculated on the basis of the negative control values were 60.5% for glibenclamide, 70.5% for Va-ethanol, 57.6% for Va-aqueous, 42.2% for Va-butanol, 54.5% for He-aqueous and 58.7% for Gk-aqueous. Va-saponins fraction was inactive; it increased the baseline glycemia instead of reducing.

Conclusion: All extracts have a relative reduction activity comparable to glibenclamide with the exception of Va-saponins. Improved tradimedicines can be prepared with ethanolic or polyphenolic dry extracts.

Open Access Review Article

Effects of Medicinal Plants on Nocturia: A Systematic Review

Mahnaz Yavangi, Ramazan Khodadadi-Arpanahi, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/40251

Nocturia is one of the common disorders that are associated with certain complications such as fracture and declined quality of life in addition to disrupting sleep. We, therefore, sought to review the evidence on the effects and action mechanisms of medicinal plants on nocturia.

Methods: The search terms of interest were used to retrieve relevant articles published between 2000 and 2018 and indexed in the databases Institute for Scientific Information, PubMed, and Scopus using EndNote software.

Peganum harmala and Cannabis sativa are two of the plants that have been reported to be effective on nocturia. In addition, certain plant-based derivatives such as SagaPro and certain combinations such as Gosha-jinki-gan, paladin kashaya, and PRO 160/120 from Viola odorata L. (Violaceae), C.A.Mey. From Echium amoenum Fisch. (Boraginaceae), and Physalis alkekengi L. (Solanaceae) help improve nocturia through different mechanisms.

As with other types of treatments, plants and plant-based compounds cannot be used as monotherapy in treating nocturia, and therefore should be used as a complementary therapy alongside available treatments for this disorder to induce the best therapeutic effects.

Open Access Review Article

Novel Approaches of Herbal Drug Delivery

Sanjida Afrin, Ishrat Jahan, A. H. M. Nazmul Hasan, Kanij Nahar Deepa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39143

From ancient times, herbal medicines are in use to cure the diseases due to their potential and less side effects. But difficulties in identification, processing, standardizing, extracting of herbal drugs, it rarely attracts scientists towards the development of novel delivery systems for herbal drugs. The reduced efficacy of herbal drugs is due to the traditional and out of date approach of administration to patients. To minimize these problems various novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) such as phytosomes, ethosomes, transfersomes, herbal transdermal patches, nanoparticles and biphasic emulsions are used nowadays. Novel approach of delivering herbal drugs will increase the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines along with the increased stability of the drug product. These techniques provide improved patient compliance, sustained release and targeted action of plant actives and extracts. This review summarizes the information of various novel techniques used for improving safety and efficacy of phytomedicines, type of active ingredients, biological activity and application of novel formulation of herbal drugs to achieve better therapeutic response.