Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Ethanol Extract of Xylopia aethiopica Fruits on the Histomorphology of the Kidney of Albino Wistar Rats

I. U. Umoh, A. U. Ekanem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39356

Aims: The study investigated the effect of ethanol extract of Xylopia aethiopica fruits on the histomorphology of the kidney of albino Wistar rats.

Study Design:  Twenty (20) albino Wistar rats weighing between 130 – 180 g were assigned into four (4) groups of five rats each. Group 1 served as the control group. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received orally, 250 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg of Xylopia aethiopica ethanol extract per kilogram body weight respectively for twenty-eight (28) days.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Methodology: The body and kidney weights were observed and kidney was excised for histological studies using haematoxylin and eosin staining techniques.

Results: The final body and kidney weight showed significant weight increases in test groups compared with the control. The photomicrographs revealed gradual epithelial lining degeneration, vascular degeneration, inflammation and renal tubular degeneration and necrosis in the test groups when compared to the control group.

Conclusion: It can, therefore, be concluded that the administered doses of the extract of Xylopia aethiopica have nephrotoxic effects on the kidney of albino Wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Sodium (2-(2, 6-dichloroanilino) phenyl) Acetic Acid in Human Plasma by Rapid and Sensitive HPLC Method and UV-Spectrophotometry: Its Comparative Evaluation

Saeed-ul-Hassan ., Javaria Chishti, Kashif Barkat, Hammad Yousaf, Asif Mahmood

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39301

Aim: The objectives of current study were to develop and validate a simple, rapid, and sensitive HPLC method for determination of sodium (2-(2, 6- dichloroanilino) phenyl) acetic acid (SDPAA) in human plasma according to US-FDA guidelines and determination of SDPAA by UV- Spectrophotometry.

Methodology: In case of HPLC method, the mobile phase composed a mixture of acetonitrile (ACN) and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) in a ratio of 40:60 ml (pH 3.5). A Shimadzu HPLC machine (HPLC 10 ATVP) with a column Chromolith-R high resolution RP–18 end caped and a column length of 100mm to 4.6 mm, with a UV detector was used. The peak was observed at wavelength of 281 nm. The sample was injected at a flow rate of 1.5 ml per min. The solvent run time was 8 minutes and the average retention time of the six sample observed was 5.66 minutes. In case of UV-spectrophotometric method, Shimadzu UV-1800 spectrophotometer was used. Mixture of phosphate buffer of pH 6.8:ACN was selected as a solvent for determination of SDPAA at 281 nm. Beer law was obeyed in the range of 2-22 µg/ml. The results of both UV-spectrophotometric and HPLC methods in determination SDPAA, were compared.

Results: SDPAA was detected at 281nm and eluted at 5.669 min (without plasma) while the samples extracted from the plasma eluted at 5.667 min. The average % RSD was less than 2%. Accuracy was confirmed with the recovery studies and by three test assays. Accuracy was tested at three %age level that is within 95–99%. The linear range of 0.5-20 µg/ml (for HPLC) showed the regression coefficient (R2) 0.999 and linear range of 2-22 µg/ml (for UV method) showed the regression coefficient (R2) 0.998 which were in acceptable range.

Conclusion: The developed HPLC method was simple, rapid, reliable, specific and sensitive with ability to determine drug concentrations from human plasma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies of Heavy Metal Contents and Microbial Profile in Selected Pediatric Oral Liquid Preparations Available in Bangladesh

Md. Monir Hossain, Shamsun Nahar, Tasrina Rabia Choudhury, Masum Shahriar, Nizam Uddin, A. F. M. Mahmudul Islam, Arjyabrata Sarker, Pijus Saha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39497

Thirty different Pharmaceutical, Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) products were tested for heavy metal contents and microbiological profile using standard methods. Among the investigated eleven heavy metals, seven (Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn) were in detectable level. However, according to the manufacturers’ recommended dose, 27.78% of pharmaceutical products (A-02, A-05, A-07, A-08, A-09) have crossed the oral Permissible Daily Exposure limit of ICH (International Conference on Harmonization) guideline for cobalt. However, in all CAM products, level of all tested heavy metals was within the permissible limit of United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), ICH and European Medical Agency (EMEA) guidelines. Most pharmaceutical and CAM products crossed the USP, British Pharmacopoeia (BP) and World Health Organization (WHO) acceptable limit for the total aerobic microbial count (TAMC). Pathogenic Escherichia coli was found in one Pharmaceutical (A-07) and two CAM products (D-06, D-08). Salmonella and Shigella spp. were absent in all tested products. In total combined yeast and mould count (TYMC) few pharmaceutical (A-03, A-07, A-14), as well as CAM products (D-02, D-06, D-08), were beyond USP, BP and WHO acceptable limits. Both pharmaceutical and CAM manufacturers should strictly follow the Current Good Manufacturing Practice to ensure the quality and safety of pediatric preparations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of In vitro Dissolution Testing to Assess Multiple Generic Metformin Tablets

Sze S. Wong, Suong N. T. Ngo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39508

Aims: Metformin is a high-solubility and low-permeability drug that is widely used as an oral anti-diabetic medication. In many countries, metformin is available as multiple generic formulations, with over 10 registered products, which are approved to be dispensed interchangeable. The aims of this study were to assess the in vitro dissolution profiles of a range of commercial brands of metformin hydrochloride tablets under a range of in vitro conditions and to determine whether differences in in vitro dissolution can be detected under a range of conditions.

Methodology: Single and multiple (2 or 4) tablets from all brands were tested in both pH 6.8 and 0.1M HCl (gastric pH) dissolution medium and collected samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results: At least three distinct dissolution profiles were seen, designated slow, medium and fast released profiles. The innovator product, Glucophage® exhibited a medium released profile while Glucohexal® (G1) and Diaformin® (G3) displayed a fast released and a slow released profile respectively. The differences in the dissolution profiles were more apparent in the 0.1M HCl medium and a higher degree of disparity between the dissolution profiles was observed when the number of tablets in each dissolution flask increased.

Conclusion: The results indicated that multiple registered versions of metformin have different dissolution profiles that can be detected even under standard in vitro conditions. However, all formulations were extensively dissolved within 45 minutes, suggesting that the in vivo performance of the different brands are not likely to differ to a clinically significant extent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Resveratrol on Oxidative DNA Damage Induced by the Acute Swimming Exercise

Funda Karabag Coban, Mustafa Akil, Recep Lİman, İbrahim Ciğerci

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2018/39347

Background: The point of this study was to look at how resveratrol administration affects on intense swimming exercise in oxidative circumstance. The investigation may suggest the administration of resveratrol supplements for athletes who are practice intensely.

Methods: In this research, rats were isolated into four groups, and there were eight rats in each group.

Group 1 was the control group which was not subjected to any application. Group 2 was the control group subjected to exhaustive exercise. Group 3 was Resveratrol-supplemented swimming group. This group was administered with 10 mg/kg/day Resveratrol intraperitoneally for a month and enforced exhaustive exercise at the end of applications. Group 4 was Resveratrol supplemented general control group which managed with 10 mg/kg/day Resveratrol intraperitoneally for a month and not subjected to exercise toward the finish of the application. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant levels (TOS), total antioxidant levels (TAS) and eight hydroxy guanosine (8-OhdG) levels were assessed in this study.

Results: In this examination, highest MDA levels and TOS in intense swimming exercise were found (p < 0.05). Additionally, intense swimming exercise was caused by DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes and raised 8-OhdG levels and TAS (p<0.05).  

Conclusion: Resveratrol was diminished severity of oxidative DNA damage, genotoxicity and lipid peroxidation of intense swimming exercise. Taking everything into account, resveratrol has ameliorative effects against lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity by expanding antioxidant defence mechanism in rats.