Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Constituents and Biological Activity of Fractions of Stem and Leaves of Acalypha inferno

Christopher Larbie, Felix Charles Mills-Robertson, Jasmine Naa Norkor Dowuona, Jesse John Tofah, Dennis Torkornoo, Chris Yaw Asare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/38675

Aims: Acalypha inferno is an ornamental plant which has been shown to be a phytoremediator of zinc. Other species of this genus used traditionally have been proven to possess pharmacologically active constituents. The study sought to evaluate the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of Acalypha inferno crude extracts and fractions of leaves and stem.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology and the Central Laboratory of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi Ghana between October 2016 and May 2017.

Methodology: Phytochemical constituents, DPPH assay, total phenolic content and antimicrobial effect were analyzed using standard methods. FT-IR and UV-VIS spectroscopy were used to identify functional groups and major constituents. Heavy metals in the plant were evaluated by wet digestion of sample and measurement using AAS.

Results: Phytochemicals included triterpenoids, sterols, alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and hydrolysable tannins. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) of the leaf extract was 1.818 mg/ml ± 0.062 (EC50 = 0.03995 mg/ml ± 0.00084). The FTIR revealed the presence of alcohols, amines, aromatic compounds, amides, carboxylic acids, esters and alkynes. Iron and zinc were also detected. The stem and leaf fractions exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. typhi, P. aeroginosa and S. aureus.

Conclusion: Acalypha inferno is rich in antioxidants and bioactive compounds which exhibit antimicrobial activity against some bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Efficacy Assessment of Some Selected Indigenous Plant Species of Adamawa State, Nigeria on Salmonella typhi

M. Awi, M. Y. Tula, L. T. Terry

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/38653

Aims: To screened for phytochemicals and determine the in-vitro efficacy of the plants extracts on Salmonella typhi.

Study Design: Phytochemicals and in-vitro efficacy assessment of seven medicinal plants in comparison to the standard antibiotics.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Biological Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, between October to December, 2017.

Methodology: isolation and identification of the test organism; preparation of plants extracts; phytochemical analyses of the plants parts on aqueous extracts; in vitro susceptibility test (agar well diffusion assay),

Results: Of the thirteen (13) phytochemicals screened from seven (7) medicinal plants, none of the plants possessed all the bioactive components. However, the least possessing six (6) phytochemicals (Acacia sp) while the highest possessed nine components (Moringa oleifera and Carica papaya). Tannins and steroids were present in all the plant leaves while free anthraquinones were lacking in those leaves. The efficacy of the medicinal plants on the test organism was carried out by agar well diffusion method. At 50 mg/ml concentration, aqueous extracts of the plants leaves showed no inhibitory effect on S. typhi. However, at 100 mg/ml concentration, growth of S. typhi was inhibited variably with the highest zone (14 mm) produced by M. oleifera and Psidium guajava extracts. For acetone extracts, variable zones of inhibition were produced by the leaves of all the plants at both 50 and 100 mg/ml concentration with the highest zone (25 mm) produced by C. papaya at 100 mg/ml. Statistically, the zones of inhibition produced by acetone extracts at 100 mg/ml concentration was significantly higher than those produced by acetone extracts at 50 mg/ml (p=0.000) and aqueous extracts at 100 mg/ml (p=0.009). However, there was no statistical difference between zones of inhibition produced by aqueous extracts at 100 mg/ml and acetone extracts at 50 mg/ml on S. typhi (p=0.197). The result further showed that S. typhi was highly susceptible to ciprofloxacin at both 50 and 100 mg/ml with a zone of inhibition greater than those of the aqueous and acetone extracts. Synergy among the seven plants leaves was higher at 100 mg/ml concentration for both aqueous and acetone extracts. However, the acetone extracts of the combined plants leaves produced highest zones of inhibition on S. typhi than combined aqueous extracts at both concentrations. Interestingly, the synergy of the aqueous plants extracts at 50 mg/ml produced a relative antibacterial effect on S. typhi (10 mm) when compared to the individual plants which demonstrated the non-inhibitory effect.

Conclusion: These results upheld the traditional ideology of using these plants singly or combine in the management of typhoid fever.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Vitamin B6, B9 and B12 in Halophytes by Solid Phase Extraction Followed by HPLC-UV

Narges Chamkouri, Mona Vafaeizadeh, Ayyub Mojaddami, Seyyed Abed Hosseini, Tahereh Momeni Isfahani, Aida Ghorbani Golkhajeh, Milad Janghorban Lariche, Seyed Mohammad Ali Malaekeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/34730

In this work, solid phase extraction (SPE) was proposed for simultaneous determination of trace levels of vitamin B6, B9 and B12. High performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV) was used. The experimental conditions including pH of sample and type and volume of extraction solvent were studied by one-factor-at-a time method. The limit of detection in the optimal conditions was 14.91, 10.03, and 7.25 ngkg-1 for vitamins B6, B9 and B12 respectively and relative standard deviations (RSD) of the analysis less than 8% (n= 3). Recoveries of vitamins B6, B9 and B12 were in the ranges of 80–93%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of vitamin B6, B9 and B12 in halophyte samples such as, Salicornia, Suaeda monoica, Suaeda aegyptiaca, Sueada vera and Sueada martima.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Correlation of the MicroRNA129-2 and SOX4 Genes Expression in HPV-infected Cervical Cancer Patients

Zhita Nazeri Givi, Khadijeh Onsory, Elham Moslemi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/35731

Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most common neoplasias in females worldwide. The miRNAs affect cell proliferation and apoptosis in cancers. Low levels of the miR129-2 expression have been linked to human cancer while the SOX4 gene expression has been identified as a necessary factor in cell proliferation and survival. The purpose of the present study was to determine the correlation of MicroRNA129-2 and SOX4 genes expression in cervical cancer patients infected with HPV and compare the expression level with not infected patients and control group.

Materials and Methods: The total of samples were including 30 HPV infected cervical cancer, 30 cervical cancer patients with no infection and 20 normal Pap smear were collected from Mirzakochak Khan Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2015. RNA was extracted; MIR129-2 and SOX4 genes expression was investigated. Cervical cancer was determined by Pap smear and tissue sampling test. HPV 16 and 18 infections assessed by RT High-Risk HPV assay. The RNA was extracted and the expression of the MIR129-2 and SOX4 genes was determined using Real Time PCR. The data was analyzed using Graph pad prism.

Results: According to the results, there was a decreased MIR129-2 expression in HPV positive cervical cancer compare to control and not infected patients (P=0.0001, P=0.0002 respectively). Although there was a decrease in MIR129-2 gene expression in not infected cervical cancer patients compare to control group but, statistically it was not significant (P=0.0728). Also, the SOX4 gene expression was increased in HPV infected cervical cancer patients compare to control and not infected patients which statistically was significant (P=0.0001, P=0.0032 respectively). Comparison of SOX4 gene expression among patients showed an increased significant association in not HPV infected patients compare to control group (P=0.0439). Also, no significant difference observed on MIR129-2 and SOX4 genes expression on the base of age and stage of disease.

Conclusion: Decreased MIR129-2 expression might increase SOX4 gene expression. So, determining of the MIR129-2 and SOX4 expression levels might be a useful indicator for prognosis of the HPV-infected cervical cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Different Types of Polyacrylic Polymers on Decreasing the Ulcerogenic Effect of Certain Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

E. E. Zien El-Deen, H. A. Yassin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/38111

Flunoxaprofen (FLP) and piroxicam (PIM), acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as well as floctafenine (FLN), basic NSAIDs, were coated with anionic and cationic polyacrylic resins adopting the fluidized bed technique. The bioavailability of the uncoated and coated drugs as well as the effect of the coat on the histopathological features of gastric mucosa were determined using male albino rats. Coating the particles largely affected the drug bioavailability as reflected on the peak heights, peak times and AUC0-24. FLP coated with cationic polymer showed increase in the peak height from 140.61 (uncoated drug) to 160.70 µg/ml. Peak time decreased from 4 hrs. to 2 hrs. AUC 0-24 increased from 2306.51 to 2835.21 µg/ml. hrs. The same parameters of the other two drugs PIM and FLN showed different behaviors according to their physicochemical characteristics as well as the nature of the coating polymer.

Different histopathological changes were observed in animals' stomachs which ranged between: no effect, deficiency of epithelial cells, necrosis, degeneration and hemorrhage. The changes were observed in rats administered PIM daily for 30 days as well as those administered FLP and FLN in single doses. Drugs coated with Eudragit-E100 showed significant decrease in ulcers obtained with uncoated drugs or drugs coated with the anionic type.