Open Access Original Research Article

First Study on Anti-diabetic Effect of Rosemary and Salvia by Using Molecular Docking

Bouchentouf Salim, Allali Hocine, Ghalem Said

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37061

Nowadays use of herbs as medicines is important research subject over the world attracting researchers from different research filed to look for less use of synthetic drugs because of their side effects on human health. In this paper we use molecular modeling and molecular docking as tools for valorization of natural’s plants in medicinal use. Computational chemistry permits a significant gain of time and money in studying medicinal plants role by prediction of molecules inhibition actions of enzymes. Rosemary and Salvia have been the subject of many classic studies for therapeutic use (antioxidant, antiseptic...) but never studied for their anti-diabetic activity only with molecular docking (especially Salvia). In our study we predict interaction of main terpenoids from Rosemary and Salvia by investigating inhibition process of DPP-4 enzyme using Molecular Operating Environment software (MOE). Obtained results show and describe capacity of natural’s molecules from Rosemary and Salvia in inhibition of DPP-4. The molecules from Rosemary and Salvia which are the best inhibitors of DPP-4 have been identified.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanisms and Equilibrium Studies of Sorption of Metronidazole Using Graphene Oxide

Davoud Balarak, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, Hossein Azarpira, Ali Joghataei

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37382

In this work, the removals of Metronidazole (MTZ) antibiotics onto Graphene Oxide (GO) adsorbent from aqueous solutions were studied. Batch adsorption studies were carried out at different contact time, MTZ concentrations, and temperatures. Adsorption isotherms have been modeled by Freundlich, Langmuir, Toth and Redlich-Peterson (R-P) equations. The adsorption of MTZ antibiotics was better represented by the Langmuir equation. The effect of temperature was also studied at the range between 298 and 328 K. Thermo- dynamic parameters were calculated. The positive value of enthalpy change (ΔH°) indicated the endothermic nature of the adsorption process, and the negative values of free energy change (ΔG°) were indicative of spontaneity of the adsorption process. In this work adsorption behavior of MTZ on GO sorbent was also evaluated by the data obtained from batch experiments. The positive values of ΔS° suggest the increased randomness at the sorbent–solution interface during the sorption of MTZ from the aqueous solution to the GO sorbent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Postoperative Pain Relief Following Bupivacaine Injection in Sites & Intraperitoneal Spray of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Ali Ghorbani-Abdehgah, Mehdi Jafari, Behnam Molavi, Abolfazl Shojaiefard, Shirzad Nasiri, Aidin Yaghoobi Notash Jr, Ali Mir, Ahmadreza Soroush

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/36222

Background: Postoperative pain management is an important issue to increase the quality of laparoscopic procedures. In this study the effects of Bupivacaine injection in ports of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and adjunction site of liver and gall bladder was determined on postoperative pain and opioid administration.

Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 100 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy between 2013 and 2015 were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either intra-peritoneal spray of 15 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% solution over gall bladder bed and infiltration of bupivacaine 0.25% in port 1 to 3 incisions or normal saline in the same manner. The visual analogue scale was used to assess post-operative pain. Also administered opioid dose and side effects were registered and compared between two groups.

Results: In this study the pain levels of shoulder and ports sites were significantly less in Bupivacaine group compared to control group (P=0.001). Also the vomiting frequency was significantly lower in Bupivacaine group in first and sixth hours (P <0.05) but not after sixth hour (P > 0.05). Additionally the opioid use was significantly lower in intervention group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Bupivacaine injection in ports of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and adjunction site of liver and gall bladder is effective on postoperative pain and opioid consumption leading to less pain and lower opioid use.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutic Effects of Phytochemicals of Brassicaceae for Management of Obesity

Abudukadeer Kuerban, Soonham Sami Yaghmoor, Yaaser Q. Almulaiky, Youssri Ahmed Mohamed, Syed Shoeb Iqbal Razvi, Mohammed Nihal Hasan, Said Salama Moselhy, Ayat B. Al-Ghafari, Hadeel M. Alsufiani, Taha A. Kumosani, Abdulrahman L-AL-Malki

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37617

Cruciferous vegetables are rich in glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls and ascorbic acid which play a major role in the modulation of lipid metabolism and are therefore involved in the lowering of total cholesterol levels in the blood. Cruciferous diet has an inverse relationship with the obesity which has been attributed to the indoles and isothiocyanates derived from the glucosinolates, such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and sulforaphane. Obesity and overweight still remain one of the leading causes of “preventable” deaths worldwide exerting a great deal of strain on the healthcare systems. It is ironic to note that there are nearly 100 drugs available in the market for the obesity related diseases like hypertension, but only 6 medications have been approved for the treatment of obesity in the long run. Since obesity is a chronic and permeant disease, it puts an individual to a risk of 30 more chronic diseases like hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cancers, degenerative joint diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, there is a desperate need to find an alternative supporting strategy to support the current medications. In this communication, we have explored the role of phytochemicals from cruciferous diet in exerting hypolipidemic effects, which may open up nascent avenues for therapeutic intervention to tackle obesity.

Open Access Review Article

Medicinal Plants Effective on Serotonin Level: A Systematic Review

Kamal Solati, Majid Asadi-Samani, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/36836

In recent years, the prevalence of depression and mood disorders has been on the rise. With regards to increased popularity of traditional medicine and medicinal plants, we conducted this review to identify and study the action mechanisms of the medicinal plants that are effective on serotonin, as one of the neurotransmitters of happiness and mood, and depression symptoms. To conduct this systematic review, the key words of interest were used to retrieve articles from the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) and the PubMed. The articles, published between 2010 and 2017, about the medicinal plants’ and their products’ potential effects on serotonin and brain serotonergic system were analyzed. Plants and their derivatives may not only exert therapeutic effects on mild depression but also exhibit suitable therapeutic response in treating severe disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) to improve mood conditions and eliminate depressed mood through affecting the serotonergic system. Plants and their compounds affect serotonergic system function through anti-inflammatory mechanisms, inhibiting noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake, inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO), and increasing expression of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and hepatic tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase. They can therefore be used as options for discovering new drugs effective on happiness and depression.