Open Access Policy Article

Regulatory Aspects of Omega Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Dietary Supplements

Valentina Petkova, Danka Obreshkova, Bozhidarka Hadzhieva, Stefka Ivanova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/35627

Background: Food additives are subject to certain regulatory requirements, as in some countries, the control is very strict, while in others there is almost no control. Some food supplements can affect existing diseases or interact with some medications, food and beverage, a fact that is not mentioned on the packaging or in product instructions.

Methods: The aim of the study is to analyze the legislative framework for authorization and use of omega polyunsaturated fatty acids in the US and the European Union. The documents of 10 pieces of legislation were analyzed.

Results: Since 1994 the dietary supplements in the United States has been governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). The European Union (EU) directive on food additives 2002/46/EC specifies harmonized rules for labeling of supplements and introduces specific rules on vitamins and minerals used in food supplements. The aim is to harmonize legislation and ensure that these products are safe and appropriately labeled so that consumers can make informed choices.

Conclusions: Due to heightened expectations and requirements for food additives worldwide regulation and legislation will continue to increase and ensure their quality, as well as their effects and safe use in all possible mechanisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcome of Pharmacists Health Belief Perception and Knowledge of CVD Risk Factors Intervention among Rural Community Dwellers

David U. Adje, Azuka C. Oparah, Felicia E. Williams

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/35064

Background: Cardiovascular risk factor reduction strategies are more likely to be successful if persons at risk have a good knowledge of the disease and a positive perception of adopting cardio protective behavior .The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of community pharmacist’s educational intervention on the knowledge and health belief perceptions of rural community dwellers whose 10-year risk of adverse fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events was classified as high.

Design: This  was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted in Ezionum community in Delta State, Nigeria

Methods: Knowledge of and health belief about cardiovascular disease were assessed among 42 patients at high cardiovascular disease risk using pre tested validated questionnaires. Rated scores were subjected to quantitative analysis. Baseline score were compared to end of study using the paired T test. A P value of less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant.

Results: Mean total knowledge score at end of study was significantly improved compared to baseline 18.40 ±4.37 vs. 11.71± 3.48, P˂ 0.001. Perception of severity of CVD increased post intervention (2.18±0.67) compared to baseline (1.80 ± 0.51) while perceptions of susceptibility and benefits of behaviour change decreased. Overall, total health belief score was 2.51± 0.19 post intervention compared to baseline, 2.4 ± 0.25 on a scale of 1 to 4. 

Conclusion: Educational intervention targeted at helping people adopt cardio protective behaviours can be successfully implemented among rural people with minimal levels of formal education.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kigelia africana Stem Bark, Fruit and Leaf Extracts Alleviate Benzene-induced Leukaemia in Rats

Akanni E. Olufemi, Olaniran I. Omotayo, Akinbo B. David, Iyiola Monjeed, Ogunlade Adebola, Sanni Bilikis, Adejumo Temitope

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/34625

Aims: This study was aimed at evaluating the potential leukaemia chemotherapeutic activities of various extracts of Kigelia africana stem bark; fruit and leaf by using a benzene-induced model of leukaemia to validate its folkloric use. Evidences from African herbal medicine and traditional applications have shown that Kigelia africana plant has several beneficial therapeutic properties against microbial infections and cancer cell lines.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biomedical Science, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Nigeria and study was conducted between August, 2016 and November, 2016.

Methodology: Rats were administered 0.2 mL of benzene solution intravenously through the tail 48-hourly for 4 weeks, tested periodically and observed till leukaemia developed prior to treatment with respective extract of the Kigelia africana stem bark, fruit and leaf in appropriate rat groups after leukaemia was confirmed with haematological protocols. Leukaemic rats were administered with 100 mg/mL contained in 0.5 mL stem bark, 0.5 mL fruit and 0.2 mL of the leaf extract orally by gavage using oral cannula once daily post leukemia induction for four weeks. Haematological parameters and white blood cells differential counts (lymphocytes) were assessed in both control and treatment groups to determine the leukaemia burden.

Results: Kigelia africana treatment using the stem bark, fruit and leaf significantly (P < 0.05) alleviated the anaemia indices and reduced the marked leucocytosis usually associated with leukaemia toward the negative control level when compared with the leukaemia control group. Antileukaemic activity however appears to be highest in stem bark, and least in the leaf.

Conclusion: This study revealed the potential of ethanol extracts of Kigelia africana stem bark, fruit and leaf to reverse leukaemic effects in benzene-induced leukaemia bearing wistar rats and this suggest that the extracts might be promising natural, non-toxic and anticancer agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory Activity and In silico Approaches on Root Extract of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn

Palanisamy Prakash, Rengarajan Manivasagaperumal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/32070

Aims: The present study was aimed to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of methanol root extract of Decalepis hamiltonii.

Results: The methanolic extract showed in vitro anti-inflammatory activity inhibition cells 96.1%µg/ml. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was significant inhibited by the methanol (96.2) and inhibition addition the Nitric oxide production 25 µg/ml 95% inhibition. The methanol extract of Decalepis hamiltonii shows a Thus, a very strong approach to In-silico docking and in vitro anti-inflammatory study for whole with these compounds/extract. 

Conclusion: From the study it is concluded that the root extract of Decalepis hamiltonii showing a strong approach to In-silico docking and anti inflammatory activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Kolaviron on the Atherogenic Propensity of Nigeria Local Edible Oils in Male Wistar Rats

Olulola Olutoyin Oladapo, Oluwafemi Majeed Quadri, Kehinde Ojora, Rotimi Sunday Ajani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/35360

Background: Dyslipidemia is partly dependent on consumption of edible oils. We set out to determine the atherogenic effects of commonedible oils in Nigeria, in male Wistar rats and to find out if administration of oral kolaviron amelioratedthese effects.

Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of two replicates. One replicate was fed test diet while second replicate was administered 100 mg/ml of kolaviron four times weekly in addition to the test diet. Group one served as control and was fed on normal chow (NC) diet. The remaining five groups were fed different diets added to the NC as follows: non heated soya oil, heated soya oil, palm olein, palm stearin, heated palm oil respectively for a period of 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were determined at the end of the experimental period and their aortas were examined histopathologically.

Results: Compared with controls, experimental groups had higher values of Total Cholesterol (TC). There was a significant increase in TC in five times heated palm oil and five times heated soya oil groups compared with non heated soya oil, palm olein and palm stearin groups (P < 0.05). Palm olein group with no oral kolaviron had the highest percentage proportion of Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, while the lowest was found in the palm stearin group with oral kolaviron. From our study, palm olein was the most atherogenic oil thanfive times heated palm oil, palm stearin, five times heated soya oil and non-heated soyaoil respectively. An early stage of atherosclerosis was found in the group fed on five times heated palm oil with no kolaviron.

Conclusion: Consumption of edible oils commonly used locally, especially when repeatedly heated during frying, could lead to high levels of atherogenic lipids in the plasma while 100mg/kg of kolaviron could be beneficial.