Open Access Original Research Article

Nephroprotective Effect of Phoenix reclinata Total Crude Root Extract on Tenofovir Induced Kidney Damage in Wistar Albino Rats

Cissy B. Namuleme, Kokas Ikwap, Andrew Tamale, Gabriel Tumwine, John Kateregga, Charles D. Kato

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/34247

Tenofovir (TDF), used in combination with other antiretroviral agents, is an effective therapy for HIV infection. However, prolonged use of this drug is limited by a life threatening nephrotoxicity. Phoenix reclinata is a common palm species native to tropical Africa and is commonly recommended by traditional herbalists as a remedy for kidney disease. However, scientific evidence for its nephroprotective effects is nonexistent. In this study, we investigated the nephroprotective effect of Phoenix reclinata total crude extract on TDF induced kidney damage using Wistar albino rats. Six groups of Wistar albino rats (N=8) were utilized to test the total crude root extract of Phoenix reclinata. Three groups received 600 mg/kg of tenofovir with concurrent administration of plant extract at; 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg by gavage tube. The negative control group received only tenofovir, the positive control received tenofovir and calcitol with the normal control receiving only distilled water. After 21 days blood was collected by cardiac puncture for serum urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and chlorine assays. In addition, kidney tissue sections were taken for histopathological analysis.

Our results revealed that oral administration of TDF resulted in significant elevation (p< 0.05) of serum creatinine (57.33±6.61 µmol/L), urea (7.33±0.82 mmol/L), sodium (157.2±5.07 mmol/L), potassium (14.29±2.96 mmol/L) and chlorine (107.9±6.16 mmol/L). Histopathological findings observed included severe proximal tubular necrosis, glomerular and renal tubular degeneration tending to necrosis, lymphocyte infiltration and intertubular hemorrhages. These effects were significantly reversed with the administration of the extract in a dose dependent manner. The effects observed in the 800 mg/kg of extract were comparable to those of the calcitriol group. Our study demonstrated for the first time the protective effect of Phoenix reclinata on TDF induced nephrotoxicity. Future studies on structural elucidation of the bioactive compounds responsible for the nephroprotective effective and these utilizing pure extracts are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Protects Hepatic and Renal Toxicity of Alloxan in Rats

J. S. Aprioku, F. S. Amah-Tariah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/34909

Aims: Allium sativum (Garlic) possesses antioxidant principles and is consumed widely as a nutritional agent and for medicinal purposes. This work investigated the effects of aqueous Garlic bulb extract on alloxan-induced plasma elevations of hepatic enzymes and renal biochemical indices in Wistar rats.

Study Design: Twenty rats were divided randomly into three experimental groups, labelled I, II and III) and a control group (group IV) each containing five animals. Experimental groups were given alloxan and different dose levels of Garlic extract, while control group was given vehicle. Plasma levels of renal and kidney markers obtained in experimental animals were compared with control animals.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, in 2015-2016.

Methodology: Group I was injected intraperitoneally, single dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg). Group II and III rats were injected single dose alloxan (100 mg/kg) followed by treatment with aqueous Garlic extract (100 or 200 mg/kg/day, given by oral gavage) for 21 days. Group IV was administered distilled water. The animals were sacrificed and plasma levels of urea, creatinine, albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) were analyzed.

Results: There was significant (P< .05) elevation in the plasma levels of creatinine (25.8%), urea (35.4%), AST (336.7%) and ALT (118.5%) in alloxan alone treated rats compared to control. In Garlic treated rats, plasma levels of all parameters measured were not altered compared to control.

Conclusion: The result suggests that Allium sativum has protective effects on alloxan-induced elevations of plasma biochemical factors of renal and hepatic functions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Some Novel Semicarbazone and Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives of Isatin as Possible Biologically Active Agents

Masoumeh Divar, Ali Khalafi-Nezhad, Kamiar Zomorodian, Razieh Sabet, Zahra Faghih, Maryam Jamali, Hasti Pournaghz, Soghra Khabnadideh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/35243

Aims: The development of new beneficial agents is one of the crucial aims in medicinal chemistry. Isatin is considered as a vital class of bioactive compounds exhibiting different biological activities. A series of nine new Semicarbazone (12a-i) and six new Thiosemicarbazone (14a-c, 14f-h) derivatives of isatin were prepared.

Methods: Synthesis of the desired compounds was done in two steps. In the first step, we alkylated the isatin ring by using different alkyl halides in DMF and in the presence of Ca2H. In the second step, the alkylated isatin was reacted with semicarbazide or thiosemicarbazide in ethanol and amount of acetic acid. Chemical structures of all the products were confirmed by IRi, ¹H NMRii, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The cytotoxic activities of the compounds were evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method against MCF-7iii and MDA-231iv breast cancer cell lines. Antimicrobial activities of these compounds against different species of microorganisms including Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as fungi were also determined by broth micro-dilution method as recommended by CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute).

Results: Some of our compounds showed moderate cytotoxic activity but showed notable antibacterial and antifungal effects.

Conclusion: Replacement of aminophenyl benzothiazole with isatin had reduced the antimicrobial activities of the compounds. Maybe a complex of our synthesized compounds with some metals could be used to improve their antimicrobial activities.

i Infrared.

ii Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

iii Michigan Cancer Foundation-7.

iv Mammary Drive Adenocarcinoma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Anti-atopic Dermatitis Activity of Oroxylum indicum Extract Incorporated Cream

Do Hoang Thu Trang, Hoang Le Son

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/34325

Aims: The search for plant-based treatments against atopic dermatitis (AD), a relapsing dermatological condition with high prevalence in tropical regions, has always been attracting special attention. Among many folk remedies for AD, Oroxylum indicum Linn (Bignoniaceae) is a commonly used medicinal plant whose effectiveness has not yet been scientifically reported. This study thus aimed to investigate the anti-AD activity of ethyl acetate extract from the bark of Oroxylum indicum.

Methodology: Five cream formulations containing Oroxylum indicum ethyl acetate bark extract in different concentrations (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5%) were topically applied onto the dorsal skin of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-sensitized BALB/C mice once a day during 6 weeks. Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS) and Protopic (Tacrolimus 0.1%) were used as negative and positive control, respectively. All mice were subjected to the assessment of AD-like symptoms including the development of eczematous skin lesions, intensity of pruritus and histological alterations.

Results: The plant extract at 5% was significantly effective in suppressing the dermatitis scores by 23.26% (n=6, p<0.001) and scratching frequency by 34.86% (n=6, p<0.001) compared to the negative control while markedly reducing the signs of parakeratosis, hyperplasia, spongiosis, acanthosis, as well as the epidermal and dermal thickness in immunized mice.
Conclusion: These results confirmed the inhibitory effect of Oroxylum indicum on the advance of AD at 5% when incorporated into a cream formulation and revealed the plant’s therapeutic potential in the approach to disease treatment. However, more studies on the immunosuppressive mechanism of the extract and the interplaying roles of main phytocomponents should ultimately support the utilization of this valuable medicinal plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Aripiprazole (An Anti-psychotic Drug) in the Resolution of Acute Peripheral Inflammation in Male Wistar Rats

L. D. Adedayo, D. A. Olawuyi, A. O. Ojo, O. Bamidele, S. A. Onasanwo, A. O. Ayoka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/32601

Aripiprazole, a known second generation anti-psychotic drug has been implicated to possess an anti-inflammatory potential, but yet not scientific adequately explored. This study investigated the role of aripiprazole in the resolution of acute peripheral inflammation in male wistar rats.

Thirty six (36) male wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group 1 was given orally 10 ml/kg normal saline while Group 2 received 0.1 ml of 1% carrageenan only at the right hind paw. Group 3 was given orally 0.1 mg/kg aripiprazole while Group 4 animals were administered by oral gavage 0.3 mg/kg aripiprazole. Group 5 was given orally 0.5 mg/kg of aripiprazole while Group 6 received 100 mg/kg aspirin. One hour after administration of either aripiprazole or aspirin, 0.1 ml of 1% carrageenan was injected into the right hind paw of all the groups except Group 1 which received 0.1 ml of normal saline at the right hind paw.

There was reduction in paw sizes of the animals given 0.5 mg/kg aripiprazole when compare with the control group (normal saline) at (p<0.05).

In conclusion, the study reveals that aripiprazole seems to have anti-inflammatory activities in carrageenan induced paw oedema in male wistar rats.