Open Access Original Research Article

Monitoring of Pesticide Poisoning in Different Occupational Groups by the Estimation of Serum Cholinesterase (PChE), ALT, AST & Bilirubin

Hossen Mohammad Jamil, Mahamudul Haque, Md. Saidur Rahman, Talha Bin Emran, Rashedul Hasan Chowdhury, Farhana Nasrin, Chowdhoury Mohammad Monirul Hasan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33468

Objectives: An increasing number of reports suggest that chemical and physical agents in the environment, introduced and spread by human activity may affect human liver. The present study was conducted to find out pesticide poisoning and its possible effect on liver by assaying PChE, ALT, AST & bilirubin in different occupational groups those are routinely exposed to pesticides. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to pesticide and its impact of poisoning in liver. A total of 75 adult males were included in the study. Study subjects/Pesticides sprayer were divided into three groups according to their occupations- working in vector control campaign (Group-A), Farmer (Group-B), Control (Group-C). Members of the first two groups are directly involved in pesticide preparation & spraying. Blood samples were collected from the study subjects by venipuncture and serum was separated and tested for PChE, ALT, AST and bilirubin by spectrophotometer.

Results: In the present study the mean (± SD) of serum PChE in the Group-A and Group-B were found 4087.83 ± 1444.23 U/L and 8890.03 ± 2717.75 U/L respectively. In Group-C the mean (± SD) of serum PChE was 10357.92 ± 3106.02 U/L Decrease in PChE activity was observed in the occupationally exposed groups as compared to control group (One-way ANOVA; p < 0.000). The mean (± SD) of serum ALT in the Group-A, Group-B and Group-C was 21.76 ± 5.59 U/L, 13.88 ± 5.23 U/L, and 16.96 ± 6.25 U/L respectively. The mean (± SD) of serum AST in the Group-A and Group-B was 24.96 ± 4.06 U/L and 19.44 ± 4.88 U/L respectively. In Group-C the mean (± SD) of serum AST was 22.24 ± 6.11 U/L. Both the liver enzymes ALT and AST show a negative correlation to the PChE. But the ALT level was much higher in sprayer group and shows significant correlation with PChE (Spearman Correlation Coefficient, rs= -.619**, p < 0.001). The mean (± SD) serum bilirubin in the Group-A, Group-B and Group-C was 0.888 ± 0.422 U/L, 0.5120 ± 0.303 U/L and 0.644 ± 0.335 U/L respectively. Bilirubin level also shows a significant negative correlation with PChE activity in both Group-A and Group-B, rs= -0.560**, and rs= -0.627** respectively.

Conclusions: Epidemiological studies suggest awareness of poisoning of pesticide an environmental factor that may affect biological system. Warning labels of pesticides fail to inform users of long-term health dangers. Research into the impact of pesticides on workers’ health, diagnostic tests would confirm overexposure to most classes of pesticides, reduced activity of PChE in occupationally exposed people was observed. An elevated level of liver enzymes and bilirubin was found also. Continuous and prolonged exposure to pesticides (organophosphorous) resulted in the decreased PChE activity and increased AST, ALT & bilirubin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Commercially Used Antibacterial Agents against Oral Bacteria Associated with HIV/AIDS Patients in South Western Uganda

Joseph Obiezu Chukwujekwu Ezeonwumelu, Muhammad Ntale, Steve Okwudili Ogbonnia, Ezera Agwu, Julius Kihdze Tanayen, Keneth Iceland Kasozi, Ambrose Amamchukwu Akunne, Chukwudi Onyeka Okonkwo, Frederick Byarugaba

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33211

Aims: This was to determine efficacy and resistance profiles against commonly used commercial antibacterial agents in Uganda in the management of oral pathogens in HIV/AIDS patients.

Study Design: This was an experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Laboratory, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda between September 2015 and February 2016.

Methodology: Bacterial isolates were tested against commercial antibacterial agents in Uganda. Drug shops, pharmacies and hospitals were purposively and conveniently sampled. Drugs commonly used for the management of opportunistic infections amongst HIV/AIDS patients were purchased and used in the laboratory for susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using standard protocols.

Results: All the bacterial isolates showed mean total resistance above 60%[C1]  against erythromycin [85 isolates (69.7%)] and cotrimoxazole [79 isolates, (64.8%)]; with injectable gentamicin [97 isolates (79.5%)] and ceftriaxone [105 isolates (86.0%)] displaying high susceptibility; and ciprofloxacin [65 isolates (53.3%)] showing moderate susceptibility. This shows that national policy on effective regulation of these antibacterial agents needs to be revised to ensure that the situation is reversed. Gentamicin showed increased significant mean activity (P***< .005, ANOVA, multiple comparisons) in MIC and MBC when compared with the other antimicrobial agents.

Conclusion: Gentamicin was highly efficacious in this study and resistance of these oral bacteria to common commercial antibacterial agents is a major public health burden especially among Uganda HIV/AIDS patients. Improving drug regulation activities will reduce antibacterial resistance and treatment failures. We recommend a survey on the reasons for efficacy of gentamicin against all the commercially available antimicrobials used in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Massage on Oxygen Saturation of Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treated with Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

Tahereh Ramezani, Hamideh Baniasadi, Mohammad Reza Baneshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32751

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of massage on oxygen saturation of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (tactile and kinesthetic stimulation). These infants have immature systems to cooperate with stressors. Massage is one of the best-known methods of supplemental care and there is no adequate evidence to support the claim that infants with complex medical conditions how response to massage.

Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study with before and after design that conducted on 45 preterm infants who were admitted in neonatal intensive care unit. The subjects received massage 15 min per day for five days by using Field massage technique. Respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured 5 min before and after massage. The data were analyzed using a mixed model.

Results: There were no significant differences between before and after massage on oxygen saturation (P=0.13), but respiratory (P=0.004) and heart rates (P=0.03) were reduced after massage.

Conclusion: Massage therapy can provide developmental care for infants treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). These results could help health care professionals to provide efficient support, as well as perform the appropriate massage of preterm infants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thaumatococcus daniellii Extract Modulates Glibenclamide Activity and Ameliorates Heamatological Disorders, Oxidative Stress and Dyslipidemia Associated with Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

O. T. Adedosu, J. A. Badmus, G. E. Adeleke, G. O. Olalere

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33134

Aims: Native practices in poor regions of Africa takes local herbs with orthodox medicine for treatment of diabetes. This study investigates the roles of Thaumatococcus daniellii methanol leaves extract in combination with Glibenclamide.
Study Design: 35 male Wistar rats averagely weighing 150 g treated for 15 days, were randomly selected into seven groups; A (Control), B (Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats), C (Diabetic rats administered 100 mg/kg/day body weight of extract), D (Diabetic rats administered therapeutic dose of Glibenclamide), E (Diabetic rats treated with therapeutic dose of Glibenclamide and 100 mg/kg/day bodyweight of extract), F (Extract only) and G (Glibenclamide only).
Methodology: Haematological, lipid profile and antioxidant parameters were evaluated using international standardized methods.
Results: Results showed that Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (group B) elicits significant (P=.05) increases in haematological parameters such as fasting blood glucose level, white blood cell counts, lymphocytes and platelets with corresponding decreases in red blood cell counts and serum protein while it also exhibits significant (P=.05) increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and a significant (P=.05) decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL) Cholesterol with corresponding decreases in liver reduced glutathione level, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities as well as elevated levels of malondialdehyde. However, extract and Glibenclamide showed anti-diabetic effects as levels and activities of these markers were restored nearly to controls in groups C, D and E with significant effects exhibited by group C and in the order C>D=E.
Conclusion: Results are suggestive of the anti-diabetic and modulatory effects of the extract on Glibenclamide activity and its use could be encouraged.

Open Access Review Article

Medicinal Values of Trichosanthus cucumerina L. (Snake Gourd) - A Review

N. Deepa Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33575

Snake gourd is an annual climber and it’s commonly called as snake gourd, viper gourd, snake tomato or long tomato. The fruit is usually consumed as a vegetable due to it is good nutritional value. The fruit is a good source of Vitamin A, Vitamin B and Vitamin C. It improves the appetite and acts as a tonic and stomachic and cures biliousness. This is one of the most genetically diverse groups of food plant in the plant kingdom and every part of this plant is used to treat various diseases. It is used in the treatment of head ache, alopecia, fever, abdominal tumors, bilious, boils, acute colic, diarrohea, haematuria and skin allergy. T. curcumineria is used as an abortifacient, vermifuge, stomachic, refrigerant, purgative, malaria, laxative, hydragogue, hemagglutinant, emetic, cathartic, bronchitis and anthelmintic. This review paper completed focus on the biosystematics, nutritional, chemical constituents and scientific medicinal uses of the plant.