##### Anti-Cancerous Efficacy of Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts from an Endemic Plant Thermopsis turcica on Liver Carcinoma

Muhammad Muddassir Ali, İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32413

Aims: Thermopsis turcica (T. turcica) is endemic to Turkey. Its general medicinal properties are obvious, but no investigations have been made in term of its anticancerous efficacy against liver carcinoma. So, the present study was designed to evaluate the anticancerousanalysis of alcoholic and aqueous from T. turcica in HepG2 cell line.

Methodology: Plant was collected and different extracts (methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and water) of T. turcica were taken. HepG2 cell line was grown and different doses of each extract of this plant was employed on the HepG2. Cytotoxicty test was performed by the MTT assay.

Results: In the MTT cytotoxicity assay, methanol showed the least cell viability at the highest doses compared to other extracts. Aqueous had the least cytotoxic effects.The concentration dependent response was observed by the each extract.The IC50 values for methyl and ethyl  alcohol were found 210±15 µg/ml; 220±10 µg/ml, and for aqueous 290±24 µg/ml, respectively.

Conclusion: Various extracts of T. turcica, expressed the anticancerous activity in the HepG2 cells and methyl alcohol extracts had the highest cytotoxic effects.

##### Addiction to Anabolic-androgenic Steroids: A Review

Kenneth Kirkwood

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33224

Presently, there is an emerging understanding the sociological, ethical and medical-scientific understandings of addiction. Simultaneously, there is a new understanding of synthetic hormones in relation to the users who are largely not athletes, and the nature of illicit hormonal supplementation, which has potential for user dependency. Given that what we knew about anabolic-androgenic steroid use needs an update, it is worthwhile examining the phenomenon of AAS addiction. Addiction to AAS is an understudied condition which has been shown to mimic the neurological elements of other drugs of addiction. With a realization of the potential for AAS users to have compromised volition in their drug abuse, it demands an opportunity to rethink received wisdom about AAS use and all users, both athlete and non-athlete.

##### Healthcare Costs of Pediatric Acne in the Medicaid Population: A Retrospective Analysis

Chanhyun Park, Minyoung Sung, Sean Hyungwoo Kim, Denise Pinal, Rajesh Balkrishnan, Jongwha Chang

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33274

Despite the substantial economic burden of acne, little is known about healthcare costs in Medicaid-enrolled pediatric patients with acne. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with healthcare costs in Medicaid-enrolled pediatric patients with acne. As a retrospective analysis, patients were included if they: (1) had at least one medical claim containing a code for a diagnosis of acne; (2) had at least one acne-related medication claim; and (3) were aged 17 years and younger. The Marketscan Medicaid Database was used. The dependent variables were prescription costs, outpatient visit costs, and total healthcare costs. The independent variables were age, gender, race/ethnicity, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), medication type, medication refills, and medication adherence. Generalized linear models with a gamma distribution, a log-link function, and two-part model were conducted. Among 21,846 patients included, the mean total healthcare costs were $109 (SD=134) during the 90-day post index periods. The predictive mean acne-related total healthcare costs in patients aged 12 to 17 years ($117) and blacks ($115) was higher than those aged less than 5 years ($90), 6 to 11 years ($81), and whites ($109). Gender and CCI were not associated with changed total healthcare costs. Oral antibiotics and oral contraceptive use was associated with decreased costs, while use of topical antibiotics, retinoids, and glucocorticoids was associated with increased costs. Age group, race/ethnicity, acne-related medication type, acne-related medication refills, and acne-related medication adherence were associated with acne-related total healthcare costs.

##### Assessment of Haematological and Biochemical Effects of Kolaviron in Male Wistar Rats

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33517

This study determined the effects of kolaviron on the hematological and biochemical parameters of rats. The aim was to ascertain if its consumption has deleterious effects on these parameters. Forty adult male Wistar rats divided into four groups of ten animals each were used. The control group received 2 ml/kg propylene glycol only. Kolaviron (KV) was administered at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively to the experimental groups via oral route for 28 days. At the end of the study period, five rats were sacrificed under ketamine hydrochloride and the other 5 rats were allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Hematological analysis was carried out, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and glucose were assayed from the plasma while the liver tissue was used for histopathological examination. Compared with the control group, white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte, red blood cells (RBCs) counts, hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were significantly higher in groups treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w of KV. However, plasma AST, ALT, ALP activities and bilirubin in 100 and 200 mg/kg KV were not significant different from that of the control. There was a significantly lower plasma glucose level in all KV treated groups when compared with the control. However, KV at 400 mg/kg had a significantly higher RBCs count with a significantly lower Hb, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platelet count. The plasma AST, ALT activities and bilirubin level were also higher in 400 mg/kg b.w KV when compared with the control, but plasma ALP remain unchanged. At 400 mg/kg b.w KV, histological examination of the liver tissue showed sign of portal cellular infiltration, periportal congestion and hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes in the liver, but restored toward normal after 2 weeks recovery period. This study conﬁrmed that KV at 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w improve hematological indices with hypoglycemic and immune boosting effects in rats. However, KV at higher dosage (400 mg/kg b.w) has tendency to have deleterious effects on the liver and blood.

##### Plants in Respiratory Disorders II- Antitussives, A Review

Simeon K. Adesina, Imoh Imeh Johnny, Gbola Olayiwola

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32974

Aim of This Review: Antitussives, more familiarly known as cough suppressants, are usually taken to suppress dry, irritating and patient-disturbing coughs. This review is an attempt to bring together some of the common medicinal plants traditionally used to manage respiratory disorders other than asthma. The review includes some information on traditional use of the plants as it relates to respiratory disorders, some chemistry and pharmacology in an attempt to ascertain their chemical composition and biological values, and so justify their uses.

Study Approach: Information on the above was sourced from published articles and reviews on the subject available from various data bases and journals. Thirty-three medicinal plants drawn from twenty-two plant families were reviewed along with two natural products honey which always serve as vehicle for many plant medicines and bile.

Findings: Table 1 gives a list of thirty-three plants used locally as antitussives. The various plant parts utilized in remedies include all the parts of the plant. The biochemistry and medicinal significance of tannins, terpenoids and essential oil components are now better appreciated in the management of respiratory disorders.

Conclusion: Herbal antitussives not only suppress coughs, they always attempt to remove the respiratory disorders causing the coughs and thus make patients healthier. The use of medicinal plants remains a universal phenomenon; this review justifies the need for polyherbal formulations for use in the management of respiratory disorders.