Open Access Clinical Practice Article

A Cross Section Study to Probe Self-prescribing Trends among the Population of Faisalabad- Pakistan

Uzma Saleem, Maria Manan, Maryam Farrukh, Bashir Ahmad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32240

Self medication is a one of the causes of drug intoxication. The present study was planned to investigate the prevalence rate and circumstances that favor the consumer for self medication. A questionnaire was designed that comprised of 22 questions that probe into research question. Data were collected in three months. Study objects were University students, having the average age 20.8±2.54, ranged from 18 to 24 years and non University person having middle and primary qualification, with the average age of 51.4±13.92 ranging from 30 to 80 years of Faisalabad Pakistan. Sample size was calculated with Raosoft calculator. Results showed that females (53.3%) were more inclined to self medication as compared to males (44.6%). Muscle relaxants, antibiotics, antidepressants, antacids and analgesics were categories of medicines that were commonly used by university students and non university persons for cold/flu/cough, body aches and weakness. Antibiotics and muscle relaxants were taken by non university persons 52% and 12% as compared to university students (50% and 1.3%). Use of analgesics and antidepressants is 34% and 4.6% respectively in university students as compared to second group that is 31.3% and 2.6% respectively. It is concluded that self prescribing trend for antibiotics and muscle relaxants is more common in non university persons whereas analgesics and antidepressants were more used by university persons in university students. Antacids were almost equally consumed by both groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Characterization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Containing Artemether and Lumefantrine for Treatment of P. falciparum

Vandana Chaudhary, Shakir Hussain, Vikas Jain, Ved Parkash, Roop K. Khar, S. K. Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/26483

Objective: To investigate sustained release of solid lipid nanoparticles containing Artemether and Lumefantrine against the P. falciparum by the combination of drugs that eventually will decrease the chance of drug resistance development.

Methods: Artemether and Lumefantrine come under BCS class II (poor aqueous solubility and high permeability) and these drug molecules possess low oral bioavailability due to improper dissolution and incomplete absorption. Novel formulation of Artemether and Lumefantrine may eliminate all of shortcomings and may lead to enhance oral bioavailability due to increase in solubility of these drugs. Liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubosomes or hexosomes) containing Artemether and Lumefantrine were formulated by Hydrotropic dilution method. In this method ethanolic solution of GMO with drug and aqueous solution of Poloxamer 407 were prepared by vortexing. Water phase containing the Poloxamer (10% w/v) added to the ethanolic phase drop wise with continuously vortexing resulting in the precipitation of the GMO. A milky suspension is formed which indicate the formation of liquid crystallineas

Results: The average particle size of Artemether and Lumefantrine loaded SLNs decreased with increasing concentration of surfactant. SLNs of 193.5-194 nm with a Polydispersity index of (0.600 ± 0.10) were obtained at higher concentration of lipid and surfactant. Entrapment efficiency of Artemether and Lumefantrine were found 85% and 95.5% insolid lipid nanoparticles. Furthermore the stability of SLNs indicated with negligible drug leakage after 3 weeks in stability studies as per ICH guidelines. Physical and chemical stability study revealed no major change in particle size and entrapment efficiency of liquid crystalline nanoparticles.

Conclusion: The result concluded that Artemether and Lumefantrine were loaded in solid lipid nanoparticles that exhibited sustained release from the designed dosage form against the P. falciparum and decrease the chances of drug resistance development during the treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

TiCl4/nano-sawdust as an Efficient Biocatalyst for the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Dihydro- 2-oxopyrroles as Antimicrobial Agents

Ahmad Gholami, Soghra Khabnadideh, Younes Ghasemi, Bi Bi Fatemeh Mirjalili, Roozbeh Shahmoradi, Leila Zamani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33030

Aim: Sawdust nano particles was prepared from the pine wood and applied for the synthesis of TiCl4/nano-sawdust as a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable and environmentally benign heterogeneous solid acid biocatalyst. The catalyst was used for the one pot cascade synthesis of highly functionalized dihydro-2-oxypyrroles (S1-S18). On the other hands, fungal and bacterial infections are always regarded as a dangerous pathogen. Because of increased resistance to microbial strains need to discover new antimicrobial drugs. Here we evaluated the antimicrobial activities of these compounds against different species of micro organisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi.

Methods: Four-component reactions (4CRs) of the dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates, amines and aldehydes were used for the synthesis of highly functionalized dihydro-2-oxypyrroles under thermal conditions. A micro-dilution susceptibility test and disk diffusion methods were used to study the antimicrobial activity of the new compounds against different species of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also Candida albicans microorganisms.

Results: The results showed that catalytic activity of TiCl4/nano-sawdust for the synthesis of dihydro-2-oxopyrroles via 4CRs of the dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates, amines and aldehydes. Also, dihydro-2-oxopyrrole derivatives had moderate antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The most of compounds are nearly antifungal active in comparison to the control drugs. Also, MIC values of the synthetic compounds showed ethyl 1-(4-ethylphenyl)-4-((4-ethylphenyl)amino)-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate (S6), ethyl 5-oxo-1-(p-tolyl)-4-(p-tolylamino)-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate (S7) and ethyl 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-((4-methoxyphenyl)amino)-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-3- carboxylate (S8) exhibited strong inhibitory activities against gram positive bacteria.

Conclusion: In summary, TiCl4/nano-sawdust as a green, cheap, natural, biodegradable and readily available biopolymer solid acid catalyst introduced for synthesis of dihydro-2-oxopyrrole derivatives. Comparing the structure and activity of these compounds showed that adding ethyl residue in the 4-position of phenyl ring of dihydro-2-oxopyrroles increased their antibacterial activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Predicting Erythropoietin Responsiveness among Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: Prospective Longitudinal Study

Abdel-Hameed I. M. Ebid, Amira M. Elsawy, Waled A. Taha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33144

Aim: To characterize the longitudinal hemoglobin (Hgb) variability in response to erythropoietin (Epo) and to identify the influence of clinical factors on Hgb level and Epo responsiveness in a sample of hemodialysis (HD) patients using longitudinal statistical techniques.

Study Design: Prospective longitudinal study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the dialysis units in the Nephrology Hospital of the Armed Forces Medical Center at Cairo, Egypt, during one year duration.

Patients and Methods: The study was conducted on patients on maintenance HD who were subjected to an erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) treatment. The time course of Hgb response to Epo therapy was analyzed in relationship to patients’ demographics, clinical and laboratory factors using individual growth curve modeling.

Results: Hgb levels of 89 studied patients regressed to a mean of 10.77 g/dl. The average slope of Hgb explained 12.6% of the variance in Hgb whereas an additional 8.66% was explained with the interaction of Epo dose with time. An Hgb change of -.116g/dl (P =.003) and -.124 (P =.000) was associated with non Epo use and non iron administration, respectively. Epo use was associated with a rate of Hgb change of .011g/dl per month per 10,000 IU (P =.042). An average Hgb change of .394(P =.040), .007(P =.000) and .601(P =.007) g/dl was associated with each unit increase in albumin, cholesterol and alkaline phosphates (ALP) concentrations respectively, while the rate of Hgb change was increased by .025(P=.046), .001(P=.005), .062(P=.024) and .024(P=.007) g/dl per month for each unit per month increase in albumin, cholesterol, ALP and calcium concentrations, respectively. Baseline Hgb was .128 higher (P =.000) and .449 lower (P =.000) for each unit increase in phosphorus and iPTH levels, respectively. Hospitalization lowered both baseline Hgb level by1.304 g/dl (P =.000) and the rate of change of Hgb by 1.022 g/dl per month (P =.000).  

Conclusion: Laboratory values routinely measured at monthly intervals in HD patients could provide clinicians with a tool guide to predict Hgb response to Epo therapy for better anemia management in such population.

Open Access Review Article

Plants in Respiratory Disorders I- Anti-asthmatics, A Review

Simeon K. Adesina, Imoh Imeh Johnny, Gbola Olayiwola

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32973

Aim of This Review: Respiratory disorders pose a big threat to life and constitute a major public health problem worldwide. This review is an attempt to bring together some of the common medicinal plants traditionally used to manage asthma. The review focuses on anti-asthmatic plants, their chemistry and pharmacology in an attempt to justify use and also provide a direction for future research.

Study Approach: Information on the above was sourced from published articles and reviews on the subject available from various data bases and journals. Fifty-six medicinal plants that have been investigated for anti-asthmatic properties have been reviewed.

Findings: Table 1 gives a list of plants reviewed and the mechanism of anti-asthmatic action. Herbal products are receiving increasing attention all over the world for the management of respiratory disorders as these have shown anti-asthmatic, antihistaminic, anti-allergic, anti-anaphylactic and anti-inflammatory activities. The biochemistry and medicinal significance of polyphenols and flavonoids are now better appreciated in the management of respiratory disorders.

Conclusion: Medicinal plants remain the main ingredients of indigenous medicines; this review justifies the need for polyherbal formulations for use in the management of respiratory disorders.