Open Access Original Research Article

Animal Model for Hypoglycemic Studies Using Albino Rats

A. J. Alhassan, I. U. Muhammad, A. A. Imam, A. M. Wudil, A. Idi, A. Mohammed, A. Nasir, I. Alexander

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/31666

Introduction: It could be speculated that hypoglycemia increases level of serum α-amylase and α-glucosidase and their corresponding mRNA, with concomitant increase in plasma level of glucagon. However, the concept of developing hypoglycemic rats’ model is associated with number of hitches.

Aim: To successfully induce and sustain hypoglycemia in albino rats using ethanol.

Methodology: Total of twenty four (24) rats used for the study were grouped into four (4) of six (6) rats each. Group I served as normal control, group II, III and IV were respectively administered with single dose of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight of ethanol and observed for 72 hours. Blood glucose was monitored at 0, 30 mins, 1 hr, 2 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hours using glucometer.

Results: within 30 minutes of ethanol administration, a significant (p<0.05) decrease in fasting blood glucose level of group II, III, and IV was observed compared to group I, with no significant weight decrease (P>0.05) among groups. Toxicity studies however show damages to vital organs (liver, kidney and pancreas) which could be associated with ethanol administration in a dose dependent pattern.  

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that oral administration of ethanol at 250 mg/kg body weight to experimental rats can aggravates and maintain hypoglycemia with mild toxicity to the vital organs, it may therefore be concluded that 250 mg/kg body weight of ethanol could be used in maintaining an ideal hypoglycemic rat model as research tool.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validated Stability – Indicating Methods for Determination of Oseltamivir Phosphate

Noha S. Rashed, Ola M. Abdallah, Noha S. Said

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33044

Aims: Two simple and sensitive stability- indicating methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of oseltamivir phosphate in presence of its degradation product.

Place and Duration of Study: Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University, between January 2016 and Augest 2016.

Methodology: The first method depends on densitomeric determination of thin layer chromatograms of the drug using a mobile phase of methanol – toluene – ammonia (8: 10: 2, v/v/v). The second method was UPLC method, in which efficient separation was carried out on phenomenex kinetex 2.6 μm C18100 A column using a mobile phase consisting of 85% potassium hydrogen phosphate -  methanol (80:20, v/v), adjusted to pH 3.5 with orthophosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1 and UV detection at 207 nm.

Results: Beer’ law was obeyed in the range of 1-15 mg/spot and 6-14 μg mL–1 of the drug using the two procedures, respectively.

Conclusion: The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of oseltamivir phosphate in bulk powder, laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage form with good accuracy and precision. The methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. The results obtained were compared with those of the reported method and were found to be in good agreement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity of Cnestis ferruginea and Uvaria chamae Seed Extracts

Basil N. Ita

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32924

Aim: The antioxidant activity of seed extracts of Cnestis ferruginea and Uvaria chamae was investigated in this study.

Methodology: Samples were collected between November and December in 2016 from a farm in Nigeria. The air dried seeds were macerated with acetone, ethanol and water using standard methods. The antioxidant activity of the seed extracts was investigated by measuring its DPPH, ABTS scavenging activities and its metal chelating and ferric reducing potentials. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the seed extracts was evaluated.

Results: The seed extracts exhibited potent antioxidant activity in the DPPH and ABTS assay, with the ethanolic seed extract of Uvaria chamae being more effective (IC50 = 34.3 and 29.6 μg/mL respectively) than Cnestis ferruginea. However, the aqueous seed extract of Uvaria chamae exhibited the highest metal chelating activity (IC50= 23.5 μg/mL ), while its ethanolic extract showed higher reducing power than the standard. In addition, high content of phenolics and flavonoids was found in the organic seed extracts.

Conclusion: Seeds of studied plants are rich in natural antioxidants that can be exploited in the treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

LC–HRESI–MS/MS Profiling of Flavonoids from Chlorophora regia (Moraceae)

James Oppong Kyekyeku, Reimmel Kwame Adosraku, Samuel Asare–Nkansah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32893

Aims: This study was undertaken to characterize flavonoids from the stem bark of Chlorophora regia based on their HRESI–MS/MS fragmentation pattern in positive mode.

Study Design: Isolation and identification of flavonoids from the methanol–chloroform extract of the stem bark and the HRESI–MS/MS characterization of the flavonoids.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana, Technische Universität Dortmund, Germany, between July 2014 and October 2016.

Methodology: Six flavonoids were isolated and purified using various chromatographic techniques. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analyses of their spectroscopic data (UV, 1D and 2D NMR, MS). Tandem mass spectroscopy was further employed to characterize the isolated flavonoids.

Results: Three flavonols including 3,5,7,4ʹ–Tetrahydroxy–2ʹ–methoxyflavonol, quercetin, kaempferol and three flavanones, 5,7,4ʹ–Trihydroxy–2ʹ–methoxyflavanone, 5,7,3ʹ,5ʹ–Tetrahydroxyflavanone, naringenin were isolated. The MS fragmentation patterns of the flavonoids, in positive mode, were proposed. Retro Diels–Alder (RDA) fragmentation of the dihydropyran ring (ring C) of the chromane substructure of the flavonoids led to characteristic fragments that were used to identify the major flavonoid subgroup of the isolated compounds. Furthermore, the substitution pattern of the benzo (ring A) and phenyl (ring B) residues of the flavonoid nucleus was obtained through the RDA fragmentation.

Conclusion: The RDA fragments of the flavonoids obtained from the HRESI–MS/MS spectrum, could be employed in the identification and the determination of the substitution pattern of flavonoids in medicinal plants without the necessity of isolating them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoglycemic, Hypolipidemic and Antibacterial Activity of Ficus racemosa Fruit Extract

Nazmul Hasan, Farzana Shirin, Md. Abdul Jabbar Khan, Md. Al Mamun, Md. Hazrat Belal, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Ariful Islam, Naoshia Tasnin, Md. Rokon Ul Karim, Md. Asaduzzaman, Md. Dobirul Islam, Tabassum Ara, Kazi Zahidur Rahman, Md. Matiar Rahman, Mohammad Amirul Islam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33056

Background: Ficus racemosa, popularly known as the fig or cluster fig, is a traditional plant in the Moraceae family with various ethnomedical uses. However, the information of medicinal values of Bangladeshi grown Ficus racemosa fruit extracts using different solvent systems is still lacking in the literature. Therefore, the present study was carried out to enrich the information of the medicinal property of Ficus racemosa fruit extract in terms of hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antibacterial activity.

Methods: Methanol, ethanol, chloroform, n-hexane and petroleum ether solvents were used to obtain five different types of mature Ficus racemosa fruit extract by Soxhlet extraction process. Antibacterial activity of each extract was determined by disc diffusion method whereas ethanol extract was tested to evaluate its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity by using alloxan-induced diabetic mice model.

Results: At the end of 21 days of treatment, ethanol extract decreased the blood glucose level of diabetic mice by approximately 41% and 50% at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, whereas at the same doses total cholesterol levels were decreased by approximately 16% and 17%, LDL reduced by 28% and 29%, HDL increased by 41% and 67% compared to the diabetic control group. The levels of SGPT, SGOT and CRP were also significantly (P<0.05 to P<0.001) reduced by administration of same doses of ethanol extract. At a concentration of 600 µg/disc, strong antibacterial activity was displayed by methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether extract against most of the tested bacteria with the zone of inhibition of 13 to 17 mm.

Conclusion: The present study revealed strong anti-diabetic and antibacterial activity of the fig extract and therefore suggested that this fruit may play a potential role in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and various bacterial infections.