Open Access Case Study

Anesthesia Management in Rare Case: Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Arzu Karaveli, Nilgün Kavrut Oztürk, Ali Sait Kavaklı, Gül Cakmak, Asuman Aslan Onuk, Kerem Inanoğlu, Bilge Karsli

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/31703

Osteogenesis imperfecta is a rare genetic disorder and a collagen tissue disease for which preoperative preparation and intra-operative anesthesia management must be performed with great care on patients.

An operation was planned for a 5-year old female patient with Type I osteogenesis imperfecta due to a right femoral fracture. Her medical history showed that she had been operated due to a left femoral fracture 5 months ago under sevoflurane inhalation anesthesia without any complications. On her physical examination, she was observed to be a short child with growth deficiency, kyphoscoliosis, and bone and shape deformities on her extremities. Her modified Mallampati score was III and neck extension was limited. Preoperative echocardiography, complete blood cell count, coagulation profile, and biochemical values were found in normal limits. She was taken into the operation theatre and monitorized. Pressure points were supported by silicon peds. Vascular access could not be established at first because of her agitation, and then it was achieved after the patient’s anesthesia induction was performed with sevoflurane. Her neck was kept stable and laryngeal mask was placed in the mouth in the first intervention. Anesthesia was provided through 50% O2 + 50% air and 2% sevoflurane. At the end of the operation that took 90 min, the patient was extubated unevenBtfully, and taken to the recovery room.

Main anesthetic problems in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta are the difficulties in maintaining the airway management and malign hyperthermia. We used sevoflurane both at the induction and at the maintenance of anaesthesia due to the difficult vascular access of the patient, and we did not encounter any problems.

Inhalation anesthesia such as sevoflurane as well as TIVA could be used for the anesthesia for the patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Great care must be given because of difficult airway in such patients, and necessary precautions must be taken. Laryngeal mask airway could be preferred in order to secure the airway and avoid traumatic complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Piper guineense (Schumach) Leaf and Xylopia aethiopica Seed Extracts on Gastric Acid Secretion in Ibuprofen-Treated Wistar Rats

E. O. Agbai, C. J. Njoku, C. O. Nwanegwo, P. C. Onyebuagu, J. Ekezie, C. C. Eke, A. C. Arthur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/29150

Background: Gastric ulcer can develop from good foods especially spices and seasonings. Xylopia aethiopica and Piper guineense are comon spices used to prepare favourite delicacies nowadays. Due to their pepperish flavour, they could trigger gastric acid secretion by mucosal irritation. Therefore, the present work tested the effects of methanol extracts of Xylopia aethiopica seed and Piper guinneense on gastric acid secretion in ibuprofen treated wistar rats.

Methods: Rats were given oral administration of 180 mg/kg/day of ibuprofen and/or 200 mg/kg of methanol extract of Piper guineense leaf and/or 300 mg/kg of methanol extract of Xylopia aethiopica seed extract respectively for 14 days. Determination of gastric acid was evaluated with free and total acidity levels, and gastric volume using Topfer's method of gastric analysis.

Results: Gastric acid levels and volume were significantly reduced in Xylopia aethiopica plus ibuprofen treated groups C and F (P < 0.05) compared to ibuprofen only treated group B rats. Piper guineense plus ibuprofen potentiated gastric acid secretion in group D rats compared to group B at P < 0.05. However, Xylopia aethiopica weakly reduced gastric acid secretion in ibuprofen plus Piper guineense treated group E rats although not statistically significant (P > 0.05) compared to control. Group G rats administered only Piper guineense showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in gastric acid secretion compared to control.

Conclusion: Results showed that Xylopia aethiopica seed extract reduced gastric acid secretion whereas Piper guineense increased gastric acid secretio in ibuprofen treated rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity of Thuja orientalis Growing in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

Eman Ramadan Elsharkawy, Haya Aljohar, Abd El Raheim M. Donia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32387

Cancer is a life threatening diseases, caused by many factors including the oxidative stress.   Some medicinal plants are rich with volatile oil represent an important source of antioxidant and anticancer drugs. This study explored the compositions of the essential oils of the flowering aerial parts of Thuja orientalis (cupressaceae) and evaluated antioxidant and cytotoxic activity against different tumors cell lines. The compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation of the flowering aerial parts was determined by GC-MS analysis, the antioxidant activities of essential  were determined by DPPH radical scavenging method and, In-vtro cytotoxic activities were evaluated against different tumors cell lines, MCF7 (breast carcinoma cell line), PC3 (human prostate carcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma cell line), and Hep-G2 (liver carcinoma cell line), by the MTT method. The results showed that essential analyzed sample, very rich in Phellandrene, Terpenyl acetat, and β -Caryophyllene with high amounts. The results showed that essential oil extracted from Saudi plant exhibited higher antioxidant activity. Saudi oil extract also possess highest cytotoxic activities against MCF7, followed by, PC3 and, Hep-G2 while the least activity was recorded against lung carcinoma cell line. The highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Thuja plant growing in Saudi Arabia were correlated with its high content of some compounds which are rich in Saudi plant and absence in Egyptian plant. These findings revealed that plant in two regions could be considered as a great potential source for natural health products, where Saudi plant more adapted to drastic condition by accumulation of higher amount of essential oil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Activity of Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. Seeds Extracts Against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Albino Rats

Mohgana Ramasamy, Anbu Jeba Sunilson John Samuel, Anandarajagopal Kalusalingam, Krupavaram Bethala

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32457

Background: Macrotyloma uniflorum (Horse gram) seeds are used in Ayurvedic medicine for treating numerous health disorders including rheumatism, worm, conjunctivitis and piles. The seeds were boiled with water and used as a folklore medicine for treatment of jaundice in Andhra Pradesh, India.

Aim: The present study was aimed to find out the therapeutic potentials of M. uniflorum seeds extract against paracetamol- induced hepatotoxicity and also to scientifically prove its traditional claim.

Methodology: Hepatotoxicity was induced in wistar albino rats by the oral administration of paracetamol (400 mg/kg b.wt.) for 10 days. The ethanolic extract and water extract (400 mg/kg b.wt.) were orally administered to the respective group once daily for 10 days. Silymarin (20 mg/kg b.wt.) was used as standard. Biochemical parameters such as ASAT, ALAT, ALP, TP, albumin, globulin, total bilirubin and GGT were determined to assess the hepatoprotective effect.

Results: The oral administration of both ethanolic and water extracts significantly (P<0.001) restored the biochemical parameters in the hepatotoxicated rats which were well compared with standard drug silymarin. The hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract provides therapeutically better efficacy which was further supported by histopathological examination. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of phytoconstituents such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids and alkaloids which might be responsible for the hepatoprotective activity.

Conclusion: The scientific establishment of the M. uniflorum was traditionally claimed by folklore medicine was validated.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anticancer Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants from Oman

Sadri Abdullah Said, Yahya Tamimi, Md. Sohail Akhtar, Afaf Mohd Weli, Suleiman Said Al-Khanjari, Qassim Ahmed Al-Riyami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32459

This paper reports in vitro anticancer activity of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water extracts obtained from twelve (12) medicinal plants including Aloe dhufarensis, Calotropis procera, Juniperus servaschanica, Lawsonia inermis, Maytenus dhofarensis, Moringa peregrina, Polygala senensis, Punica granatum, Rhazya stricta, Solanum incanum, Teucrium mascatense and Zataria multiflora collected from Oman. Crude ethanol extracts prepared by maceration of plant materials in ethanol were Kupchan partitioned to give hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions.  Cytotoxicities of the prepared fractions were measured by Alamar blue assay against ovarian cancer cell line (MCAS) and breast cancer cell line (MDA MB231). Thirteen extracts from five plants C. procera, J. servaschanica, M. dhofarensis, S. incanum and T. mascatense were found active against MCAS; hexane extract from J. servaschanica was the most active followed by chloroform extract from leaves of S. incanum (IC50 = 8.50 and 10.90 µg/ml, respectively). Furthermore, nine extracts from these plants except C. procera inhibited the growth of MDA MB321; hexane extract from J. servaschanica was again the most active followed by butanol extract of S. incanum. (IC50 = 11.4 and 19.44 µg/ml, respectively). Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological information on flora growing in this intemperate, hot climate region could provide new chemical entities for development of new and more potent cancer chemotherapeutics.