Open Access Short Communication

Anti-Mycobacterium Metabolite from Marine Sponge Iricinia fusca

Srinu Meesala, Ruby Singh, Milind G. Watve

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32881

Chemical investigation of the marine sponge Ircinia fusca leads to isolation of a new pyrrole derivative (1) and two known compounds namely, 3 methyl decanoic acid (2) and Benzenedicarboxylic acid (3). The structures of compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. Compound 1 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis at MIC 116 μM. Compounds 1-3 showed neither antifungal nor cytotoxic activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacokinetic Characterization of Piperaquine in Nigerian Healthy Volunteers after Co-administration with a Commercial Brand of Moringa Tea

Alero Lydia Iseh, Adebanjo Jonathan Adegbola, Babatunde Ayodeji Adeagbo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32723

This 2-phase cross-over drug–herb interaction study investigated the effect of co-administration of tea prepared from the commercial product of Moringa oleifera on the pharmacokinetic parameters of piperaquine. Fourteen healthy subjects were recruited for this study, but ten subjects (age range, 22–30 years) completed the study. Blood samples were collected from the subjects at the Obafemi Awolowo University (Ile Ife, Nigeria) and the bio-analysis took place in the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Laboratory (TDM) of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile Ife, Nigeria, between January 2016 and October 2016. In the first phase of the study, each of the subjects received three tablets of Dihydroartemisin- Piperaquine (DHA/PQ) combination (artelad® containing DHA/PQP, 40/320 mg). After a washout period of three months, each of the subjects received 25g freshly prepared Moringa tea twice daily for 5 days and on the sixth day, received Moringa tea concurrently with three tablets of DHA/PQ combination. The plasma concentrations of PQ were determined using a validated HPLC method. The results showed a 23.8% significant decrease (P=0. 01) in the Cmax of PQ and a 5.8% decrease in the AUC after co-administration with Moringa Tea. The Tmax also increased by 61%, while the half-life increased by 12.2%. There was no difference in the clearance and C28. The geometric mean ratio showed that there is no significant difference in the disposition of PQ with Moringa Tea. The study showed wide variability in PQ pharmacokinetics following a single oral dose. The effects of concurrent administration of Moringa oleifera tea did not significantly influence the PQ plasma exposure but delayed its absorption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of UV-Spectrophoto-metric Method for Determination of Palladium Content in Rasagiline Mesylate

Sayyed Hussain, Amit Gosar, Tabrez Shaikh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32254

A simple, precise, linear, accurate and robust spectrophotometric method was developed for the estimation of palladium content in Rasagiline Mesylate. The proposed  method  is based on complex formation of palladium with α-nitroso-β-napthol in alkaline medium and extraction with toluene and estimation. The spectrum shows maximum absorption at 425 nm. The method is validated as per on  International council for harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The absorbance-concentration plot is linear over the concentration range of 3.08 to15.38 ppm with limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 ppm and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.17 ppm. The recovery of Palladium in Rasagiline Mesylate obtained was between 95 to 105 %. The proposed method can be applied for the determination of palladium content in Rasagiline Mesylate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Psidium guajava Linn. (Guava) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

P. C. Ofoha, R. I. Nimenibo-Uadia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/31987

Effect of water – soluble components of ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava Linn. on blood glucose and cholesterol levels in alloxan-induced diabetic male albino wistar rats was evaluated. A total of 30 male albino wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups. Ten (10) animals each were randomly assigned to groups 1 and 2 and 5 each for groups 3 and 4. Group 1 animals were induced with 150 mg of alloxan/kg body weight of animal, after which they were administered 400 mg of extracts/kg body weight of animal. Group 2 animals serving as diabetic control were administered only 150 mg of alloxan/kg body weight of animal, no extract was given. Group 3 animals received only 400 mg of extract/kg body weight of animal while Group 4 animals served as normal control and were given distilled water in place of the extract. Extracts were administered twice daily and treatments lasted for 10 consecutive days.  Blood samples were collected for analysis every two days from the tail tips of the rats. Results obtained showed that there were significant (p < 0.05) reductions in blood glucose and cholesterol levels in the diabetic treated rats (Group 1) when compared with the diabetic control rats (Group 2). However, administration of the extract did not show any hypoglycaemic effect on the normal rats (p ˃ 0.05) compared with the control. The results suggest that leaf extract of P. guajava Linn. is antihyperglycaemic and not hypoglycaemic. In view of the fact that it also showed significant antihypercholesterolaemia, P. guajava Linn. may be a potential antidiabetic agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

AAS and GC-MS Analysis of Phytocomponents in the Leaf, Stem and Root of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Dongoyaro)

Momoh Johnson Oshiobugie, Adeniyi Michael Olaniyi, Aderele Oluwaseun Raphael

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/30611

Objective: To determine the mineral component using AAS and screen for the presence of bioactive phytoconstituents in hexane extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaf, stem and root using the GC-MS technique.

Methods: Mineral analysis was carried out using AAS. The leaf, stem and root hexane extracts of A. indica were prepared by standard procedure and concentrated at 40ºC using hot air oven. The concentrated hexane extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis using GC-MS.

Results: The result of mineral analysis shows that Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaf, stem and root contain potassium, iron, copper, calcium, magnesium and sodium. The GC-MS analysis of the neem leaf, stem and root extract revealed the existence of the GC-MS chromatogram of twenty three peaks present. Ten chemical constituents were identified in the leaf of A. indica, six were found in the stem while seven were identified in the root of the plant by Gas Chromatogram Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis.

Conclusion: The result of the analysis showed that the plant contains important minerals and many pharmacologically important bioactive compounds. The presence of various bioactive compounds justifies the uses of Neem for various traditional medicines.