Open Access Minireview Article

Potential for a Beneficial Effect of Theophylline on Extended Acute Inflammation: Review

S. C. Allen, G. T. C. Wong, M. Vassallo, J. S. K. Kwan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/31788

Inflammation is often prolonged after sepsis, trauma and other acute pro-inflammatory events, particularly above the age of 80 years. Exposure to inflammation of inappropriate amplitude or duration is associated with a higher risk of delirium, anorexia, lethargy, low mood, weakness and other markers of frailty, and with less favourable clinical outcomes. Theophylline has been shown in vitro and in vivo to have an anti-inflammatory effect, probably mediated through induction of histone deacetylase-dependent gene switching in immune competent cells. This is mainly characterized by a reduction in the production and release of TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, a consequent fall in CRP and increase in IL-10, and a shift of immune cell phenotypes to the anti-inflammatory mode. This effect occurs at theophylline concentrations in the 5-10 mg/L range, which is below the broncho-dilator range (10-15 mg/L) and carries a relatively low risk of toxicity. We hypothesize that low-dose theophylline treatment given to elderly subjects with acute inflammation, for example due to pneumonia, septicaemia or trauma, will alter the balance of their inflammatory status from an inappropriately extended pro-inflammatory pattern toward a more normalized baseline pattern and thereby reduce the risk of adverse clinical outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Sodium Borohydride Reduction Method: Optimization of Conditions for High Anti-staphylococcal Activity

Ifeanyi T. Nzekwe, Chukwuma O. Agubata, Chukwuebuka E. Umeyor, Ifeanyi E. Okoye, Chidalu B. Ogwueleka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/30324

Aim: The aim of this research was to optimize the reaction conditions for the production of silver nanoparticles sufficiently bioactive for incorporation into pharmaceutical gels.

Methods: Silver nanoparticles were prepared by silver nitrate-sodium borohydride reduction method under different stoichiometric conditions and differences in their spectral properties were investigated while bioactivities were studied against different bacterial species. The most bioactive sample was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy, and the influences of varying reaction conditions (pH, solvent type and solvent temperature) were investigated using the stoichiometric ratio with best bioactivity.

Results: The 25: 25 batch (sodium borohydride and silver nitrate in equal volume ratio) demonstrated the highest bioactivity which was significantly different (P = 0.05) from others. Physicochemical characterization revealed a hydrodynamic size of 17.46 d.nm (pdi 0.62) and a peak resonance mode at 450 nm. Bioactivity was highest at neutral pH conditions of reaction and improved with precursor solvent temperature, up to 45°C. Whereas the control sample of ciprofloxacin demonstrated no activity against Staphylococcus aureus, silver nanoparticles in methanol exhibited very good activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

Conclusion: It is hereby concluded that reaction conditions can affect the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles, possibly by influencing the size and yield of silver nanoparticles using the silver nitrate-sodium borohydride reduction method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fipronil Induced Hepatotoxicity, Genotoxicity, Oxidative Stress and the Possible Ameliorative Effect of Ginseng

Mohammad S. Al-Harbi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23660

Fipronil (FPN) is a wide-spectrum insecticide and has been extensively used in agriculture since 1990s. The current study was deliberated to inspect the retrograde effects of exposure to the FPN on the hepatic tissues of male rats at concentration 10 mg/L in drinking water for 30 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferases (AST), alanine aminotransferases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and tumor necrosis factor –α (TNF-α) were significantly increased in FPN-treated rats. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reduced (GSH) were significantly decreased, while malondialdehyde level (MDA) was significantly increased in treating rats in a concentration dependent manner. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that FPN elicited lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and liver  injury in rats and ginseng has protective effect against lipid peroxidation induced by FPN as ginseng lowers the level of MDA and increased levels of SOD and CAT and also ginseng improved the immunological capacities by diminishing the level of TNF-α. These pathophysiological changes in liver tissues could be due to the toxic effect of FPN that related to a production of free radicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Ethanol Extract of the Stem Bark Dichaetanthera africana (Hooker F.) Jacq. Felix. (Melastomataceae)

Aristide Laurel Mokale Kognou, Rajesh Singh Pawar, Rosalie Annie Ngono Ngane, Pradeep Pateriya, Prem Narayan Pal, Alembert Tiabou Tchinda, Gabriel Agbor Agbor, Rebecca Madeleine Ebelle Etame, Raymond Simplice Mouokeu, Albert Sone Mouelle, Cecile Enguehard Gueiffier

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/31468

Aims: This study was designed to elucidate the antioxidant, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Dichaetanthera africana.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, VNS Group of Institutions, Bhopal, India, between September 2014 and November 2014.

Methodology: Antioxidant activities were determined in vitro by the total phenolic, total flavonoid, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and ABTS methods. Analgesic and antipyretic activities were investigated using the acetic acid induced writhing and brewer’s yeast induced hyperpyrexia assays respectively.

Results: Ethanol extract had high phenolic (4.15-44.35 mgCA/g) and flavonoid (85.56-596.7 mgCA/g) contents and FRAP (187.87-371.41 mgCA/g). This extract exhibited strong DPPH (IC50 = 0.49 µg/ml), H2O2(IC50 = 1.62 µg/ml) and ABTS (IC50= 0.43 µg/ml) radical scavenging activities. Significant reduction of abdominal writhing (P< 0.001) and fever (P< 0.001) were observed in rats in a dose dependent manner after administration of the ethanol extract with the most effective dose being 400 mg/kg b.w.

Conclusion: These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of Dichaetanthera africana in the treatment of pain and fever.

Open Access Original Research Article

Slow-Stroke Back Massage Intervention for Relieving Postpartum Fatigue in Primiparous Mothers after a Natural Delivery: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Zabol

Zahra Moradi, Amin Aliabadi, Ali Rahdari, Firoozeh Firoozkoohi Moghaddam, Faeze Sanchooli, Niloofar Heydari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/31509

Introduction: Fatigue is one of the most prevalent phenomenon reported by post-partum mothers and have various effects on their physical, emotional and cognitive aspects. Back massage relaxation techniques are one of the most important non-pharmacological interventions    to prevent and control postpartum-related fatigue. This study aims to evaluate the relieving effect   of slow stroke back massage on post-partum fatigue in primiparous mothers after a natural delivery.

Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical interaction was consist of a convenience sample of 100 primiparous mothers who had a normal, spontaneous vaginal delivery, selected by census method and randomly divided into two groups, control (50) and intervention (50). The data collecting tool was included Individual demography and fatigue severity questionnaire. After completing questionnaires by the units, slow stroke back massage was performed for 6 sessions. And after the end of the sixth session, fatigue severity of intervention group patients and control group were measured again Data were analyzed using Independent t-Test, Chi-squared test, Fisher exact test, two-way ANOVA with repeated measures and Bonferroni test.

Results: The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of fatigue severity were48.25±7.46 in control group, (before the intervention) and 51.15±9/61 in intervention group, that shows there is no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0/001). After performing the massage process, the fatigue severity mean was 47.25±8.32 in the control group and 40.32±13.98 in the interaction group and the difference was statistically significant (P <0/ 000).

Conclusion: According to results slow stroke back massage is an effective nursing and midwifery intervention to relieve postpartum fatigue in primiparous mothers after a natural delivery. The results of this study can be used in decision-making and planning for this group as well.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Hypolipidemic Activity of Allium schoenoprasum in Albino Rats

Aamir Mushtaq, Shazma Farhat Naqvi, Rukhsana Anwar, Mehwish Jamil, Habib Anwar, Asifa Bashir, Qurat-ul-Ain ., Baderqa tul Ayesha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/31804

Aim of Study: This study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic action of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Allium schoenoprasum in albino rats.

Methodology: 500 g of dried leaves powder was initially soaked in 3 L of 99.9% ethanol for three days and after filtration residues was soaked in 2 L distilled water for further three days. Both filtrates were subjected to rotary evaporator to get semi solid pastes. Rats were divided in five groups with six animals in each group. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of Triton X-100 (100 mg/kg/ip). After 72 hours, normal group was given normal saline while hyperlipidemic protocols were given to other groups. 200 mg/kg/p.o dose of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were administered to the experimental groups while Atorvastatin 10 mg/kg/p.o was given to standard control groups for 7 days. At 8th day blood sample was collected and serum samples were analyzed for biochemical parameters i.e. total serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level.

Results: %age yield of ethnolic extract was 17% and for aqueous extract it was 9%. 113±3.3, 105±5.7, 29±1.3, 102±2.0 and 27±1.1 mg/dl were level of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL respectively, observed in ethanolic extract treated rats while aqueous extract treated rats showed 111±2.0, 103± 2.2, 24±0.88, 102±1.1 and 27±0.95 mg/dl, respectively which were significantly (P < .001) different from disease controlled group. Results indicate significant reduction in the levels of total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL while level of HDL was significantly elevated in the experimental control groups.

Conclusion: All investigations indicated that Allium schoenoprasum dried leave extracts have potential to cause hypolipidemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Toxicity, Phytochemistry and Anti-diarrheal Effects of Celtis integrifolia Lam. Aqueous Leaf Extract in Wistar Albino Rats

M. B. Mahre, B. Umaru, N. A. Ojo, A. S. Saidu, D. Yahi, R. M. Ibrahim, P. P. Mshelbwala

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/31222

Celtis integrifolia Lam. plants also known as hackberries or nettle trees are widely spread in warm temperate region of African, Latin America and Asia. The aqueous leaf extract of Celtis integrifolia was obtained by soxhlet extraction using distilled water as a solvent. The aqueous leaf extract was then evaluated for its acute toxicity, phytochemical compounds and anti-diarrheal potential using standard protocol. The results showed that the LD50 of aqueous leaf extract of Celtis integrifolia was greater than 3000 mg/kg following up and down procedure, an indication of low toxicity. The phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract indicates the presence of saponins, reducing sugar, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrate and cardiac glycoside. The leave extract significantly (p<0.01) reduced the number of unformed faeces in castor oil induced diarrhea in rats. It also significantly (p<0.01; 0.001) reduced the gastrointestinal transit of activated charcoal. Therefore, the aqueous leaf extract of Celtis integrifolia is relatively safe and possesses an anti-diarrheal activity.