Open Access Original Research Article

Antiangiogenesis and Anticancer Activity of Leaf and Leaf Callus Extracts from Baccharoides anthelmintica (L.) Moench (Asteraceae)

V. Chinnadurai, K. Kalimuthu, R. Prabakaran, Y. Sharmila Juliet

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/28758

Baccharoides anthelmintica (L.) Moench. is an annual herb distributed throughout India, this plant has high trade value because of its many medicinal properties such as inflammatory swelling, stomachache, diuretic properties, cough, fever, diuretic, leprosy, piles, dropsy, enzyme, ringworm herpes, elephantiasis, incontinence of urine, stomach ache and rheumatism, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-cancer. Antiangiogenic activity of ethanol leaf and leaf callus extracts was tested through in vivo CAM (Chorioallantoic membrane) model. Both leaf and leaf derived callus showed higher angiogenic activity 79.33 and 66.0 percentage respectively at 40 µg/mL concentration. The average number of vessels in leaf and leaf derived callus extracts treated CAM was 2 and 3 respectively. Inhibition percentage and vessel number of both the extracts was almost equal in both the concentrations. The cytotoxicity of leaf and leaf derived callus was tested using the MTT assay (HeLa cell line). At a concentration of 300 mg/mL, both the tested samples produced cytotoxic effect as evidenced by the number of dead cells (24.3%, 16.34% respectively).

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxicity and Anti - Herpes Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants Cited for Management of HIV Conditions in Kakamega County – Kenya

Antony Omondi Radol, Michael Kiptoo, A. O. Makokha, Festus M. Tolo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/29317

Aim: To determine safety and anti-herpes activity of selected medicinal plants cited by Community Health Workers in Mukhwa sub-location, Bukaya location in Kakamega County, Kenya.

Study Design: Ethno-medical interview for selection of medicinal plants and In-vitro experiment for determination of safety and anti-herpes activity.

Methodology: Eight medicinal plants were selected for safety and determination of anti-herpes activity of water extracts using Vero cell and Human herpes Virus type 1. The metabolism of 3 – (4, 5-Dimethylthiazole -2-y) -2, 5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT) was used for cytotoxicity and different levels of extract antiviral experiments. End point titration technique (EPTT) was used for virus quantification and antiviral screening test.

Place and Duration of the Study: Plant samples were collected in September 2013 in Mukhwa sub-location, the processing and biological experiments were carried out between March 2014 and October 2015 at the center of traditional medicine and drug research of Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi.

Results: Safety profile: Tithonia diversifolia (Whole root) gave maximum nontoxic extract concentration (MNC) at 20 µg/mL, extract concentration killing 50% of cells (CC50) was 460 µg/mL. Schkuhria pinnata (Leaves); MNC ˂20 µg/mL, CC50 90 µg/mL. Entada abyssinica (Stem bark); MNC 20 µg/mL, CC50 > 500 µg/mL. Garcinia buchanii (Stem bark); MNC 40 µg/mL, CC50  >500 µg/mL. Croton macrostachyus (Stem bark); MNC 40 µg/mL, CC50 >500 µg/mL. Vernonia adoensis (Whole root); MNC 20 µg/mL, CC50 470 µg/mL. Plumeria alba (Leaves); MNC ˂20 µg/mL, CC50 120 µg/mL. Caesalpinia decapetala (Whole root); MNC 20 µg/mL, CC50 500 µg/mL. Anti-herpes activity: The best anti-herpes activity was obtained from G. buchanii (Stem bark), giving an extract concentration inhibiting 50% of virus activity (IC50) at 20 µg/mL) and C. decapetala (Whole root) giving IC50 at 80 µg/mL. Therapeutic index of G. buchanii was ˃ 25 and that of C. decapetala was ˃ 6.

Conclusion: Majority of the medicinal plants selected for anti-herpes activity have narrow none-toxic limits. Of all the selected medicinal plants, G. buchananii and C. decapetala are the most promising for selective anti-herpes activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Post Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation Maintenance for Multiple Myeloma Patients: Real World Experience and Results

Michael Byrne, Yunfeng Dai, Jayan Nair, Myron Chang, Jan S. Moreb

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/27969

Maintenance therapy is routinely prescribed for multiple myeloma (MM) patients after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated 257 post-ASCT MM patients and compared the effect of various maintenance therapies used in our institution. These include cyclophosphamide (Cy), interferon alpha ± steroids (IST), immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) and proteasome inhibitors. Comparisons between maintenance groups in the first (post-ASCT) and second line (post-salvage) setting demonstrate no significant differences in progression free survival (PFS) with the exception of IMiDs. These agents, when utilized in the first line maintenance setting, resulted in superior PFS and OS compared to IST (p= 0.0031 and 0.029, respectively) and no maintenance therapy (p= 0.009 and 0.035, respectively). Surprisingly, in the second line maintenance therapy Cy use was associated with a trend favoring improved PFS compared to IMiDs, IFN ± steroids (IST) and bortezomib (Bor) maintenance. Overall survival comparisons demonstrate equivalence between Cy and IST or Bor maintenance groups. Our study confirms advantage of IMiDs as post ASCT maintenance, while the data show that Cy maintenance can be a good alternative in patients who are intolerant or cannot afford IMiDs maintenance, both in first and second line maintenance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plasma Insulin and Working Dynamics of Calcium Channel Blockers on Thyroid Hormone Impaired Glucose Metabolism

Ezekiel E. Ben, Itemobong S. Ekaidem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/28256

The use of calcium channel blocker as supplementary in thyroid hormone treatment had been strongly proposed but gradually became unpopular after observations that clinical outcomes for angina, or myocardial infarct were not improved by the use of these agents. This study therefore examined the influence of calcium channel blockers on thyroid hormone impaired glucose metabolism. Twenty (20) male albino Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n= 5 per group). Two groups were respectively pre-treated with verapamil (20 mg/Kg body weight) or nifedipine (20 mg/Kg body weight) 20 mins before oral administration of L- Thyroxine (L-T4) 20 ug/kg body weight twice daily for six (6) days. One group received only L- Thyroxine (L-T4) 20 ug/kg body weight twice daily for six (6) days while the control group received no drug. Glucose concentrations were measured in blood obtained from the tip of tail with one- Touch Basic glucometer on 1st, 4th and 7th days and fasting plasma insulin was measured on the 7th day using ELISA. The results showed raised plasma glucose levels on days 4 that were not significantly different from those of day 1 in all the groups. However, plasma glucose concentrations on day 7 in groups treated with L-T4 and after verapamil or nifedipine pre-treatment were significantly higher than those on day 1 and also significantly higher than those of the control group on day 7. Highest concentration of plasma glucose was observed in the nifedipine pre-treatment group on day 7. Plasma insulin level was not significantly changed. Insulin resistance indices for the levothyroxine group were not significantly higher (p>0.05) than that of the control. However, HOMA- IR values were significantly higher and the QUICKI values lower when levothyroxine was administered to calcium channel blockers pre-treated animals. This suggests that the thyroid hormone induced hyperglycemia was neither due to alterations in insulin concentrations by thyroxine nor can be ameliorated by the blockage of the opening of the L-voltage gated calcium channels but may be associated with increased insulin resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Prospective Study for “Developing School Based Model for Mainstreaming Rational Use of Medicine”

Yashashri C. Shetty, Nirmala N. Rege, Amol E. Patil, R. R. Shinde, Seema S. Bansode-Gokhe, Paresh Koli, Smita Brahma, Indira Shukla

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/29470

Background and Objectives: For mainstreaming rational use of medicines (RUM), consumer education is a must. It was felt that a school based model, developed to empower teachers regarding RUM using a modular programme, can generate advocates to influence students as well as parents. The present study was undertaken to assess the baseline knowledge of school teachers about RUM and for pilot testing of some of the modules.  

Place and Duration of Study: Gokhale College of Education & Research, Parel, Mumbai and Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College & King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai. From March 2013 to December 2013.

Materials and Methods: After obtaining IEC approval and informed consent, 96 final year B.Ed teachers were administered a validated questionnaire having total 60 questions, based on the information to be given to a doctor, sought from a doctor and enquiries to be made while purchasing medicines. Questions related to the attitude and behaviour like self prescribing, antibiotics use, treatment for common diseases like cold, cough and diarrhoea, and use of multivitamins were also included. Participants were then given the above-information using powerpoint presentation, followed by group discussions and personal medicine inventory assessment. Post-test was conducted and the data was analysed using Wilcoxon matched pairs test. 

Results: 70/96 participants filled the personal inventory assessment proforma. Of these 63 carried drugs with them, crocin being the commonest. Of these, only 25 participants had knowledge of drug name in the brand they were using. The basal knowledge scores of 64±13.15 showed significant improvement to 74.78±11.66 post-workshop (p<0.05). This was mainly in areas like history giving of chronic disease/family disease (25%), pregnancy, contraception and habits (21%) and information to be sought about side effects and lifestyle modifications (20%). Awareness about rational injection use (31%) and treatment of diarrhoea and cough (15%) was also increased. The modules were well accepted. Desire for repeated training sessions was expressed by the participants.  

Conclusion: Knowledge of school teachers regarding appropriate use of medicines was insufficient but they were receptive towards training.

Open Access Original Research Article

Depression, Anxiety and Quality of Life among Chronic Low Back-leg Pain Patients with or without Neuropathic Pain

Özlem Uzun, Filiz Sivas Acar, Bedriye Başkan, Hatice Bodur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/28762

Aims: To investigate depression, anxiety and quality of life among chronic low back-leg pain patients with or without neuropathic pain.

Place and Duration of Study: Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Polyclinic, between October 2012 and June 2013.

Methodology: One hundred and one patients with chronic low back and leg pain were enrolled in the study. This study is a cross-sectional study. The severity of low back and leg pain was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS). The DN4 (Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions) and LANSS (Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs) scales were used in order to evaluate the neuropathic pain. Existence of depression was evaluated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and anxiety was assessed by Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). The quality of life was questioned by Short Form-36 (SF-36).

Results: Neuropathic pain was detected in 65.3% by DN4 and 40.6% by LANSS among all patients. According to HAM-D results, 22.7% of the patients had depression and according to HAM-A results, 8.9% of the patients had anxiety. While frequency of depression was statistically significantly higher in patients with neuropathic pain according to LANSS (p<0,05), the frequency of anxiety was similar between groups. Although depression and anxiety was more common among patients with neuropathic pain according to DN4, there was no statistically significant difference between chronic low back-leg pain patients with or without neuropathic pain. The median SF-36 mental score was significantly lower in patients with NP according to LANSS (p<0.05). Although the median SF-36 scores (mental, physical) were higher in patients with NP according to DN4, there was no significant difference between groups (respectively p>0.05, p>0.05).

Conclusion: Patients with chronic low back and leg pain should also be questioned in terms of neuropathic symtoms and the conservative treatment should be arranged in this direction. Thus concomitant depression and anxiety would decrease, and the quality of life would increase.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Genotoxic Effect of Arsenical Compounds in HepG2 Liver Cells

Ghazalla Benhusein, Elaine Mutch, Jamal Almezogi, Faith Williams

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/28796

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxic effect in HepG2 cells of the four arsenic compounds by measuring DNA damage, depletion of cellular glutathione (GSH) as a measure of oxidative stress as well as antioxidant agent and apoptotic and necrotic events.

Study Design: Arsenic is an environmental chemical of toxicological concern today since it has been shown to be a human genotoxin and carcinogen. This project investigated four forms of inorganic arsenic: arsenate (As+5), sodium arsenite (As+3), arsenic trioxide (As2O3) and dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA+5); a major metabolite of arsenate.

Methodology: HepG2 cells (1.5x105/ml) treated with the four arsenics (10 µM) for 24hr. Harvested cells were analysed for GSH concentration by reverse phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. Cells were investigated for DNA damage using the Comet assay. Cells were analysed by flow cytometry to detect apoptosis and necrosis, all running in parallel.

Results: The DNA damage for cells dosed with DMA or As2O3 was not significantly different from control. However, significant DNA damage was seen for cells treated with arsenite and arsenate (p<0.001, p<0.05 respectively). Reduced glutathione was increased by arsenic compounds compared to control. However, this was only statistically significant for arsenite (p<0.001) and arsenate (p<0.05). Whereas, results not indicated apoptosis and necrosis in viable adherent cells although this was not statistically different.

Conclusions: All four arsenicals appeared to increase GSH content and DNA damage compared to control especially both arsenite and arsenate significantly are different. Further experiments are required to assess the mechanism(s) of genotoxicity of the arsenicals in GSH depletion.