Open Access Short Research Article

The Comparative Effect of Medicinal Herb Feverfew with that of a Synthetic Parthenolide to Assess the Expression of Inducible Cyclo-oxygenase and Anti-inflammatory Activity

S. Pooja, D. Prashanth Shetty, N. Suchetha Kumari, K. P. Sharmila, Krishna Bhat

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/27907

Aims: This paper describes the expression of inducible cyclooxygenase and anti-inflammatory of medicinal herb feverfew with a synthetic parthenolide.

Study Design: In vivo model to study the expression of inducible cyclooxygenase and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract of T. parthenium and synthetic compound parthenolide.

Place and Duration of Study: Central Research Laboratory, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy, Derlakatte, Mangalore, Karnataka, India between August 2015 and November 2015.

Methodology: The inhibitory effect of COX-1 and COX -2 were assessed in the serum of mice with the treated groups of aqueous and ethanolic extract of T. parthenium (100 mg/kg) and synthetic compound  parthenoilde (4 mg/kg) using Cayman’s COX activity assay kit.

The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by Ethyl phenylpropiolate induced ear edema and carrageenan induced hind paw edema.

Results: The ability of the aqueous and ethanolic extract of T. parthenium (100 mg/kg) and synthetic compound parthenoilde (4 mg/kg) to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) was significant when compared to control. T. parthenium leaf extracts and synthetic compound reduced the Ethyl phenylpropiolate induced ear edema and carrageenan induced hind paw edema respectively.

Conclusion: The result indicates that the inhibitory effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of T. parthenium and synthetic compound parthenoilde anti-inflammatory activity by Carrageenan induced paw edema and Ethyl phenylpropiolate induced ear edema reduced the inflammation demonstrated through the reduction of vascular permeability may be due to the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase leading to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Hence the study suggests that selected plants can be considered as a resource for searching novel anti-inflammatory agents possessing COX-2 inhibition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa Polyphenolic Rich Extract (HPE) by Chromatography Techniques

Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Adewale Adetutu, Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26955

The study was designed to determine the phenolic constituents of Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic rich extract (HPE), (a group of phenolic compounds occurring in the dried calyx of the red variety of Hibiscus sabdariffa). While colorimetric analysis revealed that HPE contain high level of total phenolic content (97.9±1.31 mg/g in GAE/g dried weight) combination of results obtained through several chromatographic analyses indicates that phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, naringenin, rutin and quercetin may be present in HPE. These phenolic compounds identified in HPE are known for possessing one pharmacological properties or the other, therefore the presence of these antioxidants phenolic compounds in HPE along with several other phenolics not identified in this study would explain the medicinal principle behind the ethnomedical practices associated with H. sabdariffa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Study, Chemicalphysical Analysis and Toxicological Testing of Stem Bark of Dalbergia monetaria L. f.

Ester Lopes de Melo, Ryan da Silva Ramos, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva de Almeid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/20204

Aims: Assessing the phytochemical profile, physicochemical and toxicity of crude ethanolic extract of Dalbergia monetaria L. f. against Artemia salina L.

Study Design: The study aimed to determine the major classes of secondary metabolites of plant species Dalbergia monetaria through technical and classical methodologies.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry of Pharmacy Course, between July 2012 and March 2013.

Methodology: The phytochemical screening of the crude ethanolic extract from the stem bark was performed according to the methodology described by Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (2010). The physicochemical analyses were performed by the Institute Aldolf Lutz (2008) and methods found in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The toxicology test followed the method decribed in the literature.

Results: The phytochemical analysis detected reducing sugars, saponin, phenols and tannins. The physicochemical parameters, the pH, indicated the presence of a potentially acidic substance; the moisture content of = 6.81% which relates to, showed little amount of water present, an indispensable factor for non-occurrence of microorganism development or enzymatic degradation. The ash obtained by incineration was 5.65%.

Conclusion: The phytochemical analysis confirmed, in part, the use of the plant species for therapeutic purposes, but the form of treatment and conditioning can influence the determination of secondary metabolites. The physicochemical parameters evaluated have shown that the species is free from decomposing agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of the Fruits of Ficus palmata

Subhash Chandra, Sarla Saklani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25727

Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the possible in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of fruits of Ficus palmata.

Place and Duration of the Study: In vivo studies were carried out in the Animal House of the S.B.S Ballawala Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, between December 2014 and March 2015).

Study Design: Three different doses of methanolic extract were tested in this study regarding their anti-inflammatory activity.

Methodology: In vivo studies of anti-inflammatory effects of feeding adult albino rats under investigation with three different doses (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg-1) of methanolic extract were carried out after 24 hours of inducing inflammation by injecting investigated animals with carrageen.

Results: The results of anti inflammatory activity study showed that the fruit extracts at doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/mL inhibited carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. The percent inhibition of writhing response by the extract was 28.57, 56.08 and 58.73 respectively, after 4 h of Carrageenan induction.

Conclusion: In the present work a potent anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of the fruits of Ficus palmata were demonstrated, validating the ethno pharmacological claims. These experimental findings would further establish the scientific basis of the traditional uses of the plant in the management of inflammatory conditions as well as control of pain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effect of Crocus sativus on Amiodarone-Induced Liver Toxicity

Humayun Riaz, Noviara Saleem, Mobasher Ahmad, Yasir Mehmood, Syed Atif Raza, Sabahat Khan, Rukhsana Anwar, Sairah Hafeez Kamran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/27219

Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Crocus sativus in amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits.

Methods: Study was divided into 2 major groups; acute group and prophylactic group and randomized control trial was used. Acute group was further divided into five sub groups (n=5) i.e. control group (group I), amiodarone group (group II), saffron group (group III), amiodarone + aqueous saffron group (group IV), and amiodarone + ethanolic saffron group (group V). Hepatotoxicity was induced by intraperitoneal administration of 200 mg/kg amiodarone solution thrice a day in group II, IV and V. Aqueous extract of saffron (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once a day in group III and group IV. Ethanolic extract of saffron (100 mg/kg) was given to group V. However saffron extracts were administered half hour before the amiodarone first dose in both the groups. Aqueous extract of saffron (100 mg/kg) was given to rabbits for seven days as prophylactic therapy and then 200 mg/kg amiodarone solution was injected thrice a day in order to observe the hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus. After the experimental period, blood samples were collected for the evaluation of biochemical parameters. Histopathological examination was performed also.

Results: Study showed that both aqueous and ethanloic extract of Crocus sativus significantly decreased serum ALT and AST enzyme activities and significant results were obtained when compared to the amiodarone group.

Conclusion: Based on the results it was concluded that addition of Crocus sativus to the treatment protocol of patients maintained on amiodarone for long time period can be recommended to prevent the liver injury.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Studies of Ocimum sanctum and Olax subscorpioidea Leaf Extracts

Ngwu Nnagozie Wisdom, Effa Emmanuel Bassey, Ftepti Benson Jelani, Gali Adamu Ishaku, Useh Mercy Uwem, Samuel Chigozie Joseph

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/27804

The leaves of Ocimum sanctum and Olax subscorpioidea are known in Nigerian traditional medical practices for the treatment of different ailments according to folklore. This study was undertaken to compare and appraise the phytochemical constituents from ethanol extracts, antimicrobial resistance, proximate and mineral analysis. Data obtained revealed that alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, steroids, tannins and terpenoids were detected in the Ocimum sanctum leaf samples whereas, flavanoids, phenol, steriods, saponins, tannins and terpenoids appeared in the Olax subscorpioidea ethanol extracts. Resistance to a selected range of infectious disease pathogens, using chloramphenicol (0.2 mg/mL) and fluconazole (0.5 mg/mL) as controls revealed that the leaf extract of O. subscorpioidea exhibited higher activity with zone of inhibition values of 18±0.50, 20±0.50, 15±2.00, 16±0.50, 18±0.50, 19±1.50 and 22±0.50 mm whereas that of O. sanctum was 15±1.0, 19±1.40, 15±1.20, 22±1.30, 15±1.10, 16±0.90, 16±1.10 mm. The proximate and mineral analysis of both leaves revealed that Olax subscorpioidea contain crude protein (10.15%), crude fiber (10.20%), moisture (5.70%), total ash (15.40%), total carbohydrate (58.55%), while that of Ocimum sanctum was crude protein (2.38%), crude fiber (11.45%), moisture (6.20%), total ash (10.42%), total carbohydrate (66.35%). The leaves indicated the presence of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), magnesium and copper at different concentrations. The results obtained suggested that the leaves of both studied plant possess anti-microbial activities with the major activity tailored to the phyto-constituents from the ethanol extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validation of Titrimetric-UV Spectrophotometric Method for the Simultaneous Quantification of Paracetamol, Caffeine and Ibuprofen in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

Charles Ayensu Okai, Emmanuel Orman, Anthony Agyenim – Boateng

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/27108

Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, accurate and precise Titrimetric - UV spectrophotometric method for the assay of fixed dose combination formulations involving Paracetamol, Caffeine and Ibuprofen.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Quality Control Department of SALOM Pharmacy Limited between June, 2015 and January, 2016.

Methodology: The method employed an extraction of Ibuprofen from a fixed dose combination product using petroleum ether (40 – 60°C) and its evaporation followed by titration. The remaining solution was basified with 1 M NaOH and Caffeine extracted with chloroform. The extract was then evaporated and the Caffeine assayed at 273 nm. Finally, the resulting solution was diluted with distilled water and Paracetamol assayed at 257 nm. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation specifications [Q2 (R1)].

Results: Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 3.75 - 9 μg/ml and 4.5 - 10.8 μg/ml for Paracetamol and Caffeine respectively and a titre value range of 4.80 - 11.70 ml for Ibuprofen.

Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the method is accurate, precise, specific, and robust, hence can be suitably applied for simultaneous quantification of Paracetamol, Caffeine and Ibuprofen in laboratory prepared mixtures and in commercial preparation (capsules, caplets and tablets).