Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of the Analgesic Effects of Nigella sativa Ethanolic Extracts on Experimentally Induced Pain in Albino Mice

Tahani Ibrahim, Beashair AL-Rashidi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24041

Background: Analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug abuse has become a major problem in the world due to over-the counter sale of such drugs and these are causing not only gastritis, gastric ulcers, gastro-intestinal tract bleeding and renal damage, but a number of other problems too. Research on such medicinal plants and natural products like Nigella sativa may provide basis for invention of some safe, cheap and effective treatment against pain in.

Objectives:

Evaluation of the analgesic effects of Nigella sativa ethanolic extract.
Assessment of synergistic effects of Nigella sativa ethanolic extract with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Methodology: The analgesic activity was evaluated in mice by employing acetic acid induced-writhing test. The adult albino mice were divided into five groups of 5 each. Group I (control) was given normal saline in a dose of 10 ml/kg of body weight, intraperitoneally. Group II & III (experimental) was given ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds intraperitoneally in a dose of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg of body weight respectively. Group IV (reference) was given diclofenac sodium, 25 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneally. Group V received combination of diclofenac sodium and nigella extract in dose 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg of body weight intraperitoneally respectively. Number of writhings in treated and control groups were compared.

Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds given intraperitoneally caused significant (p < 0.05) analgesic effecton nociceptive response initiated by 0.6% acetic acid; although this analgesic effect was less than that produced by diclofenac sodium. On the other hand the combination of diclofenac and Nigella sativa exhibit total analgesia (100% inhibition)

Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa possessed significant analgesic effect in albino mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Antioxidants and Minerals in Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruits during Development Process

D. R. Singh, Shrawan Singh, V. Shajeeda Banu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23836

Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruits of different maturity stages are used in traditional medicine and modern beverage or herbal industry for its rich profile of more than 200 bioactive compounds. The present study was aimed to evaluate the changes in metabolites during Noni fruit development stages by spectrophotometeric methods and identification of individual compounds in phenolics and carotenoids groups. During fruit development polyphenol content was increased by 41.4%, tannin by 81.1%, flavonoids by 166.1%, carotenoids by 404.1%, anthocyanin by 40.8%. Micronutrients showed variable concentration during fruit development and highest Zn was observed at 10 days after fruit initiation (DAFI; 70.3 ppm), Cu at 50 DAFI (34.7 ppm), Mn at 130 DAFI (34.9 ppm), Na at 20 DAFI (0.37%), K at 90 DAFI (1.5%). Free amino acids, total sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar increased upto 120 DAFI while nitrate, oxalate and phytate contents were decreased significantly (p<0.05). HPLC analysis identified lutein, zeaxanthin, beta- carotene and beta- cryptoxanthin while epicatechin gallate, syringic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, vanillic Acid, naringin and cinnamic acid in Noni fruits. The information is useful for determining the fruit harvest stage of Noni fruit and showed the changes in predominant metabolites which can be used for investigating the synthesis pathways for bioactives in Noni.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition of the Stem Extract of Costus afer (Bush Cane) and Its Antimicrobial Activity

Rosemary I. Uchegbu, Jacinta N. Akalazu, Chioma O. Ibe, Ahamefula A. Ahuchaogu, Cosmas U. Amadikwa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24770

Aim: To determine the chemical composition of the stem extract of costus afer and its antimicrobial activity against some human and plant pathogens.                                                   

Study Design: The study was designed to identify the phytochemicals present in Costus afer and to test the inhibitory ability of the plant extract on human and plant pathogens.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri and Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria, between May to November 2015.

Methodology: The phytochemicals from the stem of Costus afer a medicinally important plant of the zingiberaceae family were extracted with ethanol and subjected to GC/MS analysis and the identification of compounds was done by comparing spectrum of the unknown component with the spectrum of the known components stored in the NIST library. The antibacterial activity was performed by filter paper disc diffusion technique. The antifungal activities of stem extract of Costus afer on mycelial growth evaluation the antifungal activities of stem extract of Costus afer along with mancozeb on mycelial growth inhibition of fungi isolated from Dioscorea rotundata (poir) (white yam) was also performed by disc diffusion technique.

Results: The analysis revealed that ethanolic extract of Costus afer contains ten compounds with n- Hexadecanoic acid forming the bulk of the oil (27.35%), followed by 4–methyl-4-hepten– 3-one (24.27%), Oleic acid (18.79%), Stearic acid (10.27%), 3,5-Dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one (8.46%). Other compounds present were Furfural (2.46%), 6-Methyl-3(2H)- Pyridazinone (1.75%), etc. The ethanol extract inhibited all the tested organisms S. aureus, P. mirabilis, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa and E.coli. The results revealed that Costus afer inhibited the growth of the test organisms Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium and Botryodiploidia theobromae except Rhizopus stolonifer.  In vivo results showed that C. afer extract was effective in reducing tuber rot which suggested that use of C. afer would be helpful in treatment of mycotic infections and in the control of fungal plant disease justifying the use of this plant in the treatment of both human and plant diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Analgesic Activities of Hydromethanolic Extract of Chromolaena odorata Leaf

Samuel O. Onoja, Ernest C. Nweze, Maxwell I. Ezeja, Yusuf N. Omeh, Chibuzo O. Obi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24397

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the analgesic and antioxidant effects of hydromethanolic extract of Chromolaena odorata leaf in rodents.

Methods: The antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) Assay. Acetic acid induced writhing reflex and tail flick models were used in the evaluation of the analgesic activities. The rats were grouped into five (A-E) groups of six rats each. The group A and B received 10 ml/kg of water and 200 mg/kg of aspirin respectively. Group C-E received 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the extract respectively.

Results: The extract caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in pain sensation in both models. In acetic acid induced writhing, the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced 13.13% and 27.27% reduction in number of writhing in treated rats respectively, when compared to the negative control. In tail flick model, the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) caused 33.33% and 45.33% increase in pain reaction time (PRT) in the treated group respectively, when compared to the negative control group. In DPPH assay the extract produced a concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity while in FRAP, there was no concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: Hydromethanolic extract of Chromolaena odorata produced a potent analgesic and antioxidant in rodents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute and Sub-acute Oral Toxicity Study of Drepanoalpha® (A Poly-Herbal Formula Used in the Management of Sickle Cell Disease) in Guinea-pigs

P. T. Mpiana, F. M. Kasali, F. Bwirhonde, B. Z. Gbolo, D. S. T. Tshibangu, K. N. Ngbolua, P. B. Memvanga, J. N. Kadima

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24200

Aims: To deepen the toxicological investigation of Drepanoalpha®, a poly-herbal formula used for its antisickling and radical scavenging properties in Congolese traditional medicine.

Study Design:  To evaluate lethality, biochemical alterations, behavioral disturbances in guinea-pigs orally given increasing doses of Drepanoalpha® aqueous extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Official University of Bukavu, Bukavu, DR Congo, between June to December 2015.

Methodology: The extracts were prepared as aqueous decoctions of Drepanoalpha powder. Animals were set to groups of 3 animals each. The doses varied from 250 mg to 16000 mg/kg body weight. Acute toxicity had to be estimated by LD50. Sub-acute toxicity was carried out by giving fractionated doses of Drepanoalpha extract during 2 weeks. Changes in blood biomarkers and behavioral signs were evaluated from baseline values of control untreated animals.

Results: Up to 16000 mg/kg, no death was recorded in acute toxicity. Thus, LD50 was not calculated. No significant changes in animals behavioral were observed during sub-acute testing. Instead, body weight gain, blood cell counts increase, BUN and ALT decrease, no change in serum creatinine were noted.

Conclusion: The findings comfort the safety of Drepanoalpha as found previously studies in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

CNS Depressant, Antidiarrheal and Antipyretic Activities of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Phyllanthus acidus L. on Swiss Albino Mice

Md. Saddam Hossain, Seuly Akter, Abhijit Das, Md. Shahid Sarwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24790

Aims: The study was to evaluate the CNS depressant, antidiarrheal and antipyretic activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllanthus acidus L.

Methodology: The ethanolic extract of P. acidus leaves was divided into two concentrations 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight. CNS depressant activity of P. acidus was investigated in swiss albino mice using hole-cross, hole-board and open-field models. Castor-oil induced diarrhea and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulfate milk was used to assess antidiarrheal activity whereas Brewer’s yeast-induced hyperthermia in mice was used to investigate the antipyretic activity respectively.

Results: P. acidus significantly (P = 0.05) reduce the CNS depression of the studied animals in different tested models and the effects were found to be dose-dependent which were comparable to the standard drug diazepam. In castor oil induced diarrheal model the plant extract reduced the time of onset  and severity of diarrhea with significant (P = 0.05) inhibition of 42.86% and 64.29% for 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w extracts respectively whereas the standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg) showed 71.43% diarrheal inhibitory activity. Distance of gastrointestinal motility was significantly (P = 0.05) reduced to 62.05±1.74% from control distance 79.06±2.93% in barium sulfate milk model by the highest dose 500 mg/kg. In yeast induced pyrexia, the plant extract demonstrated dose dependent protection at 250 and 500 mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol at 500 mg/kg.

Conclusion: In this study, we found that P. acidus possess significant CNS depressant, antidiarrheal and antipyretic activities and therefore it could be an excellent source for natural CNS depressant, antidiarrheal and antipyretic agents for medical applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Analgesic, Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum with Indomethacin and Diclofenac Sodium

Nahid Abbas, Mamuna Naz, Manar Najeeb AlSulaim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/22859

Many drugs are available for the treatment of pain and inflammation but their utility is associated with various adverse effects. To eliminate such adverse effects natural products having medicinal effects are been given more priority This study was done to compare anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effect of alcoholic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) on albino mice with indomethacin and diclofenac sodium. Initially, seeds were collected, air dried, reduced to no: 36 powder and was extracted with 70% ethanol.

This study was done to compare analgesic activity of alcoholic extract of seeds of T. foenum-graecum on albino mice with indomethacin and diclofenac sodium using hot plate method and acetic acid induced writhing method. The animals were pretreated with indomethacin (10 mg/kg b.w.) i.p, diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg b.w.) i.p and T. foenum-graecum (200 mg/kg b.w.) i.p for 4 days and latency time on hot plate without licking or jumping was checked at 30 minutes after the administration of last dose. T. foenum –graecum (200 mg/kg b.w.) i.p differed significantly from the control (P<0.01). The latency time of fenugreek had increased by 16.39%. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test the maximum analgesic effect was observed in fenugreek.

A further study was done to compare antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of seeds of T. foenum-graecum on albino mice with indomethacin and diclofenac sodium. The temperature was measured rectally using a digital thermometer. The animals were pretreated with indomethacin (10 mg/kg b.w.) i.p diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg b.w.) i.p and T. foenum-graecum (200 mg/kg b.w.) i.p for 4 days. Pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous administration of 20% brewer’s yeast suspension (10 ml/kg). Twenty four hours after injection of the yeast, the body temperature was recorded. Maximum temperature reduction was observed in animals treated with fenugreek.

A further study was done to compare anti-inflammatory activity of alcoholic extract of seeds of T. foenum-graecum on albino mice with indomethacin and diclofenac sodium. The acute anti-inflammatory activity of T. foenum-graecum (200 mg/kg b.w.) i.p. was measured plethysmogr aphically using carrageenan as an inflammatory agent, and comparing it with indomethacin (10 mg/kg b.w.) i.p and diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg b.w.) i.p as a reference standard. Trigonella foenum-graecum (200 mg/kg b.w.) differed significantly from the control (P<0.05) at the 2nd, 4th, 6th hour. It was concluded that Diclofenac has a better anti-inflammatory effect than indomethacin and fenugreek.

It is concluded that T. foenum –graecum has significant analgesic and antipyretic effect, and can be used as a substituent for diclofenac sodium and indomethacin for minor pains.